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rcet P. .. . 


V \ \ \ X-N \ \ V \ \ \ S N X V^V 

INT. 1898. 

Vol. XL VII. No. 1. 


Office, 220 Market Street. 

Two Prominent Co-Operators. 

The alert and cheerful visage which adorns this page is 
that of Mr. Edward F. Adams of Santa Cruz county, chief 
promoter and central figure in the new movement for co- 
operation in fruit-marketing in California. Owing to his 
connection with the successful co-operative work in Santa 
Clara county, Mr. Adams was made chairman of the 
Committee on State Fruit Exchange appointed by the 
Horticultural Society last October. By the preliminary 
organization, which succeeded to the duties of that com- 
mittee, Mr. Adams was made manager of the project, and 
thus came about a connection with the movement 
which has made him pre-eminently its leader. It 
cannot be claimed for Mr. Adams that he is its 
originator — that honor belongs to Mr. A. P. Stan- 
ton, of Santa Cruz county — but he has been its 
most active spirit; and the plan of the projected ex- 
change as accepted, approved and adopted by 
the Convention held in this city last week is 
the product of his constructive genius. Of its 
merits it is scarcely necessary to speak, after the 
action of the Convention in adopting it as the 
basis of the projected co-operative enterprise. 

This plan is very largely an outgrowth of the 
experience of its author in the Santa Clara 
movement. Mr. Adams was attracted to that 
movement very early in its career, bore with Col. 
Hersey and others the labors of the " agitation" 
which preceded it, and was during the period of 
organization its active manager. The system of 
"bulletins" with which the public is familiar 
originated with him, and he was the author of all 
the bulletins issued by the exchange up to last 
October. His experience, therefore, in the work 
of co-operative organization — leaving the recent 
work for State organization out of account — has 
been practical and successlul, a fact which gives 
assurance to those who, like the Rural, expect 
the best results to follow the great project now 
in hand. 

Mr. Adams is a practical fruit-grower and has 
no interest outside of fruit growing. He lives 
in Santa Cruz county, just across the line from 
Santa Clara, four miles from Wright's Station, 
in one of the prettiest localities in the whole 
State of California. His homestead covers 120 
acres, of which 30 acres are in trees. Here has 
been his home since 1881. He is about 50 years 
of age — possibly a little the rise of 50 — and is 
a native of Maine. Before coming to Cali- 
fornia, some 15 years back, he spent several 
years in Chicago, where he was connected with large 
affairs, although never in anything allied to the fruit 
trade. That part of Mr. Adams' business training has 
been wholly in California and from the standpoint and in 
the interest of the producer. 

We are not informed as to Mr. Adams' future relations 
to the newly organized movement. It is, we are told by 
the friend from whom we have gathered these general 
facts concerning him, his wish to devote himself strictly 
to his interests in Santa Cruz; but it is not to be expected 
that he will be allowed to do so. The movement which 
he has so admirably put upon its feet has the right to fur- 
ther service from hin, and will, we believe, demand it. 

Ool. Philo Hersey, whose portrait appears on page 3, 
may fairly be styled the father of co-operation in Santa 
Clara county. He preached co-operation in fruit-selling be- 
fore anybody save himself and Mr. F. M. Righter regarded 
it as practicable ; and it was largely through his personal 
energies that the Santa Clara Fruit Exchange came into ex- 
istence. From the beginning he has been its president and 
is now, as well, the manager of its operations in detail. The 

story of the struggles of that organization and of its final 
and extraordinary success, are well told in the address 
given by Col. Hersey before the Convention in this city 
last week. We do not recall any former address before a 
meeting of California fruit-growers equal to that of Col. 
Hersey, either in the points of interest or instruction. It 
was given in the clear straight-forward style familiar to 
those who have heard Col. Hersey, and raised the Con- 
vention to something like the point of enthusiasm. 

It was, of course, natural that Col. Hersey should be 
asked to contribute his experience to the directorate of the 
State Exchange, and the Convention very properly gave 

no man gives time and energy to the public more freely. 
He is president of the board of trustees of the State 
Normal School at San Jose, Master of San Jose Grange, 
and active in every other project designed to promote the 
public interest. 


scant heed to his expressed desire to be excused upon 
the plea that already he was overloaded with duties. It 
was felt that some assistance at least from him was essentia), 
and he was put on the list of directors in spite of his pro- 
tests. We have no fear that he will fail to find time to 
give the State Exchange much that will be to its ad- 

Col. Hersey is a State-of-Maine man, and before he be- 
came a California fruit grower, some seven or eight years 
ago, was a lawyer. Before that he was a soldier, and, 
in the fields of our civil war, won the honorable mili- 
tary title which he bears. He is about fifty-five or fifty-six 
years of age. He displays the fruit-grower in his intelli- 
gence respecting California interests, the lawyer in his 
eloquent powers of statement, and the soldier in his 
erect and manly bearing. His home is about four miles 
out from the town of Santa Clara, on the main road lead- 
ing to Saratoga. There he has an orchard of sixty-five 
acres, widely famed for the thoroughness of its culture 
and for its fruitfulness. No public enterprise in Santa Clara 
county is complete without Col. Hersey 's assistance, and 

Quite a significant contrast is made of the sugar yield 
of sugar-beets, with and without irrigation. It is stated 
that at Alvarado (California) 4,480,000 pounds were pro- 
duced from 20,400 tons of beets, being an average of 220 
pounds per ton. The Lehi (Utah) refinery turned out 
3,800,000 pounds from 27,000 tons of b6ets— 140 pounds to 
the ton. The difference in the respective out- 
puts is accounted for by the fact that at Lehi 
beets cannot be raised without irrigation, and a 
copious supply of water is not productive of sac- 
charine, whereas at Alvarado irrigation is not 
required. The owners of the Alvarado mill 
think they have produced a greater percentage 
of sugar from the same quantity of beets than any 
other refinery in the country. Still it may pos- 
sibly be true that the Utah beets turned out as 
they did because they were irrigated not wisely, 
but too well. We have much to learn on that 

Eastern Turkeys had better be kept at 
home. They have fared ill in San Francisco 
this year. On Sunday the market inspectors 
seized and confiscated over a ton of Eastern 
turkeys. The first seizure of importance was 
made from the Armour Packing Company, 
where 91 turkeys and 5 chickens were found in 
a bad condition. The inspectors also went to 
the Montgomery market and seized 1989 pounds 
of dressed turkey, which had been shipped 
here from Eastern points. The fowls were 
frozen in transit, and upon being thawed at 
this point they developed a decided taint, and 
became dangerous for food purposes. California 
turkeys should have control of this market, and 
a few more experiences like that of importers 
this year will be of advantage to our turkey 

What might have resulted if all the packiDg 
companies which have been projected in Cali- 
fornia during the last few years had had more 
meat and less real-estate scheme in their plans 
can be seen by the way in which the pork sup- 
ply has been whittled down by the buyers for 
Oudahy, of Los Angeles. Perhaps the side 
tracking of our packing enterprises have given 
Cudahy a clearer field for slaughtering and legit- 
imate packing business, and yet it is clear enough 
theoretically that we should pack in this State 
vastly more meat products than we now do. So 
long as we import such products by train-loads, and local 
packing enterprises are chiefly in the business of packing 
town lots for credulous customers, there will be no such 
development of the California stock interests as there 
should be. 

The " Independent Standpoint " has had to give way 
this week to a rush of co-operative news. The editor likes 
to have his say about things and naturally hates to find 
himself thus ruled out, but he takes comfort in the reflec- 
tion that the address of Col. Hersey on co-operation and 
that of Gen. Chipman on the tariff, are infinitely better 
than anything he might have said. These addresses ought 
to be read by every fruit-grower in California, for they 
treat with special and practical intelligence of matters 
concerning which our people are profoundly interested. 
Don't fail to read them. 



January 6, 1894. 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market St.: Elevator, 12 Front St., San Francisco., Cat 

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J. F. HALLORAN General manager 

K.J. WICKSON -pedal Contributor 

San Francisco, January 6, 1894. 


EDITORIALS —Two Prominent Co-operators j Miscellaneous, 1 . The 
Week; The Co-operative Movement Assailed; Miscellaneous, a. Or- 
ganized co-operalton, 3. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— A«i*ult Upon the Co-operative Movement, 2. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Random Thoughts; Lecturer's Notes, 12. 
Grange Elections; Secretary's Column; Lecturer's Notes, 18. 

ILLUSTRATIONS —Mr. Edward f. Adams, \. Col. Phllo Hersey, 3. 

MISCELLANEOUS— sorghum and Alfalfa. 6. Large and Roomy 
Stalls Beneficial; Cow Tall Holders, 9. Man's Place In Nature, 18. 
Whence the Waters of the Great Lakes, 19. 

HORTICULTURE.— The State Fruit Exchange, 3. Coffee Growing In 
Central America; Packing Apples for Export, 6. 

TRACK AND FARM. — Nancy liauks May Race No More, 6. 

POULTRY YARD.— Crossbred Fowls on the Farm, 6. Select the Lay- 
ers. 0. 

SWINE YARD.— Canadian Conclusions About Hog Raising, 6. 

THE DAIRY. — Artificial Butter Frauds; Temperature for Churning; A 

Profitable Dairy Cow, 6. 
THE FIELD. — The Sugar Bounty, 9. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL — Insect Pests and Remedies, 14. 
MARKET REPORTS.— The Local Produce Market, 17. 




Agricultural Implements -Deere Implement Co 20 

Apricot Trees— N. B. Smith, Ventura 20 

Nursery Stock— The Dingee & Conard Co., West Grove, Pa 11 

Stallions— Holbert & Conger, Los Angeles 17 

Real Estate— John F. Byxbee 18 

Humps— Moran Bros. Company, Seattle. Wash 18 

Thoroughbred Jacks— L. U. Shippee, Stockton, Cal_ 17 

Pulverizers— Truman, Hooker & Co 20 

Poultry and Eggs— Mrs. J. G. Fredericks, Madison, Y'olo Co —.17 

Grape Roots— C. H. Leggett & Sou, Oroville 19 

Berkshire Hogs— Monroe Miller, Elisio. Ventura Co 17 

Lemon Trees— Nathau W. Blanchard, Santa Paula- 19 

Pansy Stock, Seeds, etc.— Sevin Vincent 19 

Spraying Outfiis— Wm. Stahl, Qulncy, 111 11 

Dyes— French Dye Co., Vassar, Mich IS 

Incubators— Van Culin Incubator Co , Delaware city, Delaware 14 

Nursery Stock— Sacramento River Nursery Co., Walnut Grove 19 

Nursery Stock— The Storrs & Harrison Co.. Box 28, Painesville, Ohio.19 
Agents W auled— B. F. Johnson & Co., Richmond, Va 14 

j0T dee Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

The days are lengthening appieciably ; the depth of 
winter has been sounded, an I we Bhall goon reach the 
season of fruit blossoms. The rain* of the past week have 
accomplished what was expected of them. Field work w 
being pushed in all parts of the State. Having passed 
New Year's without feeling the grasp of the sheriff on 
itieir collars, people are picking up courage and con- 
ti lence, and probably before long we shall all wonder 
what we were frightened about. Certainly the general 
hi; ivity in the country is giving things a push in the city. 
Work is consumptive of implements and supplier, and to 
start work starts trade. The promise which now clearly 
favors more just and adequate facilities for marketing 
fruit will give confidence to those who have been planning 
to extend their orchard area this year, and the hosts of the 
new-comers will plant for home use and market. Our 
nurserymen and seedsmen are feeling the stronger circula- 
tion in the popular veins and are offering our readers their 
choice of a full list of desirable and promising varieties. 
Purchase and planting of trees should not be too long de- 
layed. Order your stock early, get the land in the best 
possible condition and plant as soon as that state is 

It is a most excellent time to make improvements if one 
has the funds. Fine animals, fine tools, fine trees and all 
the materials for fine buildings were never cheaper ihan 
now. Wise expenditure for wise improvement is the 
wisest possible investment. A word to the wise is suf- 
ficient. Spend your money well now and you will be 
fixed to get more of it back again, while the man who 
waits until every one else does something will get his 
joints so dry that it will take a decade to limber them up. 
Do something now; don't rust out. 

The Midwinter Fair had its informal opening on Ne v 
Year's Day. Its formal opening will come two or three 
weeks hence. Although the day was of uncertain weather 
nearly nine thousand people paid the entrance fee to the 
enclosure. The historic personage chiefly honored by the 
occasion was not Columbus, but Sir Francis Drake, who 

visited California in 1679, and held services according to 
Church of England formulas at Point Reyes, in Marin 
county. There was unveiled a monument to Drake, 
which naturally took the form of a massive cross, as the 
moving spirit of the undertaking was Bishop Nichols of 
the Episcopal Church, and it was Drake's first holding of 
the Church of England services on American soil which 
won the old navigator his monument in these later days. 
The cost of the monument was borne by ; . W. Ohilds, of 
Philadelphia, who some years ago taught Englishmen 
what to do for the memory of William Shakespeare. The 
ceremonies concerning the Drake monument were the 
central point of the opening day. The buildings of the 
Fair are now very far advanced — in fact, might almost be 
said to be completed, and the installation of exhibits is in 
rapid progress. It is well, on all accounts, that the grand 
opening should be about February. Our winter sunshine 
is all right, bnt it improves as the sun gets farther over- 
head. February will realize all that has been promised of 
sunshine and flowers, and other tourist-transporting ma- 

The Co-operative Movement Assailed. 

The nominal issue between Mr. Edward F. Adams, man- 
ager of the newly-organized Co-operative Fruit Exchange, 
and the Fruit Grower newspaper, is this: In a letter to 
the Rural Press, printed two weeks ago, Mr. Adams de- 
clared that " outside of a few districts, but few orchards 
and vineyards in th s State pay the living and working 
expenses of their owners and interest on capital invested." 
This statement the Fruit Grower denies and resents, claiming 
that the fruit-producers of the State are prosperous, and 
warmly supporting the assertion that " fruit may be profit 
ably produced if sold at $20 per ton." It is, of course, idle to 
argue such a question as the one involved, for there is no 
means of final determination. We shall take no part in 
the dispute one way or another, leaving our readers to 
judge whether Mr. Adams or the Fruit Grower be right or 
wrong. Possibly the truth may be found somewhere be- 
tween the two assertions. 

Although the name of the Rural has been dragged 
into the discussion, we would take no notice of it it 
it were not clear to us that the assault upon Mr. 
Adams is in design and effect an assault upon the co- 
operative movement, of which, up to this time, he has 
been the central figure. The Fruit Grower, as the mouth- 
piece, promoter and defender of the mercantile in- 
terest, as opposed to the producing interest, in our 
fruit industry, naturally opposes this movement, and, 
of course, seeks chances to thwart it. It thinks, evidently, 
that a good way to strike at the heart of the movement 
is to discredit its foremost champion; aud while this is not 
honorable warfare, it is, perhaps, not more than ought to 
be expected under all the circumstances. 

If the Fruit Grower were seeking sincerely, as it osten 
tatiously proclaims, to " resent libelous statements regard- 
ing fruit growers in California," it might, as Mr. Adams 
points out, have found a fairer mark in the resolution 
adopted at the Los Angeles convention, reciting that the 
fruit interest of California is in imminent danger of the 
same sort of disaster that has already overwhelmed other 
nterests. But it cares nothing in fact for these assertions; 
t only seeks a pretext to "knife" what it calls Mr. Adams' 
'pet scheme of marketing fruits" — in other woids, the 
co-operative proposition involved in the State Exchange 

The Year's Produce Prices. 

The produce market is the best agricultural barometer, 
and its records enable one to measure the depression of the 
year just closing. Such records are available in the De- 
cember report of the statistician of the Department of 
Agriculture, which furnishes data for such comparisons 
as these: 

The average price of wheat is 52.1 cents per bushel. 
The next lowest price in 23 years, from 1870 to 1893, in- 
clusive, was 64.5 cents in 1884. The average for the ten 
years, 1880 to 1889, was 82.7, while for the three years, 
1890 to 1892, it was 76.6. The decline from the average 
of the last three preceding years, in two of which, 1891 
and 1892, occurred the largest yields in the history of the 
country, was 24.5 cents, or 32 per cent. 

The returns make the general price per bushel of rye 
51.8 cents, which is three cents lower than that of last 
year, and 5.2 cents lower than the average during the past 

The average farm price of oats, as returned for Decem- 
ber, 1893, is 28.8 cents per bushel, which is 2.9 cents 
lower than last year, and 1.4 cents less than the average 
price during the past decade. 

The average farm price of barley is the lowest on record, 
the price being reported at 40.6 cents against 47.2 a year 
ago, 54 centals in 1891, 64.8 in 1890, and 42.7 cents in 

Assault upon the Co-operative Movement. 

To the Editor: — On the first page of the current num- 
ber of the Fruit Grower there is an article anent myself 
which I wish you would give the benefit of the wider cir- 
culation of the Rcral Pbess. There is also in the same 
paper another article on the same subject, from which I 
wish you would cut out the particularly disagreeable pas- 
sages and also reprint. 

My reason is that the Fruit Grower, being generally re- 
garded as a representative of the trade rather than of the 
producer, does not, I think, reach a very large number of 
the latter class, and I want every orchardist in the State 
to see the earliest sample of the methods by which all 
further movements toward co-operation are to be fought. 

The sooner we learn to recognize the object of those 
who talk or write in this spirit, the better it will be for us. 

Edward F. Adam3. 

P. S. — I have mailed the Fruit Grower some comments 
on its attack upon me, and enclose you a copy of the same. 


Following is the editorial in the Fruit Grower to which 
Mr. Adams refers, appearing under the head of " Mr. 
Adams' Unwarranted Statements: " 

Elsewhere we notice at length the extraordinary communica- 
tion of Mr. Edward F. Adams, printed last week in the Pacihc 
Rcral Prims. As stated in another place, the denunciations of 
the fruit industries of California therein made are not based 
upon facta and figures presented, but upon the baldest asser- 
tions gratuitously dealing a slap in the face to the fruit-growers 
of this State which, we trust, they will have the courage and 
disposition to resent. Whatever be the motives prompting the 
onslaught, the Roral Press and Mr. Adams have done the 
State of California an injury which the same agency is not likely 
to repair in many years. But aside from the injury to the 
State at large, caused by unjustly decrying its most promising 
industry, we cannot conceive that fruit producers generally will 
relish the statement that they are practically bankrupt, and 
merely waiting for the sheriff to come in and sell them out. 
But Mr. Adams adds insult to injury when he states that he 
believes "we have reached a point where growers can make 
more money by forcing the situation and seeking a remedy 
than by keeping still and trying to unload on the tenderfoot." 

Had such a statement been made by the bitterest enemy of 
California through the medium of a paper avowedly hostile to 
every interest in the State, it wonld be looked upon with amaze- 
ment. How must it be regarded when made by supposed 

We protest against this broad accusation of fruit-growers as 
dishonest sharpers who, believing they can make more money 
by shouting the alarm than by " keeping still and trying to 
unload on the tenderfoot," propose to " force the situation and 
seek a remedy." 

Force what sitnation and seek what remedy? Mr. Adams 
assumes that there is no money in the fruit business under ex- 
isting conditions, yet assumes by inference that in organizing a 
State Fruit Exchange merely the remedy will be found. If the 
conditions are as he has alleged, no State Exchange, even with 
Mr. Adams as manager, could possibly revive so hopeless an 

We are charitable enough to believe that Mr. Adams simply 
meant to scare fruit-growers sufficiently to cause them to pro- 
nounce for the organization of tbe State Exchange in which he 
is specially interested; but we thiuk he overdid the matter. 
Tbe conditions remind us of the story of the old farmer who 
was breaking a colt, and told his boy to go behind the barn, 
and when the old gentleman rode the colt around the corner 
to jump out at him and Bay boo! The obedient son did as he 
was told, but the colt threw the old man over its head and 
broke his leg. The repentant boy protested that he only did as 
he was bidden; but the old gentleman slashed him with his 
riding whip, swearing that he had given " too d — d big a boo! " 
VVe fear this is the case with Mr. Adams. He has sought to 
lash fruit-growers into tbe traces by calling them paupers and 
sharpers; and unless we greatly mistake the temper of Cali- 
fornia's fruit-producers has thus defeated not only his own 
ends, but has done almost irreparable injury to the interest he 
ostensibly songht to serve. We believe the facts and figures 
presented elsewhere 6y us will prove conclusively to reasonable 
men that the statements and inferences contained in tbe Rural 
Press are unwarranted and untrue. 

Want of space forbids further discussion of the subject this 
week, but we give notice that we shall continue to resent such 
libelous statements regarding the great body of frnit-growers in 
California, and shall continue to demand that wholesale 
charges of trickery and pauperism shall at least be accompanied 
by some evidence other than naked and unjustified assertion. 

The second article in the Fruit Grower to which Mr. 
Adams refers, is a long one in support of the assertion that 
"fruit may be profitably produced if sold at the rate of $20 
per ton." It is hardly necessary to reprint the statements 
in the Fruit Grower in maintenance of this claim. They 
are the familiar arguments of the commercial side of the 
fruit interest. Every practical fruit-grower knows them 
to be false. After running over all these familiar argu- 
ments the Fruit Grower concludes: 

We can only deduce that Mr. Adams' pessimistic view of 
fruit culture in this State cannot be sustained by the facts. 
Mere assertion, however positive, proves nothing, and since 
Mr. Adams presents no figures whatever to sustain his naked 
allegations, we are forced to conclude that his article is rather a 
special plea for his pet scheme of marketing fruits than a clear 
and correct exposition of the actual conditions that obtain in 
the business of commercial fruit growing in California. 


Following is Mr. Adams' letter to the Fruit Grower in 
reply to the comments above, which we print at his re- 

Editor Froit Grower: — I am a good deal amused at the vigor 
with which you jump on me for printing my opinious as to the 
condition of the fruit trade in another journal whose editor 
thought them worth asking for. 

The late convention of fruit-growers at Los Angeles — the 
highest authority on such matters which we can have in the 
State — unanimously passed the following resolntion, which had 
been reported by a large committee, which carefully weighed not 
only the language of the resolution, but the expediency of its 

"We are satisfied that the conditions which have already brought dis- 
aster on some branches of the fruit Industry of California, will, If un« 
checked, speedily bring similar disaster upon all other branches." 

In view of this sweeping declaration of the State convention 
of fruit-growers, it strikes me as funny that the Fruit Grower 

January 6, 1894. 


should be able to work itself into such a paroxysm over the fol- 
lowing comparatively mild "assertion" of myself who am a 
very small grower, and a wholly unimportant member of the 
great body: 

"At present, outside of a few fortunate districts, but few orchards or 
vineyards in this State pay the living and working expenses ef their 
owners, and interest on capital invested." 

Now, the above, although in the form of an "assertion" — and 
it is the only "assertion" in the article — is upon the face of it 
only an expression of opinion, for obviously it can neither be 
proved or disproved, for which reason I will not discuss it. I 
am satisfied that it is true — and it is certainly far within the 
statement of the Los Angeles convention — but shall be delighted 
. if it bean error. 

Assuming it as true, I made certain inferences which its truth 
would justify. Some of these the Fruit Grower chooses to twist 
into certain unpleasant constructions which the text does not 
justify, and which, of course, I had not in mind, evidently for 
the purpose of exciting prejudice against myself, for what rea- 
son I do not know, as there has been no personal disagreement 
or ground for any. 

But now comes the funny part: I am a farmer in a small way 
and have absolutely no other interest; I am in constant com- 
munication with other farmers and am pretty sure I know very 
well how they think and feel on these matters; but if I correctly 
understand the case the only connection which the proprietor of 
the Fruit Grower has ever had with agricultural affairs was form- 
erly as a buyer of farm products and lately as a seller of a horti- 
cultural journal, and what is queer is that the Fruit Grower 
thus owned should assume to know better than we ourselves 
what our circumstances are and what is proper to be said about 
them; and especially that such temper should be shown about 
what, if you will excuse me, is none of the Fruit Grower's busi- 
ness. And even if it were borne in upon the Fruit Grower that 
it must lift up its voice and roll a burden off 
its soul, it would seem to have been more 
chivalrous, to say the least, to have at- 
tacked the Los Angeles Convention, which 
was the greater offender, instead of an unim- 
portant and defenseless individual. And it 
is the more difficult to see why my little ut- 
terance should have put the Fruit Grower in 
such miserv, because when I pick up, at ran- 
dom, the Fiuit Grower of October 28th, last, 
I find the following: 

" California should demand a tariff on foreign 
fruits on the sole ground of protecting from ruin a 
great and constantly growing American In- 

The practical issue under discussion being 
opposition to the proposed reduction of duty; 
if the above means anything it is that the 
proposed reduction of a cent a pound on 
our dried prodrtcts will "ruin" us; which 
is, of course, not so far as the Los Angeles 
convention went, because they fear "disaster" 
under present conditions even; but much 
farther than I went, because my article 
which so worries the Fruit Grower was in the 
spirit of striving hopefully for better things 
by our own exertions, at the same lime with 
no thought of ceasing to strive for the pro- 
tection which we think we ought to have 
and still hope to get. No; how the Fiuit 
Grower, after that editorial, can feel so about 
my article is certainly " one of the things 
that no frllow can find out." 

But even conceding that it is really wicked 
for those of us who live by raising fruit, 
and feel that we have temporarily out run 
our market, to'tell the truth about our busi- 
ness, that we may all " face the situation " — 
not "force" the situation, as the types made 
me say — and " seek a remedy," I still do not 
think that what I said, or even what the 
Los Angeles convention said, can possibly be 
half so injurious to our interests as will be 
the embarrassment of our advocates at Wash- 
ington when tbey come to be confronted with 
the following, which the Fruit Grower of this 
week prints to refute something enti'ely 
foreign to anything I ever said. The Fruit 
Grower says, often giving certain figures: 

"This would lea ve^the shipper a net return of 
$53.27 per ton for his entire shipment through the 
California Fruit Union, or more than two and one- 
half times the price which our foremost orchardisst 
assert is a profitable one at which to grow fruit in 
this State." 

Now, although these figures are incorrect 
upon their face, even as to the instance 
given, and widely misleading as applied to the 
fruit industry at large, of which the Eastern 
deciduous fruit shipments are about, I think, one-tenth, I fear 
their publication by the Fruit Grower just at this juncture 
"will do the State of California an injury which the same 
agency is not likely to repair in many years." 

I have no occasion to refer to the " hope " exp'essed bv the 
Fruit Grower that my brother fruit-growers will "resent" my 
expression of private opinion, or its expressed belief that they 
would repudiate any plans proposed by me for our self help 
merely because I proposed them. The expressions were not 
amiable, and, in the absence of other known motive, I fear 
must be credited to hostility to the movement with which I 
happen to have temporary connection, for the Fruit-Growers' 
Convention has decided all the other way, and even gone so 
far as to formally thank the State Horticultural Society for the 
work done— including my own — in behalf of a State Exchange; 
and this, by the way, upon motion of the only gentleman 
present who expressed dissent from my article, so that I must 
conclude that I still stand fairly well with my brother or- 
chardists, and endure the displeasure of the Fruit Grower with 
such meekness as I may. My " schemes," if I ever had any, 
are mine no longer, for the fruit-growers of the State have ac- 
cepted and assumed them, and, with such modifications as 
may seem best, will certainly carry them out through such 
"managers" or other agencies as their representatives, of 
which I am not one, deem best fitted for the purpose. I trust 
and believe that the outcome will be happy not only for the 
fruit-growers, but for those who wish to sell land to more fruit- 
growers, whose interests, I am sure, we conserve by all means 
that make fruit growing profitable, even if it involve the con- 
fession that temporarily we are in trouble. 

With all the compliments of the season, and wishing the 
Fruit hrower good digestion and the repose of soul which waits 
thereon, I am respectfully, Edward F. Adams. 

Wrights, Jan. 1, 1894. 

Our European friends have dire apprehensions. It was 
cabled from London on New Year's Day that the Agricul- 
tural Gazette takes a gloomy view of the crop prospects for 
1894 owing to the extraordinary mildness of the winter 
and the absence of snow, which promises badly. The 
specialist Ivanor Stonenkoff predicts widespread famine. 
Fortunately, California is having the best imaginable sort 
of a winter. Rains just right and plenty of them in most 
parts of the State. We can furnish Europe, in all prob- 
ability, a large amount of breadstuffs. And talking of 
famine seems strange in this time of cheap food. If there 
be famine it will not be for lack of food but because 
people are too poor to buy at any price. There is appar- 
ently too much wheat in the world to make a scarcity 
possible by one year's poor crops in Europe. By the way, 
it is also cabled from Calcutta, that the wheat area of 1894 
shows an increase of 6 per cent over that of 1893. In- 
dications are favorable for a good crop. Thus Asia com- 
forts Europe. 

There has long been too great a speculative element in 
our fruit-growing and too many people who have no more 
knowledge of the business of producing fruit than they 
used to know of the mines in whose stocks they gambled. 

Mr. Gano Kennedy, who has recently visited Oapay 
▼alley and Glenn county, tells us he has recently meas- 
ured prune growths in those new fruit districts. In Oapay 
he found 10£ feet, and in Elk creek region of Glenn 
county 12 feet, ai the growth of a] single year. The wood 
was of good diameter and well matured. 


Naturally, many of these will have to give way to other 
people who know how to handle fruit properties on a pay- 
ing basis. But what sort of a case that is which is tele- 
graphed from Los Angeles, in which a former real estate 
dealer of Los Angeles, now a fruit-raiser near that city, 
has failed for $120,000, with assets of only $8500, is hard 
to understand, except it be that he went into fruit on the 
same basis that be would have handled a subdivision 
scheme. That is the kind of fruit-growing which does 
California no good, and fortunately we have not very 
much of it. Distant readers of the telegram should not 
give it too much importance. It does not indicate that 
the fruit business of the State is inflated as the figures 
would indicate. It probably indicates merely that a real 
estate man's scheme to sell off improved land instead of 
wild land did not work as intended, and does not mean 
that the property is worth any less, necessarily, than people 
were willing to loan upon it. 

And now there is too much wine in France. The cable 
from Paris states that wine- producers in the south of 
France are so over-glutted with their products that they 
offer wine at 1 penny a quart, but fail to obtain that price. 
The splendid vintage has made wine a drug in the market. 
Three thousand wine-growers in Montpellier district are 
preparing a protest against merchants supplying the wine- 
shops of Paris with manufactured wine when the genuine 
article is so cheap. It is much the same there as in Cali- 
fornia. The world has too much wine, as well as too 
much wheat. 


The Mass Convention of Fruit-Growers a 
Pronounced Success. 



Col. Phllo Hersey Explains How Co-operation 
Works at San Jose— Gen. Chipman Hopeful for 
California Interests In Connection with the New 
Tariff-A Ringing Tariff Memorial to Congress 
Adopted— Full Report of the Convention. 

The convention of fruit-growers held in this city on 
Friday of last week to forward the organization of a S ate 
Fruit Exchange was a large and dead-in-earnest assem- 
blage. Its members came together under the inspiration 
ol a definite necessity and for a defini:e purpose; and the 
proceedings were in the spirit of the meeting. The net 
result was the adoption of the work done up to date by 
the committee appointed at the San Jose meeting of the 
State Horticultural Society, the adoption of the plan of or- 
ganization suggested by Mr. Adams and already given in 
the Rural, and the organization of a permanent Board of 
Directors, instructed to carry the plan into execution. 
Preliminary arrangements for the creation of a marketing 
agency by the fruit-growers of the State, to be operated 
under their direction and in their interest, are now com- 
plete; and it only remains for the individual growers to 
give it a reasonable support. Thus far the plan relates 
only to the marketing of dried fruits and raisins, it having 
been determined, wisely, to attempt only one branch of 
the business at this time, leaving the future to expand the 
system to include fresh fruits, vineyard products, etc. 

The convention was called to order hy President B. M. 
Lelong, of the State Horticultural Society, who stated 
briefly the history of the movement. It had, he said, 
reached a point where it ought to be either adopted or re- 
jected by the fruit-growers of the State at large, and to the 
convention as representing the wider interests involved the 
Horticultural Society now turned it over. It was his judg- 
ment that the movement was a necessity, and that the plan 
upon which it had proceeded, and upon which its pro- 
jectors expected it to further proceed, was entirely prac- 
tical. He hoped and believed that the convention would 
adopt the project and carry it into effect. 

The convention then organized by the election of the fol- 
lowing officers: President, John Markley of Sonoma; vice- 
president, A. T. Hatch of Solano; secretary, B. M. Lelong; 
assistant' secretary, E. W. Maslin. The selection of Mr. 
Markley was especially appropriate in consideration of the 
fact that he had acted as chairman of the Preliminary Com- 
mittee and was therefore fully informed as to the status of 
the movement and thoroughly in sympathy with it. In 
taking the chair, Mr. Markley asserted bis profound belief 
in the practicability of the projected Fruit Exchange, and 
declared that the interest of the producers made it an abso- 
lute necessity. There were, he said, 200,000 acres in Cali- 
fornia planted to deciduous fruit trees. There were 80,000 
acres in vines and 16,000 acres in nuts. These plantations 
represent an investment of $60,000,000. Does anybody, he 
asked, doubt that the thrift and business skill which have 
created such a property are not qualified to administer it in 
their own interest ? He believed that the fruit men were 
capable of making a practical and effective working organ- 
ization, and that, when it was made, it would be an infinite 
blessing to the prosperity of the State. 

The roll of counties being called, it was found that 
twenty-seven were represented as follows: 

Alameda — Joseph Shinn, H. ]. Tilden, John J. Hayes, 
Joseph Tyson, W. W. Chamberlain. E. E. Potter, T. P. 
Carey, John Black, J. L. Lyon, H. A. Hughson, Giles 
Chittenden, N. Overacker Jr. 

Butte— Eben Boalt, G. M. Gray, C. H. Leggett. 

Colusa— A. S Mc Williams, F. W. Willis. 

Contra Costa — B. H. Upham. David Bush, A. L Ban- 
croft, Charles J. Wood, John Swett, H. M. Bush, W. H. 
Whitman, William Caven, F. W. Johnson, Charles F. 
Wood, R. O. Baldwin, M. S. Stone, H. E. Raap, J. C. 

Fresno — D. T. Fowler, L. Braverman, A. Gordon, 
Charles G. Bonner, A. Barrieau, C. H. Morris, W. H. 
Hodgkins, Charles G Bowham, Mrs. L. H. Hatch, Miss 
F. A. Deane, S. G. Nye, E. Gartenlaub, W. M. Williams. 

Kern— D. M. Pyle, T. E. Wright. 

Kings — W. S. Porter, John Waswick, N. W. Morrow, 
Timothy Paige. 

Merced — E. R. Gurd. 

Mendocino — R. McGarvey. 

Monterey — A. Berwick, J. R. Hebbron, O. H. Shoeherd. 
Napa — O. E. Moore, Drury Melone, Leonard Coates, J. 



January 6, 1894. 

W. Reeves, W. H. Evans, E. Yates, J. W. Lees. 

Nevada— S. L. Richards, John T. Rodda. 

Placer— W. J. McCann, P. W. Butler, E. O. Smith, J. 
Parker Whitney. J. C. Young, E. W. Maslin. 

Sacramento — Robert Williamson, T. Deming. 

San Benito — O. H. Bramlet. 

San Francisco— B. F. Rowley, F. N. Woods, H. E. Bul- 
lock, B. M. Lelong, E. E. Potter, Alfred Holman, S. J. 

San Mateo— T. H. Ramsay. 

Santa Clara — D. A. Wheeler, C. H. Allen. A. H. Mer- 
rill, R P. McGlincev, John Rock, A. L. Sovey, Mrs. E. A. 
Butcher, James E. Gordon, W. H. Wright, F. M. Farwell, 
W. S. Edwards, C. M. Braun, Philo Hersey, R. W. Her- 

Santa Cruz— W. H. Aiken, Edwin F. Adams, William 
E. Emery, C. Spreckelson. 
Shasta — Daniel Bass, W. Frier. 

Solano— A. T. Hatch, W. J. Dobbins, J. A. Webster, 
W. C. Montgomery, R. A. Campbell, C. C. Ager, T. J. 
Mize, A. A. Hyatt, A. Bowman. 

Sonoma— G. N. Whitaker, Jonathan Roberts, L. J. Gil- 
man, E. Hart, E. W. Devereaux, W. D. Davis, E. D. 
Sweetzer, W. H. Harris, S. A. Seary, W. N. Gladden, A. 
G. Lee, George D. Dorim, Otto N. Partridge, Charles H. 
Dwindle, W. C. Parker. 

Sutter— B. F. Walton, R. C. Kells, E. B. Starr, J. J. 
Pratt, H. B. Stabler. 

Tehama— N. P. Chlpman. 

Tulare— J. H. Morton, A. H. Chapin, J. M. Alexander, 
Frank Chapin, I. H. Thomas. 

Yolo— M. Kahn, William Sims, H. C. Howard. 

State Board of Trade— Eugene J. Gregory, E. W. Mas- 
lin, N. P. Chipman. 

The following committees were appointed: Finance- 
Robert Williamson of Sacramento, W. A. Gordon ol Fresno 
and A. L. Bancroft of Contra Costa. 

Committee on resolutions: H. B. Stabler of Sutter, N. 
W. Motheral of Kings. N. W. Gladden of Sonoma, P. W. 
Butler of Placer, and E. A. Wheeler of Santa Clara. 


He Outlines What Can and What Cannot Be Done. 
Careful Plan of Organization. 

The first direct business of the meeting was the reading 
of a report made by Mr. E. F. Adams, manager, to the 
Preliminary Committee. It has already been n>ven in the 
Rural, but we reprint it as essential to the completion of 
the report of the convention. It was rece.ved with uni- 
versal commendation and made the basis of resolutions 
adopted by the meeting, expressing its views as to the 
."■cope of the exchange and as to the plans upon which it 
should proceed. Mr. Adams' report was as follows: 

San Francisco, Dec. 22, 1893. 

Mr. John Markley, President California Fruit Ex- 
change— Sik: Since assuming the duties of Manager on 
Nov. 16th, I have devoted my entire time to the organiza- 
tion of the Exchange, with such results as may appear 

I have to report that great interest in our movement has 
been expressed by growers in all parts of the State, who 
seem almost without exception ready to support any well- 
considered effort to remove existing abuses in the fruit 

In my opinion, our measure of success in the present 
movement will be that of our good fortune in securing able 
and earnest men to serve as directors. They must be 
fruit-growers or they will have no interest in the matter. 
Tbey must not themselves be buyers or their interest will 
be adverse. They must have had experience in business 
affairs or they will not know how to act. Many of our sue 
cessful business men have large interests in fruit, and many 
who are now growers only have had large business experi- 
ence. Among them there is abundant ability available. 

Such a Board of Directors will be the best judges of how 
far and how fast we can go. Certainly we cannot do every- 
thing at once. Having a clearly defined policy they will 
have no trouble in securing effective executive offi-ers to 
carry it out, and with a wise policy and vigorous execution 
there is no fear of lack of support by growers. I think my 
experience qualifies me to say so much unreservedly. 
Growers desire above all things honest and able assistance 
in marketing. If they ever fail to support any co-operative 
movement it is because they doubt either the honesty or 
ability of its administration. There is absolutely nothing 
beyond this in the common notion that "farmers will not 
hang together." 

It may be proper that I give my individual opinion of 
the proper functions of a State Exchange. The ultimate 
character of public institutions like this must be a matter 
of growth, but I think fruit-growers can do the following 
things for themselves from the start: 

They can ascertain the condition of the markets and the 
value of their crops. 

They can explore and open up new markets and stimu- 
late old ones. 

They can procure their own funds for necessary advances 
on crops, while retaining their sale in their own hands. 

They can concentrate, grade and prepare their products 
for their final market. 

Between our fruit thus concentrated and in store in Cali- 
fornia and the jobbing houses in distant cities, there 
must, for the present, be a go-between of some kind. Noth- 
ing but substantial uniformity of grading and packing, ac- 
companied with clear definition of grades, certainty that 
goods delivered will conform to them, and absence of se- 
vere competition, will enable us to escape this expense; 
whenever we have learned to produce those conditions the 
mail and the wire will be all the middle servants needed. 

That at present necessary go-between may be with: 

1. The jobber's agent, residing here and inspecting, 
buying and paying on the spot in behalf of his principal. 
This form is, of course, what we would wish. 

2. Our own agents, upon salary and expenses, travel- 

ing among jobbers and making sales. If, however, we 
take our business from the brokers who now have it, they 
will all work foreign goods instead, and it becomes a mere 
question of dollars and cents whether we can get men who 
will sell our entire crop each year, against the competition 
of those who now sell it, at an aggregate expense below 
the aggregate of commissions which we could arrange for 
through brokers. 

3. Brokers selling upon uniform commission at prices set 
by ourselves, the goods remaining in California until sold. 

What methods to adopt may safely be left to the judg- 
ment of directors, but my own view is that our policy 
should be that which will induce the largest possible 
number of people to engage in finding customers to con- 
sume our fruit products, and that it should be known of all 
men that whoever will bring us a customer shall be paid 
for it, at a uniform rate. 

Dried fruit can be concentrated, graded and packed by 
growers through local co operative unions, and in no other 
way. In no other way, also, can it be put where the 
grower can obtain necessary advances upon it without 
parting with control of its sale. 

I therefore think that the Exchange should actively 
promote the formation of such unions throughout the 
Stale, upon substantially uniform plans which shall pro- 
vide for a uniform system of grading and packing, and for 
such inspection on the part of the State Exchange as miy 
be found necessary to maintain uniformity. 

Some local unions will prefer to sell their own fruit. 
Others, and most individuals, will desire to avail them- 
selves of the facilities which the State Exchange will pro- 
vide. I therefore recommend that the State Exchange 
act as selling agent for all who wish it. There is no doubt 
that great quantities of fruit will be placed in its hands 
for sale. Some local unions will be able to obtain advances 
through local banks and others will not. I therefore rec- 
ommend that the State Exchange act as financial agent 
for obtaining loans for such unions as desire it. I have 
given this subject careful study, and have reached the 
conclusion that the State Exchange will be able to secure 
all the funds needed to handle our fruit cross to be dis- 
tributed through properly organized local unions. 1 will 
also say that I think this feature goes to the root of the 
whole matter. In my judgment, by the end of each calen- 
dar year two-tbirds of the proceeds of the dried fruit and 
raisin product must be and now is in the hands of the 
growers, while the legitimate market will not by that 
time absorb more than two fifths of it, which, if our total 
output amounts to $10,000,000, would leave, say, $2,500,- 
000 to be supplied on advances, or by speculative pur- 
chases, by New Years, to be gradually repaid between 
that time and May 1st, as the market absorbs the goods. 

So long as these necessary advances can practically be 
obtained only through commission houses, or by selling at 
low rates to speculators, so long other persons than the 
growers and consumers will control the market. Now, 
dried fruit in ordinary warehouses and uninspected is not 
a security available in the general money market on ac- 
count of ignorance of its value and liability to spoil. It 
must be in expert hands guaranteeing its quality and re- 
sponsible for its delivery in that condition. 

In Santa Clara county we find that the guaranty of our 
co-operative societies answers all the requirements of our 
local banks, and that to the extent of their resources we 
can get funds on fruit. But in many localities the de- 
mands for advances, even in ordinary years, outrun the 
ability of the local banks, and it is necessary to make 
these securities available in the general market. This can 
be done by fulfilling the necessary conditions, and one 
chief duty of the State Exchange will be to teach local 
unions how to place their fruit so that the money market 
will recognize it as security, and to arrange tor funds to be 
advanced upon it. It is my opinion, fortified by that of 
many able bankers with whom I have conversed, that a 
large part, if not the majority, of the money advanced on 
fruit by commission houses is simply the proceeds of other 
consigned fruit sold, but upon which returns are delayed 
to give the commission house the use thereof from 15 to 
60 days. Whether this be true or not, what we need most 
is financial independence, which can only come through 

In establishing an Exchange the first thing is to provide 
for its support. In my opinion the Exchange can earn 
from and will be cheerfully paid by all local co-operative 
associations and large shippers, one-half of one per cent on 
their sales for general services on the lines laid down 
above. Those actually selling through the Exchange will 
of course pay an additional charge for such service. There 
are enough local organizations alone already existing to 
support an Exchange on that basis. With moderate success 
in forming new ones the charge to all will be much less 
than one half of one per cent of their own sales; but I think 
the contracts should be for one-half of one per cent, or so 
much thereof as is necessary. 

But the same organization, without any corresponding 
increase of expense, can act as selling agent for as many 
as desire it, charging therefore the additional cost. 

A certain but not very large amount of capital is abso- 
lutely necessary, and the first step is to secure this. In my 
opinion $20,000 will be ample. I think we shonld attempt 
no other work until $10,000 is subscribed, and that when 
that is subscribed we proceed with the work of general 
organization, getting what more capital we need as we go on. 

In regard to the uses for capital, I may say that a cer- 
tain amount may be used for expenses of organization be- 
tween now and say July 1st. This, in my opinion, should 
finally be restored to capital stock by a trifling special 
charge on the business, above actual cost, continued until 
the whole amount is restored. A certain amount will be 
necessary for use in case of temporary deficiency of reve- 
nue, to be, of course, repaid as revenue accrues. The re- 
mainder is needed for the purchase of sacks and any other 
material required, to be collected again from unions and 
individuals consuming the material, at such an advance as 
will pay the interest on capital employed. Respectfully 1 
submitted, Edward F. Adams, Manager. 

With this report of the Manager, President Markley sub- 
I mitted, on behalf of himself and his associates of the Pre- 
liminary Board, a scheme of organization reciting (1) that 
co-operative organization was absolutely essential to the 
prosperity of California fruit-growers; (2) that practical 
I co-operation can be attained through the agency of a State 
Exchange; (3) that to be effective the Exchange must have 
j adequate financial support; (4) recommending organization 
! with a capital stock of $200,000 divided into 20,000 shares; 
(5) recommending the choice of 11 persons to serve as a 
Board of Directors of the projected Exchange; (6) and 
reciting the charges of preliminary work up to date. This 
report was, after discussion, adopted, and, together with 
j the recommendations of Manager Adams, made the basis 
1 of organization. 


President Phllo Hersey Tells How It Was Organ- 
ized, How Managed, and How and What 
It Has /• ccomplished. 
As everybody knows, the movement for a State Ex- 
change grew out of the example set by the people of Santa 
Clara county In their local Exchange at San Jose. With 
the view of getting full and authoritative information re- 
specting the Santa Clara Exchange for the instruction of 
the convention, President Hersey, nf San Jose, was called 
upon to address the meeting. He had been informed 
beforehand that be would be expected to speak, and there- 
fore came prepared, not with a set speech in written form, 
but with a head full of facts and figures. He spoke off- 
hand, without notes, in a conversational way, and was heard 
with intense interest from beginning to close. It was the 
universal expression that no assembly of fruit-growers in 
California had ever listened to an address at once so com- 
prehensive, so clear and so practical. Col. Hersey said : 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Conven- 
tion : With regard to the establishment of a State 
Freight Fruit Exchange, you want from me, possibly, a 
little of the experience I have had in helping to form a 
County Exchange. Three years ago we formed a little 
co-operative drying association in our county, that after 
running one or two years found itself in a state of success 
rather unexpectedly, not only unexpectedly to those who 
took part in it, but also to those who have subscribed 
stock and to tho«e who have stood on the outside and 
said that, like all farmers' institutions, it would be a 
failure. But we found it a success. 

Out of that a spirit arose among the people of our county 
to continue the work in this same line, and there has been 
formed since then four other co-operative drying institu- 
tions by the farmers in different sections, and also what is 
known as the Sinta Clara County Fruit Exchange, which 
is an outgrowth, also, of the spirit of co-operation. 

To show what those co operative drying institutions have 
done, one of these associations received 3600 tons of green 
fruit, another one has received 3500 tons of green fruit, 
another 2900 tons, another 2300 tons and another one 1700 
tons. So you see that they have got out of their swaddling 
clothes within the first year of their experience, and they 
have received large quantities of fruit, converted it into 
dried fruit, and have mainly marketed it to the advantage 
of the co-operative dryers. 

Now, two years ago last spring, we had a meeting that 
was instrumental in forming the Santa Clara County Fruit 
Exchange. After a year's struggle it found itself in a con- 
dition that it was impossible for it to proceed and do busi- 
ness. This was in the year 1892 and it did nothing. We 
took it up a year ago last November and carried it forward, 
by way of getting stock subscriptions, so that at the begin- 
ning of the year, in May, we felt sure that it was proper to 
go ahead, and we started in to make the necessary prep- 
aration for the transaction of business. Fearing that I 
may forget some of the figures, I have brought them along 
with me to show what we have done. I want to say that 
we are extremely modest in our figures. We handle only 
a small part of the fruit grown down there. 

The action taken on the part of that Exchange has 
caused the concentration, for the purposes of sale, of 8,500,- 
000 pounds of fruit; it has received and has on hand 3,317,- 
322 pounds; it has sold 5, 533, 336 pounds, and it has on 
band now about 70 carloads, which is about one-fourth of 
this amount, which is on the market for the second sale, 
commencing the middle of January to the middle of March. 

Now, we had about $7000 or $8000 of stock that had 
been paid for, and out of that, as a basis of business, we 
have erected a plant that cost $19,000. Our people were 
extremely poor in purse. They had land, and energy and 
good will, and all of that in abundance. They were 
wealthy in those things, but they were poor in purse, and 
they could not, last spring, pay for their stock. When we 
started out to buy our land and erect our buildings at a 
cost of $20,000, we started with $7,000 paid subscriptions, 
but we had promises that they would come forward with 
their fruit and meet the payments. We went ahead, and 
with a little coaxing on the part of the material men and 
by cash payments for labor, we succeeded in getting ready 
for the receiving of fruit in July. 

Mr. Adams: — Don't let them misunderstand— the stock 
was subscribed. 

Mr. Hersey: — I understand, the whole stock was sub- 
scribed, but the subscribers could not pay for only $7000 of it 
at that time. We had our building completed and commenced 
to receive fruit in July. We had partial promises of money, 
not knowing what was to be the result In the financial cen- 
ters at the time we should need money — we had partially 
promised to make advances of from 25 to 75 per cent of the 
amount of fruit a man delivered, Immediately on the de- 
livery. At the same time, we told them we would like 
them to be as lenient as possible. I made an arrangement 
with the bank to borrow from them $25,000 in amounts as 
it was needed. I made the arrangement four or five weeks 
in advance of the time it was needed, but about ten days 
before it was necessary to have a dollar — our circumstances 
{Continued on paqe 7.) 

January 6, 1894. 




Coffee-Growing in Central America. 

Many Californians love to discuss coffee growing, 
although it must be admitted that experiments thus far pur- 
sued indicate that there are very few places in California 
where the plant will thrive. At a recent meeting of the 
Indiana Horticultural Society, Mr. Sedgwick spoke very 
interestingly of coffee growing in Central America. He 
said that this subject was one of interest to Americans for 
the reason that the locality in question was being developed 
very rapidly as a coffee-growing region, and he thought it 
was destined ultimately to become a part of the United 
States. Those nations are looking to the time when they 
will have to cast in their lot with some of the neighboring 
nations. Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Guatemala will, with- 
out doubt, cast in their lot with the United States. Yuca- 
tan is expected to side toward England, on account of the 
great predominance there of English interests. As to the 
growing of coffee, it requires a soil from 12 to 18 inches in 
depth. This soil is composed of very fine earth. Before 
the land is cleared for the coffee plantation, it is covered 
with from 50 to 70 different kinds of wood, and the forests 
are thicker and more dense than any in the United States. 
Besides that, nearly every tree has a vine growing around 
it, and some of the trees have two or three vines. Some 
trees have as many as a dozen. These vines climb the 
trees and then reach down their long tendrils to the ground, 
and other vines spring up and twine around them. This 
process continues till the forest is one close, dense mass of 
trees and interwoven vines and branches, and a man can- 
not be seen 20 feet away. You would naturally think that 
a man could not go into It and do anything. The natives, 
however, know how to manage it. They have tools con- 
structed for the purpose, and with them they go into these 
jungles and cut down everything of more than six inches 
in diameter, with the exception of about 20 trees to the 
acre, and these are left for a shade to the coffee planta- 
tion. The coffee tree must be shaded, for it is an under- 
growth. Now, when the trees and vines are all cut down, 
the natives begin to prepare the coffee for planting. He 
takes the seed in the cherry form, before the hull has been 
taken off. They plant the seeds in a seed-bed in March or 
April, or early in May. They will make from two to eight 
leaves by the first of August. These seedlings are then 
transplanted to an open space and left to grow for three or 
four months, or sometimes a year. These plants are then 
set out in holes dug in the ground that has been chopped 
over the previous year. The following year they go over 
the ground and cut off the vines near the ground and push 
the rubbish back from each side of the holes. The trees 
and rubbish of vines are left on the ground. There is do 
burning or anything of that kind. The coffee tree is slow 
in its growth. It is not a fast-growing tree as to the trunk. 
The leaf is green and is nearly the shape of our beach leaf, 
but is brighter, like the holly. 

The berries grow in little clusters in the axle of the leaf. 
The blossoms come along in April and May and have a 
sweet perfume. Then the berry begins to grow. When 
the berries are ripe they are picked off by hand. They are 
then taken to what is called the "pulper," where they have 
the hull rubbed off. This takes off the outside pulp. The 
quality of coffee is governed largely by the locality in which 
it is grown. That produced on the highlands is of the best 
quality, and that grown near the sea level the poorest. 
Coffee will grow on the lowlands, but is not the best. Then 
there are different varieties of coffee. One variety has but 
a single grain in a berry, and this is known as the pea 
berry. There is another thing that is not known by the 
people of this country, and that is that the same seed that 
produces Java coffee in the island of Java produces the Rio 
coffee in Brazil; and the same berry that produces a poor 
berry on the lowlands produces a good, rich berry on the 
highlands. We sometimes think we drink a good deal of 
Java coffee. The consumption of coffee last year in this 
country was 617,000,000 pounds. The whole crop of Java 
last year was only 12,000,000 pounds, and the amount im- 
ported into this country was less than 1,000,000 pounds; so 
you see very few people get real Java coffee. The coffee la- 
borer is paid in silver. At the present time a gold dollar of 
the United States is worth about $1.80 in Central American 
silver money. Laborers get 50 cents a day in their money 
or about 27 cents in ours. The cost of producing coffee is 
about 4X cents in silver or 2 2 /i cents in gold. That same 
coffee sells in their markets at 23 cents per pound in gold, 
or 35 cents in silver. There is, of course, a very large 
profit in it. The condition of labor there is somewhat 
similar to that in our Southern States. The people do not 
know the value of money. When they have worked a few 
days and accumulated a small sum, they will stop work 
and remain idle till the money Is expended. 

A tree begins to bear at about three years of age. At 
that age the yield is about half a pound per tree. In the 
sixth year they yield their best, which is two and a half to 
three pounds per tree on an average. A tree will bear for 
about 20 years, and there are some known to be 40 years 

About 450 trees are planted to the acre. We count 
about 400 to the acre. A good yield of coffee is reckoned 
at from 600 to 1500 pounds, but some growers get as high 
as 2000 pounds per acre. The poorer coffee, grown on low 
grounds, sells at from 10 to 12 cents per pound in the home 
market there. 

Packing Apples for Export. 
As we are sending some apples every year across the 
Pacific it may be interesting to our apple-growers to read of 
the method of handling which the Tasmanian apple-grow- 
ers use in their shipments to the English marke's. The 
following is from the journal of the Tasmanian Council of 

Agriculture, and is written by Clement Johnson of Mac- 
quarie Plains: 

Every possible care must be exercised in picking apples, 
or any other fruit, but as apples have to be dealt with more 
than any other fruit for the English market I will confine 
my attention to them. In my humble opinion it is here 
that the greater amount of damage is done. Fruit-growers 
are not particular enough in picking. A bruise on an apple, 
be it ever so small, will cause the apple to rot. The stems 
must be left on the apple, say about one-quarter of an inch 
in length. Under no circumstances should they be pulled 
off roughly, because the stem in coming out pulls a piece 
of the apple with it, and the apple is then worse than a 
bruised one. Such fruit should not under any circumstances 
be allowed to find a place among sound fruit, because it 
cannot be expected to travel to England and arrive in good 
condition. For that reason it is of very great importance 
to have nothing but good, careful and experienced packers. 
The apple should not be allowed to drop into the basket, 
or whatever the receptacle may be, but should be placed 
there carefully by the hand as if it was an egg. If the 
pickers would always think that they were picking eggs 
instead of fruit, and handle them accordingly, it would be 
a great advantage, for it is not only the apple that drops 
that gets bruised, but it bruises several more in its fall. A 
careless picker is a dear individual at any price, and should 
not be allowed in the orchard. Children as a rule are bad 
pickers, but I consider that conditions being equal men are 
as good pickers as women, and in many instances better, 
especially for topping. 

Grading. — Nothing in the way of grading machines that 
I have seen equals the human hand. The apples should 
be spread out on an ordinary sorting table very carefully. 
After some practice there should be no difficulty for a prac- 
tical hand and eye to select the right size of apples at a 
glance. Any apple about which he has any doubt should 
be measured with the usual ring, but it should be done 
well and accurately. 

Wrapping. — Experience has taught us that the best 
wrapping paper is the proper paper to use. The apple 
should be placed with the eye downward in the center of 
the paper, so as to enable the wrapper to close it around 
the stem, and give it a twist to help to prevent the paper 
from undoing itself again, and place the apple either in the 
case directly or for the packer if one be employed. 

Packing. — This should be done very carefully because 
very much depends upon it. If the fruit is packed too 
tight it will bruise, if too loose it will shift in the case dur- 
ing transit and get bruised by contact with case and fruit. 
For this reason I prefer to pack from the side of the case 
because there is a wider surface to work upon and less 
depth. The only objection to this mode of packing is that 
it is more difficult to nail down a case with its side open, 
and very few can nail down a case properly this way, there- 
fore if we have careful packers there can be no great objec- 
tion to packing a case from bottom to top. When the case 
is packed the top layer should be about half an inch above 
the edge of the case and should be absolutely level on top, 
because if one is higher than the rest that one will have 
extra pressure from the lid, get bruised and cause decay of 
the whole case. The fruit should be pressed down by a 
well-padded board, enough to allow the lid to go on com- 
fortably, or rather in such a way that it holds the apples 
firm and not too firm; it is rather difficult to express on 
paper, though proficiency can only be gained by practice. 
I think it is a matter of opinion whether the packing should 
be a separate process or be done by the wrapper. If a 
wrapper is also a good packer it will be found that apples 
get packed best by him because he puts down every apple 
in its place as he wraps; besides, there is no danger of the 
paper coming undone, which it very often does when the 
apple is handled by a special packer, and it is once less 
handling the apple, which is a consideration. A wrapper 
will, after a little practice, place the fruit just as quickly as 
he would place It anywhere else, and thus save the time 
and expense of special packers. 

Carting.— Some people seem to think, judging by the 
way they knock fruit about during transit, that after it is 
well it can stand any amount of thumping about, but it is a 
mistake; it should always be handled as carefully as pos- 
sible; it should never for a moment be forgotten that we 
are handling fruit that has to travel thousands of miles. 

Nancy Hanks May Race No More. 

Nancy HaDks, the peerless little queen of the track, is to 
become domestic and will not be seen, for some seasons at 
least, on the track. She is at home quietly domiciled upon 
the farm of her owner, J. Malcolm Forbes, of Boston. 
When asked as to the truth of the rumor that the little 
Nancy would be seen no more on the course, Mr. Forbes 
said: "It is true that I have decided, for the present, at 
least, to withdraw her from the turf. She may, perhaps, 
never return, but that is not yet fully determined. The 
mare will not, however, be seen before the public on the 
track the coming season at any rate. There are several 
reasons which influence me. In the first place, Mr. Doble's 
illness has interfered materially with the mare's engage- 
ments the past season. He has been so ill as to require 
being lifted in and out of the sulky, and that, together with 
the weather, has made it rather an unlucky season all 
around. Then again I did not want her to continue on the 
track until all her muscles were let down, as you might 
say, because there is more money in obtaining colts while 
the dam is still in full possession of all her power than in 
racing her upon the track. 

"I think that the great mistake with most breeders has 
been that they have waited until the dams have been raced 
for all the speed there was in them before withdrawing 
them for breeding purposes, and therein lies in a great de- 

gree the deterioration of their progeny. I did not wish to 
keep Nancy Hanks upon the track until she was all dredged 
out, so to speak. There is much more to be gained by 
withdrawing her now and raising her colts than there is to 
continue her in the races. 

" She leaves the track in the full possession of her vigor 
and in excellent condition. She will be in much better 
condition after having several colts and receiving the rest 
that her withdrawal will give her than she would be to put 
htr right on again at the opening of another season." 

" You mean to say that she would still be in good condi- 
tion to race again if it should be deemed a good thing to 
enter her on the circuit." 

" Yes, I mean exactly that," said Mr. Forbes. 
' So that the public may infer that you have not yet 
made up your mind to withdraw her permanently ?" 

• She may go on again in the future," replied Mr. Forbes. 

I might find that it would be a good thing to enter her 
again for the races and in that case I should do so. That 
is all I can say at present. Nancy Hanks is withdrawn 
from the turf for next season and possibly for some time to 
come. What I may do after that will depend wholly upon 
circumstances as they present themselves." 

It is understood that in the spring Nancy Hanks will be 
bred to Arion. The mare has never lost a race, as was er- 
roneously stated in a press dispatch the other day. She 
lost the first heat in her maiden race to Bonnie Wilmore, 
but from that on she never has been headed to the wire by 
any adversary. Her three-year-old record of 2:24^ gave 
way to a four-year-old record of 2:14^, a five-year-old re- 
cord of 2:09, and a six-year- old record of 2:04. During the 
season just closed she was for the first time defeated, but 
by herself alone, and the terrific strain of an unequaled 
series of miles at last found her out, and she was unable to 
reduce her record of 2:04, her mile at Indianapolis in 2:04^ 
being the best of the year. Of her public heats 64 were 
trotted in 2:30, of which 31 were below 2:15, and 18 below 
2:10. Her fastest mile, 2:04 was at Terre Haute, her fast- 
est quarter -.2^, the third quarter of a mile at Indepen- 
dence, and at Sedalia she trotted the first half in 1:01. At 
Nashville she trotted the middle half in i:oiX; at Terre 
Haute she finished the last half in \ :o\%; her best quarter, 
:3o, was recorded at both Independence and Sedalia, best 
second quarter, 131, at both these places, and at Nash- 
ville and at Boston and Chicago this year. At New Al- 
bany she trotted a last quarter in exactly .30. Her win- 
nings, exclusive of several purses for exhibitions in 1891, 
for which no figures are quoted, reach $61,954. The an- 
nouncement thus made will have a deep interest for turf- 


Crossbred Fowls on the Farm. 

There is little doubt that the quality of domestic animals 
is injured by too close of kin breeding. Great improvement 
is often made by judicious crossing with other breeds. A 
writer in the American Agriculturist says upon this sub- 
ject of crossing poultry that the farmer's ideal fowl must 
be a hardy bird. It must be from good laying and good 
meat stock. It must be adapted to the climate in 
which it is to be kept. No farmer would be so unwise as 
to ignore good blood, for experience with cattle, sheep and 
hogs has taught him that good blood is the condition of 
success. Scrub stock will not give satisfaction in the long 
run. Especially is this true with poultry. There are sev- 
eral ways by which good blood can be secured in an Inex- 
pensive way. In the first place, suppose that the farmer 
has a flock of common fowls; the hens are good layers and 
good table birds. He can improve the stock by killing off 
the mongrel male birds and investing in thoroughbred 
males. The following year he should kill off the entire 
stock, and with the pullets he raised from them pure-bred 
males of the same breed, but not the males of the previous 
season. The plan should be annually followed until the 
fixed type of the male birds is secured. This plan would 
not only give improved layers and table fowls, but it would 
put remarkable hardiness in the flocks. The writer keeps 
no common hens on his farm, but he resorts to out- 
crossing, a method that gives grand results. His hens, at 
the start, are of the Black Langshan breed, and the cocks, 
or cockerels, are Black Mlnorcas. The next year he takes 
the pullets of the cross and mates them to Minorcas again, 
secured from an entirely different family. He repeats this 
each year until he has a strain of Minorcas that show large 
bodies, strong constitutions and improved utility points. 
All bad effects that may be in the stock from the con- 
tinual inbreeding, so much practiced by fanciers, are thus 
gradually remedied, until the bird is made a picture of 
health instead of a physical wreck. 

One great reason why farmers so much object to pure- 
bred fowls is that they are generally of a delicate nature. 
They cannot afford to have sickly fowls, as these are, as a 
rule, very poor layers. The condition that the pure breeds 
so often are brought to, in the struggle for supremacy In 
the show room, has not only weakened their utility points, 
but greatly damaged their health. It is plain that such 
birds, despite the good qualities for which they were 
created, cannot be worth the price of the mongrel hen for 
practical work. I am not opposed to the bird in its purity 
by any means, but I am seriously opposed to the system of 
breeding carried on by those who are striving to gain the 
highest position on the 100 scale. I believe it is this en- 
deavoring to obtain the highest scores that has crippled so 
many useful breeds. For that reason the farmer is justified 
in refusing to invest in such stock. First, crosses have 
proven themselves to be better (or farm work than the 
pure breeds; and, as this first crossing will require pure 
blood to start with, it can in no way injure the value of the 
thoroughbred poultry. Oq the other hand, it acknowledges 
the good qualities of distinct breeds, and with this knowl- 
edge the first cross is made; made to combine the desirable 



January 6, 1894. 

parts of the two breeds in one carcass. But first crosses 
must not be bred again with their own kind. If they are 
to be mated they should be sired with a pure-bred bird of 
either of the breeds used in their combination. 

I like the cross of Black Minorca on Black Langshan 
for winter layers. It gives not only a pretty bird, but one 
of excellent laying qualities, and one far ahead of any cross 
I ever tried for winter work. The body is of the shape 
and size of the Langshan, and the head is that of an ideal 
Minorca. Samuel Cushman, the manager of the Rhode 
Island Experiment Station poultry yards, the past year 
made a number of experiments in crossing breeds, and, 
judging from his recent report, he believes the Indian 
Game crossed on the Light Brahma is in the lead. As a 
table fowl, such a cross is not easily excelled. I never 
tried it, but this season have been experimenting with 
Indian Game crossed on the Black Langshan. If anything, 
I believe Mr. Cushman's cross is better than this one for 
meat, but I doubt if it excels it for egg production. This 
winter's test should determine of what worth the cross will 
be for eggs during cold weather. An experiment of cross- 
ing Black Minorca on both White and Brown Leghorns 
was anything but satisfactory. The offspring was very 
puny. The Orpington breed is creating considerable 
favorable comment in England, and Its merit as a general- 
purpose fowl is highly extolled. They resemble our Black 
Javas in appearance, and are made by crossing the Black 
Minorcas, Black Langshans and the barred Plymouth 
Rocks. Mr. Cook does not say how he began the cross, 
but it can be made by first crossing - Plymouth Rocks on 
Langshan, and Black Minorcas on the pullets of that cross. 
The cross of White Wyandotte on Light Brahma is a good 
one, making a very good general-purpose fowl. It must 
be borne in mind that under no consideration should the 
cockerels of any cross be used again. Snch work has only 
a tendency to drift toward mongrelism. The pullets are 
the only desirable part of a cross, and if they are to be 
mated again it should be with a thoroughbred. 

Select the Layers. 

A poultryman should be able to select from his flock the 
fowls that will make the best layers. If a hen hangs around 
the hen-house, is too lazy to scratch and is always ready 
for her next feed, you may make up your mind she will be 
an unprofitable bird. If you should notice a hen with a 
thick neck, large head, Ill-shaped, a listless walk with no 
Intention or purpose In view, one that gets up late in the 
morning and goes to bed early in the evening, you may 
make up your mind she may be included in the same class. 
If yon keep this kind of a fowl, the eggs of some of the 
other hens must go to help pay for her feed. Conversely, 
another hen walks briskly and there is an elasticity in her 
movements which shows that she has something In view. 
She is neat in appearance, with a small, slim neck which 
is nicely arched or curved. She forages or scratches all 
day long and may be too busy to come for her evening 
meal. She is invariably at the door in the morning wait- 
ing to be let out. She snatches a few mouthfuls of feed 
and Is off to the meadow looking for insects. Before she 
goes out In the morning she generally deposits her daily 
egg in the nest, or returns after a short forage. She is neat, 
clean and tidy, with a brightness and freshness pleasant to 
the eye. That is the hen that pays for her feed and gives 
a good profit all the year round. By studying these habits 
and breeding from such fowls any man may in a few years 
have an exceptionally fine flock of hens. 

Sorghum and Alfalfa. 

Stockmen who have used sorghum or alfalfa will read 
with interest the result of experiments made recently by 
Professors F. A. Gulley and M. Moss, of the Arizona Ex- 
periment Station. Published in a bulletin are details of an 
experiment in feeding in which valuable information was 
developed as to the best method of feeding the two crops. 

Alfalfa and sorghum are mentioned as the two most 
profitable sources of cattle food on irrigated lands in Ari- 
zona. To compare each of these feeding stuffs with the 
other and with a mixture of the two, three lots of native 
steers each were fed from November i8th to January ist, 
71 days, as follows: Lot 1, sorghum alone; lot 2, alfalfa 
alone; lot 3, alfalfa and sorghum mixed. They were fed in 
separate fields twice daily. The sorghum was a mixture of 
saccharine and non-saccharine varieties. It was cut as 
the seed was ripening, shocked in the field and fed whole. 
The amount of each food given was regulated by the appe- 
tites of the animals. During the trial the lot on sorghum 
gained 29 8 pounds, the lot on alfalfa 78.3 pounds and the 
lot on the mixture of sorghum and alfalfa 96.4 pounds per 
head, showing a decided advantage from feeding the two 
foods together. 

Following this trial, the three lots were all fed to March 
ist on alfalfa alone. During this time the larger gain, 43 2 
pounds per head, was made by the lot which had previously 
received sorghum; the next largest 35.23 pounds, by the 
lot which had received alfalfa alone. The steers were very 
wild, so that much difficulty was experienced in weighing 
the individuals of each lot separately. - This was done, 
however, on several dates. The results of these weighings 
show that "without exception the wildest steers in each lot 
made the least gains." 

In this experiment alfalfa alone gives a much better re- 
sult than sorghum alone, but the combination of the two is 
superior to either fed singly, and this is what might be ex- 
pected, judging the two feeding stuffs from their chemical 

Sorghum — stalks, leaves and seeds — Is rich in carbona- 
ceous, but deficient in nitrogenous matter for a complete 

In considerable experience in feeding cattle with sorghum 
it has always given good results, but we have always fed it 
with some grain of some kind, or cotton seed and its prod- 
ucts. * * * We prefer the large, sweet varieties for 
cattle feeding. We found last winter, and It agrees with 
our experience in Texas and Mississippi, that the cattle 

would eat the stalks of the sweet varieties nearly clean, 
while of the non-sweet kinds they would eat the heads, 
some of the leaves, and reject most of the stalks. Feeding 
the two kinds together, they take the sweet first. 

Canadian Conclusions About Hog Raising. 

At the last meeting of the Ontario Swine Breeders 
Association, President James Mills, of the Ontario Agri- 
cultural College, read a paper in which he presented the 
following conclusions that have been reached by Canadian 
hog raisers, finally settled, he says, and placed beyond 
doubt or question. Many points of interest to all hog raisers 

1. That it pays swine breeders and feeders to study the 
requirements of the markets in which they have to sell 
their animals to ascertain what the packers want, and en- 
deavor to furnish pigs of the kind and quality for which 
there is the greatest demand and the highest price. The 
packers ought to know the kind of pig which best suits 
their purpose, and when they have told us that they prefer a 
pig which furnishes a long, deep, lean side of bacon, we 
should, I think, pay a strict attention to their statements 
and do our utmost to breed and feed so as to get precisely 
the kind and quality desired. 

2. That it is better for the pork trade and for the farm- 
ers that pigs should be sold alive, rather than killed and 
dressed at home. When packers get the pigs alive they 
can kill, cut and cure them uniformly, so as to meet the 
demands of their trade, and for that reason can afford to 
pay proportionately a higher price for living than for dead 
animals. This is beyond all question, and taking the prices 
paid for the last few years, we are forced to the conclusion 
that the farmer loses money on every pig which he kills at 
home ; or rather, that he has heart and liver for his labor 
and gets less money for his dressed pork than he could have 
obtained for his hogs on foot. Pigs dress from 72 to 78 
and very rarely to 80 per cent of their live weight, so a 
comparison of prices and a very simple calculation will 
show which is better for the owner of the pigs. Suppose 
your pigs are rather thin and live weight price is $5 per 100 
pounds. Then multiply this price by 100, divide the pro- 
duct by 72, and you will get $6.94 as the dressed weight, 
which will bring you the same amount of money. If your 
pigs are in fair condition and of a good quality, divide by 
75 instead of 72 and yon will get $667 as the dressed 
weight price ; and if they are fat and oi first-rate quality, 
divide by 77 or 80, and you will get $6. 40 or $6.25, respect- 
ively, as the corresponding dressed weight prices. In this 
way it is very easy to compare the prices and determine in 
each case which is the more profitable for the owner of the 

3. That, as regards quality, dairy fed pork is the best 
that we can produce in this country. 

4. That hog raising, on either a large or a small scale, 
pays better in connection with dairying, especially butter- 
making, than under any other conditions known to us in 
this province. 

It is no doubt true that sour whey possesses little or no 
value as food for pigs, calves or anything else, but sweet 
whey is worth from 6 to 10 cents per 100 pounds when fed 
with shorts, middlings, or some kind of meal. Buttermilk 
is more valuable, and skim milk is one of the best and 
most valuable foods that we can give to pigs at any age 
after the first few weeks of their existence. 

These two facts — third and fourth — may, I think, be 
fairly urged as strong points in favor of dairying, or we 
might rather say, dairying all the year round — cheese in 
summer and butter in winter. 

5. That pigs fed on grain, or even on slops, grow faster, 
produce a better quality of pork and pay better, when they 
have access to some kind of pasture, especially white or 
red clover about four inches long — say six to ten pigs per 

6. Breeding pigs — male and female — must have plenty 
of exercise, summer and winter, and should have some 
sort of green feed, pasture in summer, and turnips, man- 
gels, or green beets in winter. The fact should receive due 
consideration in the laying out and fencing of yards con- 
nected with the pens in which it is proposed to keep our 
breeding stock. 

7. That the most expensive pens are not always the 
best — that at least two things are essential in every pen, viz.: 
warmth and provision for keeping pigs perfectly dry. 

8. That those who cannot keep their pigs warm, dry 
and comfortable in fall, winter and spring, will save money 
by giving up the hog business and turning their attention 
to something else. 

9. That it does not pay to feed pigs after they are seven 
or eights months old, that pigs should be sold when they 
weigh from 200 to 320 pounds live weight, which weights 
should be attained in from six to eight months. 

10. That, generally speaking, shorts is the cheapest and 
most profitable feed for pigs at the present time in this 
province, and it is much improved by the addition of a 
little pea or corn meal. 

11. That a mixture of foods, with more or less variety, is 
better than any single food given continuously. 

12. The roots—sugar beets, mangels or turnips — are a 
very wholesome and economical food for brood sows in 

13. That, as a rule, there is very little, if anything, 
gained by steaming or boiling feed for pigs after they are 

14. That pigs, like all other kinds of live stock, should 
have constant access to salt. 

15. That pigs should be kept as clean as possible, be 
regularly fed, and not get any more than they will eat up 
clean at each meal. 

16. That whether it will pay at any particular time to 
feed pigs on grain alone without milk, whey or slops, will 
always depend on the relative prices of grain and pork. 

tI[HE D/cIRY. 

Artificial Butter Frauds. 

The agitation which has been going on of late, owing to 
the determined effort of the manufacturers of butterine to 
force the staff onto the markets in violation of law in many 
of the States may have wholesome effect in the end, by the 
enactment of prohibitory laws and a strict enforcement of 
the same, where only an effort to regulate now prevails. 
The only way to regulate a serpent is to kill him and the 
place to begin is at headquarters, Chicago, which is the 
breeding ground of the evil. 

The Northwestern Farmer says: Should the higher 
courts finally sustain the action of the Legislature in Min- 
nesota and several other States requiring oleomargarine or 
any of the concoctions that are used for butter that are to 
be colored pink or some color different from the dairy ar- 
ticle, the competition from this quarter would end in all 
States that enforce the law. The manufacturers concede 
that it is useless to try to sell an article for butter that is 
colored pink, green, black, or any shade different from real 
butter. In their suit in the United States circuit against 
the dairy and food commissioner of Minnesota they state 
that such coloring would utterly destroy the commercial 
character of their product. This is their vulnerable point. 
The fight against them is hopeful on this line. New York, 
Connecticut, Minnesota, and perhaps a few other States, 
have adopted the color requirement. It has been sustained 
by an important court in this State, and the example is 
likely to be followed in other States. This has driven the 
great packing houses to a test in the courts that will doubt- 
less be eventually taken to the supreme court at Washing- 
ton. They insist that the State law is unconstitutional, 
and ask that the agent of this State be enjoined from its 
enforcement until a final decision is had in the higher 
courts. It is set forth in their complaint that they have 
legal incorporation and have been for years engaged exten- 
sively in manufacturing oleo; that they label it distinctively 
as such; that it is a recognized article of commerce 
licensed by the United States, and that the processes of 
manufacture are clean and wholesome, and conducted un- 
der the supervision of United States inspectors. It is al- 
leged, too, that it contains many of the best qualities of 
butter and keeps better. This litigation will afford oppor- 
tunity to establish by sanitary and scientific evidence that 
oleo is unwholesome and unfit to be taken into the human 
system. The basis for its inhibition must be found in this. 
It is noticeable that the butter-makers in the great dairy 
States of Wisconsin and Illinois, where oleo has free sale, 
do not seem to be much exercised over it. Those who 
make the better qualities of butter will not find oleo in their 

Temperature for Churning. 

One of the most essential things in butter making is 
temperature of the milk, cream and butter in the different 
stages from the cow to the butter tub, and in the process 
of churning probably more depends upon the temperature 
at which the cream is when the churn is started than at any 
other time. The flavor, grain and color, three of the 
principal constituents of good butter, are all developed by 
the proper temperature of churning. Butter churned at 
too high a temperature will be found to contain more casein 
and water than that churned at a lower one, thereby injur- 
ing the keeping qualities. The color will be pale and lack- 
ing that golden hue so much prized by all good butter- 
makers and judges of fine butter. The grain will be injured, 
and the butter lacks body and firmness, and will be liable 
to mottles and streaks. It will take more working, and 
there will be greater shrinkage while on the way to market. 

The temperature that cream should be churned at de- 
pends to a greater extent upon the condition of the cream 
and the temperature of the churn room. In winter it is 
not necessary to churn at as low a temperature as in sum- 
mer. In the days before the Babcock test we did not give 
much thought to the loss of butter fat in the buttermilk. If 
we churned at the right temperature to produce the best 
quality of butter, that was all that was necessary. But 
since that time there has been considerable change. We 
still churn to produce the best quality, but we have com- 
bined this with the temperature to churn at to save all the 
fat from the buttermilk, and we have found that the two 
will work together with the best of results. In my experi- 
ence I have found that acid cream should be churned at a 
temperature that the buttermilk will come from the churn 
below 60 degrees in the winter months. In my experience 
with sweet cream I have churned at a temperature of 50 
degrees and produced good results both in keeping quali- 
ties and in the saving of fat from the buttermilk. — F. C. 
Leighton in Farm and Home. 

A Profitable Dairy Cow. 

A profitable dairy cow is one that yields not less than 
600 gallons of milk a year, the milk containing not less 
than four per cent of butter fat. A cow yielding 600 
gallons a year ought to give during the 28 earlier weeks of 
her milk- flow about 470 gallons, which, at the rate of one 
pound of cheese to each gallon of milk, would amount, 
after allowing for shrinkage, to four cwt. of cheese. And if 
the milk is for the butter dairy, the produce of 600 gallons 
containing four per cent of fat ought to be 240 pounds of 
butter. The best means of developing and improving the 
milking capacity of cows are selection and breeding. The 
lives of good milkers should be preserved as long as pos- 
sible. Statistics show that of all the animals subjected 
during the last eight or ni«e years to public test at milking 
trials, those which were over six years old gave from 20 to 
25 per cent more milk and from 20 to 25 per cent richer 
milk than those under that age. 

January 185*4. 



{Continued Jrom page 4.) 
in that case, were like that of every other man, who had a 
promise irom a banking institution: the bank had no money 
to loan. So we started in without one penny of capital, 
without a dollar In the treasury and without a dollar in the 
bank, and, as I said, we took orders for fruit. We re- 
ceived fruit ; we sold fruit and we received the amount of 
fruit I have stated. We paid every bill that was due, and 
our construction account was $19,000. We have divided 
among the fruit growers, $285,000 in money, and we have 
$6000 or $8000 In the bank ready to be divided, and we do 
not owe anybody anything. I make this statement merely to 
show that no matter how desperate the conditions and cir- 
cumstances are, If it comes to the point of necessity, that 
we growers can, by taking action in this connection, and so 
concentrating our efforts, we can so tolerate the conditions 
of things that it is hardly possible that we can imagine any 
condition to come in the future more depressing than this 
is, that we could go through without a single dollar of bor- 
rowed capital, from the usual sources, the bank. After we 
had been running about two weeks, I should state, that 
alter I had made a great many excuses why we did not 
have any great amount of money on hand, one gentleman 
offered us $1000, so that we did have $1000 working capital. 

Mr. Adams: — We also had a couple of thousand dol- 
lars more that was provided for us by the president [Hersey]. 
He dug it up somewhere and put it in our hands. 

Mr. Hersey: — There was a man down there that had 
courage enough to lend me a thousand dollars at a time of 
distress, when I wanted to pay for a lot of material and we 
did not have the money on hand, and as long as he could 
trust me with the money, it was in the hands of the in- 
stitution. But this is all that we gave a note for and we 
paid it. 

If any kind of business basis could be suggested that 
business men could get together, men who are as green in 
business as I am, and transact in three or four months a 
business on which the receipts of cash should be $255,000, 
and the virtual stock In hand in the meantime be worth 
about $400,000, and give the people who deal with them 
general satisfaction, it is a feature which may be worth the 
investigation of even the best business people — studying 
to see how they can get through times of financial distress. 

This is one of the results of co operative work. It did 
not run smoothly always, and I will remark, as I frequently 
have, if I can get through and not more than one-third of 
the patrons call me the biggest rascal that ever wen; un 
hung, I should be satisfied; I can actually smile at the 
result, notwithstanding that I am the target that is shot at. 
[Applause]. But these things will occur. A man sends 
us fruit that averages about 8o's to qjd's and it does not 
grade out 50's to 6o's, and he says it is not graded right. 
That is one of the things you have to contend with, but you 
must do it patiently. Unless you can get a man at the 
head of your institution who will take all of those little 
things patiently, you cannot make a success ot it. Get men 
with a reasonable degree of stupidity, that are not so sen- 
sitive as many are [laughter], and men who can stand 
those things. When you can do that there is do question 
about your success. The farmers will even tolerate you, 
and they will live and work harmoniously together. It is 
really a matter of rejoicing on my part to have one in ten 
of our people come in and speak in a friendly and kindly 
way of the prosperity of this institution. The rest of them 
get outside; ol course they will not talk as freely as they 
talk among themselves, and I do not often hear what they 
say unless some one having more frankness than people 
generally do, will come and tell what he hears, and that 
gives a good opportunity for explanation. 

This is not entirely a smooth process. Nearly every 
commission house and broker in this State, and a great 
many all the way from Boston to San Francisco, did not 
look upon this question of ours with any degree of faith, 
and as the matter progressed they felt that it was rather 
an infringement, or, if not an infringement, an interference 
with their business. I have to confess that outside of three 
of your commission houses here in San Francisco who 
have been exceedingly kind and friendly to me I have not 
received one single word of favor or of advantage in any 
way to help me in any possible way in the work that has 
been before me. There has been three of your houses that 
have been extremely kind, even almost confidential, so far 
as pertains to their business, and I have been equally so, 
so far as pertains to ours. 

They have had every kind of an epithet for me — the 
young men that went around among the farmers — and told 
them what kind of a chap I was, and I feel that I have had 
every kind of an epithet from the " Gulliver ot Commission 
Men" to "The Uncrowned King." I begin to feel ex- 
ceedingly complimented by the chain of epithets which 
have passed in common parlance during the last three or 
four months. These remarks are only made to show that, 
if you ever form an association in your own community, 
you will have all of these things to contend with, and you 
might just as well bear them patiently and with a smile 
upon your countenance as to get cross or angry. That is 
the only way that you can be successful, and at the same 
time keep pushing forward. It was some time before we 
had any Idea that each other knew anything about the 
business. I was confident I did not know much about it, 
but yet we have gone forward and we have met with the 
results that I have stated here. 

Now, what has this done for us? I have not got any 
better prices than any one else. I sold a great proportion 
of our prunes, based upon the four sizes, at 5c a pound. 
When the market was 4^, I sold some for 4^. Now, 
they have a market in a chaotic condition, and I only sold 
one car. Tnat was necessary to sell, because it was lately 
brought in from a man who had kept it improperly stored 
in the country and It was apt to be injured. I sold that for 
4#. On the whole, we have sold at the same prices and 
no better than any one else. But the position is that this 
8,500,000 lbs. was concentrated in this institution instead 

of being forced upon the buyers for the purpose of selling, 
fulfilling their orders East. There were six or seven of 
these buyers down in our county. What do you suppose 
would have been the result had this crop of fruit been 
forced upon them for sale ? When the price was down to 
and we worked it back to 5c, do you suppose we 
would have got it there without the concentration of this 
fruit f Don't you suppose they would have made the price 
4c instead of 4>i or 5c ? There can be no question in my 
mind about it, and 1 do not say this to bolster up our in- 
stitution, but as an acknowledged fact that is recognized by 
the wisest and the best men in the business all the way 
from Boston to San Francisco. They say that if this 
amount of fruit had been forced upon the market, the price 
would have been a matter of their own fixing. 

The only unpleasant thing abont it is this: When we are 
receiving and concentrating so much fruit, and refusing to 
place the same for sale upon the lower market, we are 
simply holding the price up for other men to step in and 
get nearly all of what we want to receive. Something of 
that kind has been done, and I have no doubt that some of 
our neighbors and patrons have done as well, if not better, 
than we were able to do on the average. Where those 
people were intelligent, and I have met them in 
many instances, although they were outsiders, they ac- 
knowledged to me that if it had not been for our institu- 
tion, they would have sold their fruit for one-half or three- 
fourths of a cent less than they did, and there is no doubt 
about it. This is the point I would make strong — the fact 
that we cannot have so much individual competition that 
would necessarily result injuriously, as it would if we re- 
mained unorganized. Let the 1500 growers of Santa Clara 
county, preparing their fruit for market, as they would be 
obliged to prepare it outside of the few green-fruit buyers, 
who buy for the purpose of drying, and we would have 
over 1000 competitors in our market for selling, and the 
only method of selling would be for the few men that 
gather In the few months of the year to fill their ware- 
houses and manipulate it and sell it. There would be a 
large surplus that would be consigned into the large mar- 
kets and there sold through the usual channels of consign- 
ment. Now, while it is necessary to consign fruits and 
gather together sometimes regular staple articles, yet con- 
signments operate unfortunately, and the great majority of 
people who do consign suffer, and suffer extremely from 
their consignments. Once in a while they may do well, 
but in the majority of cases they lose. 

What we have been trying to teach the people 
this year, but have not accomplished — we cannot ac- 
complish everything In one year — is that they should 
not all push their fruit forward upon the market. If 
a man has two carloads, ship one ot them; if three, sell 
two; If five, sell three; and so on. But the result was they 
did not take our advice, and there were about 150 carloads 
of prunes sent into New York, Chicago and Philadelphia 
on consignment. From that moment we did not sell any 
fruit. The price went down quickly and promptly from 5 
to 4i, then 4 A and 4}, and now they have the supreme 
audacity to telegraph me trom New York, wanting to know 
if I would take 3i for a carload of prunes averaging 70 to 
80 — fruit that we have sold during the season for 4 j or 5c. 
If the market had not been full of fruit of the same kind 
being offered for 4}-, they would not have sent any such 
telegram as that. They would simply have asked me to 
send the price, and I would have quoted them back 4|c, 
and would have got it, too. 

We have not raised this year any more fruit than was 
wanted, every pound of it going into consumption. We 
are favored extremely by the fact that the Eastern produc- 
tion of fruit is very light, and although we have a large 
crop, it is all going into consumption. There is no neces- 
sity that there should have been a pound of It sold for less 
than 5 cents, on an average of the four sizes. But the time 
is coming when we will have to sell our truit from 4 to 4J 
cents. The reason is this — that the fruit crop is going to 
grow faster than the market is going to spread or extend. 
The result is, we will have to make prices sufficiently at- 
tractive so that it will go into every nook and corner of the 
United States, and be sold, not only as a luxury, but as an 
advantage to health, as many of the Eastern physicians are 
now recommending our prunes as a healthful diet. When 
this idea generally attains throughout the United States, 
we can push it out; but there is no question in my mind 
that we have trees enough planted to raise 100,000,000 
pounds of dried prunes. That is considerable more than 
we have raised. We have got to struggle honestly, wisely 
and unitedly in order to get through with it and get out of 
It and feel that we have secured enough upon which we 
can live. I am going to leave the question to general dis- 

Mr. Adams: — There is one point I want you to bring 
out, because I have spoken of it myself in many of our 
little gatherings; that is, about the difficulty we had in 
Santa Clara county early in the season and later with com- 
petition from uninformed portions ot the State — that has a 
special bearing on what we are now doing. 

Mr. Hersey: — It was utterly impossible for us to sell 
a single pound of apricots in Fresno until the southern part 
of the State and Vacaville had got rid of a large proportion 
of theirs. Apricots were selling from 6k to 7 cents, some 
as low as 6 and 6£ cents, what we call a fair choice apricot. 
I saw a sample of some very fine ones from Fresno offered 
for 7 cents and finally sold tor 6£ cents— a full carload that 
if I had in my possession, I would have returned at least 
7} cents. I did not sell any, but when those were out of 
the way, the first fruit I did sell was at 7I cents. We tried 
to make those people understand. We sent out bulletins 
stating that the crop was short and that there would be no 
surplus whatever of apricots, but still it had no effect. 
Our sales began, even the poorest grade we had, at j\ 
cents, and from that we went up to 8, 9, 9} and 10 cents. 
We had the best grade at 10 cents, and we finally got this 
up to 12} cents a pound. Now, we could not sell anything 
until those were out of the way, and as It costs the people 
in Vacaville just as much to raise a pound of fruit as it 
does us, they ought to get just as much, and their crop was 

choice fruit, just as good as our choice fruit. There was 
no reason why they should not get the same price. 

Now, if we can all act upon the same basis and if you 
can understand that the crop is short and that it can all be 
used at the same price, if you ask it, then we will act upon 
the same basis and we will get the price; but understand 
that never under any circumstances must any combination 
of people in any part of this State undertake to practice a 
cinch game on anybody in any part of the United States. 
[Applause ] Just as soon as you do that you bring your- 
self and the organizitlon into such disrepute that something 
will come along and knock the foundation out from under 
you. We have forced the idea upon people everywhere 
that our organization was not a State organization; it was 
simply one to protect ourselves against the persons who 
were cinching us. The cinch comes from the other way. 
We would like to make the market steady and uniform, so 
that a man who bought a carload of 'cots of us and 
took them to New York, Toledo, Philadelphia, or any 
other place, could feel that he could get them into 
first business houses and would have a few days in 
which to sell them and no one else would sell at 
less price and knock the trade out for him. It protects 
both ways and it is a matter of business that we should at- 
tend to. 

Now you will have to pitch into me with questions if 
there is anything more you want to know particularly 

Question:— Can the business be done at less expense 
than the old method? 

Mr. Hersey:— I want to say that we have been charged 
with being the boss commission house. We charge five 
per cent for selling; $2 per ton for receiving, grading, dis- 
tributing, packing, warehousing and shipping the fruit, and 
we get five per cent on sales. It is an arbitrary charge. 
We do not know anything about what it costs, but we make 
this charge for our brokerage to cover the office expense, 
telegrams and little claims that are made up, and there is 
always a wonderful amount of them on a falling market. 
We promise that if there is anything left out of that, that 
we will divide it. We will be dead broke — if you will ex- 
cuse the expression — at the end of the season, if we did not 
make this charge. 

Mr. Adams:— Mr. Hersey, I think you will have to bear 
me out. The last time we went over the figures we thought 
our expenses — 

Mr. Hersey : — I have it definitely here [producing fig- 
ures]. We have sold $285,000 worth of fruit and our 
brokerage is generally 2>£ per cent. We pay 2^ per cent 
at the other end of the line. Our expenses this year are : 
Warehouse expenses, $487, which does not include rent, 
which will be $600 or $700; fuel, $193, using it for dipping 
fruit and running our steam engine; freight and cartage, 
$160; printing, $47— that is office printing; printing and 
salaries, and that includes expenses of issuiug 22 weekly 
bulletins which cost about $50 per month for print- 
ing and distributing besides and all the necessary labor 
and expense of getting the information and material 
together; stationary for office purposes, $145.95. 1 have 
added to this the pay-roll $4162, but that pay-roll includes 
the labor that is performed on the fruit that you would 
have to perform at home if it is not performed there. We 
receive it and run it through the grader, weigh it, separat e 
It into its proper places, sack it, dip it, box it. This makes 
a total of $6381.43. That is less than z%. per cent on the 
amount of business done. We charge nothing for ware- 
housing or any other purpose. It looks as though the 
whole business, taking care of the freight, etc., would only 
amount to 5 per cent anyway. If we take out the $4162 
from the $6381, we leave as an expense this year only a 
little over $2000. 

Question : — Is this expense the minimum at which this 
business can be organized and carried on the first year ? 

Question :— Is there a question when they consign 
fruit about their being paid all that the fruit is consigned 

Mr. Hersey : — I do not know about that. I know 
people talk about the majority of people being dishonest; 
perhaps they are, but I do not know as I want to say so. 

Mr. McGarvie : — Mr. Hersey, at your Exchange in 
Santa Clara county do the members of that Exchange own 
fruit, bring it and deposit it with the Exchange, and, if so, 
does it become the property of the Exchange or remain the 
property ot the individuals who brought it there, and, if so, 
do you have any trouble when you come to sell a carload 
of truit as to whose fruit you shall sell ? 

Mr. Hersey :— Well, I will tell you a little about the 
process. We have received 7,500,000 pounds of fruit, and 
out of the receipts which have come, say from 400 persons, 
there are only 10 or 12 of those persons who wanted their 
fruit sold separately. The rest of it is all pooled, and I 
do not make any difference whose pile it comes out of when 
I fill up a carload of fruit. 

Mr. McGarvie: — If you undertake to pool it, then you 
pool the men whose prunes run from 40 to 60; you do not 
pool those with prunes running from 90 to 100, do you ? 

Mr. Hersey : — No, sir. If you were coming with a 
load of prunes in your packing boxes weighing about 50 
pounds apiece, you drive up to the middle door of our 
warehouse, and there will be two men to help you unload 
and put them into the grader. After they are graded out, 
each grade Is taken to the scales and weighed, and 
you get a receipt reading : "Received of Mr. Smith 500 
pounds of prunes, 40 to 50; 2000 pounds, 50 to 60; 1500 
pounds, 60 to 70; 450 pounds, 70 to 80; 200 pounds, 100 
and upward." That is your receipt, and it shows your 
standing; and when we pay we pay for the grade as stated 
in that receipt. 

Now, fruit is sold on a certain basis. When I say 5c 
for the four sizes, it means this; that the 70 to 80 are $'X> 
and 80 to 90 are 4 3 4, and the 90 to 100 are 4X1 a °d the 60 
to 70 are So that if you bring me all of the \}i grade 
you get that price. One man brought me 21 tons, and a 
little over 20 tons ran 100 and upward. I settled with one 
man whose prunes figured up 6 ! s net to him, because they 
were a very fine lot of prunes and averaged almost as good 



January 6, 1894. 

as 40 to 50 all through. So that the system of equity runs 
all through it, by each man getting a receipt for what he 
brings as It appears upon the grader or scale. That sys- 
tem of equity must be run through it or else there will be 
all these bickerings and jealousies constantly arising, be- 
cause one man will want to put his fruit in better than an- 
other man. 

Now, gentlemen, this is the hour of adjournment, and I 
have only discussed the workings and results of our instltu 
tlon, that out of it you may understand what may be done, 
and what is the effect of co-operation. What we want is 
that you shall co-operate all through the State in somewhat 
the same way, and when we get together let us get some 
information from you, end you from us, and act like intelli- 
gent men, without each trying to get the best of the other. 
The matter is getting so large that individual men won't 
have much effect and can have but little to do with the 
market. The man who raises but one carload of prunes, 
out of the three or four thousand we shall have in two or 
three years, is only a mite, and he might as well drop into 
Insignificance, as a dealer or controller of the market, now 
as any time, and we should work together and get into such 
shape that we shall have pride in the success of the prop- 
erty on which our prosperity depends. 


Mr. Adams' Plan Accepted. Board of Directors 
Chosen and Instructed to Carry It Into Effect. 
Immediately after the mid-day recess the Committee on 
Resolutions (Stabler of Sutter, Motheral of Kings, Glad- 
den of Sonoma, Butler of Placer, and Wheeler of Santa 
Clara), brought in the following resolutions, with the 
recommendation that they be adopted : 

Resolved, by this mass convention of the fruit-growers of 

I. That this convention heartily endorses the principle 
of State co-operation in marketing fruit, on the general 
lines laid down by the officers and directors of the Califor- 
nia Fruit Exchange. 

II. That this convention approves and, on behalf of the 
fruit-growers of California, accepts the work done under 
the resolution adopted by the State Horticultural Society, 
at its October meeting in San Jose, recognizing hereby the 
California Fruit Exchange as now organized, as an author- 
ized representative of the fruit growers of California. 

III. That, as requested through the State Horticultural 
Society by the present Directors of the Exchange, this 
convention will proceed to express its preference for 
Directors of the Exchange to serve for the year 1894, to 
which end a committee of five fruit growers shall be im- 
mediately appointed, to report, at a proper time, to this 
convention, the names of eleven fruit-growers to serve as 
such directors. 

IV. That this convention recognizes that a State Ex- 
change, to be effective, will require the assurance of a suit- 
able income, to which end it recommends that all co-opera- 
tive associations of fruit-growers, and all individual pro- 
ducers not connected with such societies, associate them- 
selves with the State Exchange under written contracts by 
which they shall pay to the exchange, in consideration for 
general services rendered, the amount of one-half of one 
per cent of their sales of dried-fruit products in each year, 
or so much thereof as may be required. 

V. That the services for which such payment may be 
expected to provide will be the gathering and distribution 
of information; the opening of new markets and the exten- 
sion of old ones; the obtaining of better and cheaper facili- 
ties for transportation; the service as financial agent for 
procuring funds for advances on dried fruits in store in 
California; the active promotion of local organization 
among fruit-growers; and other similar services of a gen- 
eral character, whose benefits are shared by all in propor- 
tion to their interests, and that for its services in acting as 
a direct selling agent for associations or individuals desir- 
ing it, such charge, additional to one-half of one per cent, 
should be made as may be sufficient to cover the cost of 
such special service. 

VI. That this convention recognizes the necessity of a 
reasonable amount of capital for the Exchange, to which 
eod we will proceed forthwith to obtain from those present 
subscriptions to the capital stock of the Exchange. 

These resolutions were received with applause, but there 
was no disposition to accept them without careful scrutiny. 
Mr. Adams, their author, was allowed to take the platform 
and to explain each paragraph in all its bearings before the 
vote was taken. He talked at very considerable length in 
the spirit of the report printed above. 

But the project was not to go through without encoun- 
tering direct opposition. Prof. Allen of Santa Clara de- 
clared that in his judgment the movement had begun at 
the wrong end. He thought that a general organization of 
local Exchanges should first be made, and that a general 
State Exchange should grow out of the necessity thus cre- 
ated for a central marketing agency. To begin by first 
creating a State Exchange was, he declared, like trying to 
build a pyramid with the apex on the ground and the base 
in the air. Mr. McGlincey, also of Santa Clara, thought 
in the same way and warmly seconded Prof. Allen's posi- 
tion. Mr. Motheral of Kings replied with great earnest- 
ness, taking the ground that to thus argue at this stage of 
the game was in effjct to suggest that the convention de- 
clare co-operation a failure. He did not .know that the way 
proposed was the best way, but it seemed the best in sight, 
and be thought it ought to be given a fair trial. To enforce 
the necessity for the movement, Mr. Motheral described 
the fruit interest as being at a low ebb and in distress, 
which brought Gen. N. P. Chipman of Tehama county to 
his feet. He denied with a considerable display of spirit 
that the fruit interest was in a bad way, and declared it to 
be utterly wrong to so represent it. He declared the fruit 
interest to be the most prosperous interest in the State or 
in the United States. The small growers, he thought, 
were suffering for want of information on marketing, and 
looked to the projected Exchange to help them out. It 

should, he said, do a most useful work. The fruit men 
should be organized thoroughly at the great commercial 

After some further discussion, in which it became ap- 
parent that the sentiment of the convention was over- 
whelmingly favorable to Mr. Adams' plan and against the 
protest of Prof. Allen, the resolutions as a whole were sub- 
mitted to a vote and carried by acclamation amid general 

The following named persons were then selected and en- 
dorsed by the convention as directors of the State Exchange 
for the year 1894: F. N. Woods, Santa Clara; E. A. 
Wheeler, Santa Clara; B. F. Walton, Sutter; C. T. Thomas, 
Los Angeles; John Markley, Sonoma; B. F. Allen, Butte; 
E. W. Maslin, Placer; C. H. Norris, Fresno; D. T. Fow- 
ler, Fresno; W, J. Dobbins, Solano; Philo Hersey, Santa 

Following the election of directors an effort was made to 
secure subscriptions to the capital stock of the Exchange 
and several persons gave in their subscriptions, but the re- 
sponse in general indicated that the sentiment was rather 
in favor of postponing this part of the work. General 
Chipman suggested that the delegates be given time to 
acquaint their townspeople with the work of the conven- 
tion, and that the financial results would be much more 
liberal than they could be at the time of the convention. 
This suggestion was acted upon, and the stock books will 
be opened later on in the several fruit-growing localities. 
It Is believed that there will be no difficulty in raising all 
the capital needed. 


Congress Asked to Retain Present Duties— A 
Strong Memorial by Col. Aiken. 

A memorial . to Congress respecting proposed tariff 
charges, introduced by Col. W. H. Aiken of Wrights 
early in the day, was taken up in the evening and, after 
an eloquent speech by its author, was adopted by a vote 
all but unanimous. The memorial, after touching upon 
the vast interests involved in this State, proceeds as follows: 

Your memorialists further represent that the tariff bill 
now pending removes all protection from the fruit products, 
especially of this State, and strikes at the continued profit- 
able existence of the fruit industry in California, for the 1 
cent per pound tariff on prunes and 1 * cents per pound on 
raisins no more than pay the difference in freight, thus 
reducing our labor to foreign standards of wages if compe- 
tition is successfully maintained. 

That there is, we believe, no public demand that the fruit 
product should be furnished in competition with foreign 
importations at less than cost of production; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the present duties on foreign fruits, figs, 
nuts, olive oil and fruit products are just and right, and 
should not be reduced, and that Zante currants be taxed 
the same as other raisins ; that our Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress are urgently and respectfully re- 
quested to work and vote against any measure that reduces 
the tariff duties In fruit and fruit products, olive oil, figs, 
prunes, nuts and raisins, and favor a tariff npon Zante cur- 
rants, the same as other raisins. 

This memorial was the means of bringing out a notable 
speech from Gen. Chipman of Tehama concerning pros- 
pective tariff legislation as related to the interests of Cali- 
fornia fruit-growers. Gen. Chipman said: 

I agree with the gentleman in regard to the 
importance of this particular subject. I do not believe 
it is necessary to put it on any partisan platform ; ex- 
cept we may say in regard to the declarations of the party 
in power— the declaration of that party is that tariff should 
be for revenue, and that articles treated as luxuries should 
bear the burden ; and how, on that principle of legislation, 
which is announced as the foundation of legislation by that 
party, figs, olive oil, raisins and prunes, are to be placed 
upon the free list for the purpose of raising revenue, 
is past my comprehension. Possibly my free trade friend, 
the secretary [Maslin] might enlighten me. It is Impossible 
to enlighten anyone on this proposition, that a tariff for 
revenue only on that principle, should omit the opportunity 
of obtaining revenue from any article that is treated as a 
luxury, when it might be at the same time a benefit to 
American industries, unless it is done on the principle of 
destroying the American industry — and I will never attri- 
bute that to any party. [Applause.] 

We have only to go to the American Congress to day and 
present our claim upon the basis of its own declared prin- 
ciples, to gain all we ask, and we have been so advised by 
the leading newspaper of that party on this coast ; and 
those of us who have had any cause to address Congress, 
know that we have some reason to hope for success. Now, 
I prepared a memorial under the inspiration given by the 
Fruit-growing Convention of last summer, in which my 
name was used as a delegate to go to Washington. I did 
prepare for the State Board of Trade, a memorial, on the 
lines suggested by the San Francisco Examiner. I pre- 
pared a schedule showing the rate levied by the Act of 
1883, in the column opposite, the tariff of the McKinley 
bill of 1890, in the next column the tariff proposed by the 
Mills' bill, which had passed the House of Representatives, 
and would have become a law, had not the Senate 
been at that time Republican. Now, a careful comparison 
of those three tables will show that the revenue policies 
formulated and announced by the parties then in power, 
did not differ materially with what we are saying to-day, in 
regard to the industries of California ; except that they did 
put the fig upon the free list for some unknown illogical 
reason, and they did put olive oil on the free list. But, 
olive oil was upon the free list under the Act of 1883. Even 
the Republicans have not become impressed with the im- 
portance of the salad oil. They put a duty upon the 
mechanical oil of olive oil, and left open the salad oil, so- 
called, although we were then struggling with the industry 
in this State, in raising olives. But the McKinley bill put 
that upon the dutiable list, at 3$ cents per gallon, which is 
no protection at all. 

I have the greatest faith in the ultimate patriotism and 

intelligence of the American Congress, whether Democratic 
or Republican, and when it can be made to see that its 
own line of policy can be adopted and American industries 
served, (we will leave out the word "protection" for that 
hurts their feelings) American industries can be aided, and 
yet the policy of tariff for revenue only carried out. We 
must certainly hope for success in that direction. 

It so happens that almost the entire delegation from this 
State is composed of Democrats, and it would be a poor 
compliment to pay them to suppose that, with their power 
to control votes — and it Is largely a question of votes when 
it comes to practical legislation in Congress — we can 
hardly attribute to our delegation so little influence as to 
fail utterly in carrying out our wishes. 

My friend. Col. Aiken, left off the Ztnte currant because 
he thought it impossible to get it on the dutiable list, the 
committee having placed it upon the free list. I think we 
can accomplish that. It must be plain to every man's 
mind to-day that when the purpose of the Government is to 
raise revenue from every conceivable source, when there is 
a deficiency, that they must have revenue, and we can pre- 
sent to them a method of obtaining revenues from luxuries, 
we cannot conceive of speed enough in the American Con- 
gress to accept it. 

I have the greatest hope that before this bill becomes a 
law the industries of California will be placed where they 
will have what we call protection, and yet the Democratic 
Idea be fully met, because they are really articles in the 
category of luxuries, and ought to bring revenue into the 
funds of the government. 

Now, I presented in that same memorial a table, show- 
ing the importations from 1884 to 1892 of all these articles, 
except raisins. At that time there had been a special com- 
mittee appointed by the raisin-growers of this State, and I 
thought it might be a little out of place for us to touch 
upon that question, so I did not deal with the raisin ques- 
tion in this report; but I presented a list of the importations 
since 1884, of all the products with which our industries 
come into competition. 

In 1884 we Imported 7,000,000 pounds of figs ; in 1892, 
8 000,000 pounds. Our importations are Increasing. Our 
Democratic friends had a means of getting a revenue by 
putting the fig upon the dutiable list; this 8,000,000 pounds 
which it is now proposed to let come in free, and without 
obtaining a revenue, at the same time doing an injury to 
the figs. Our importations are increasing. Prunes we 
imported, in 1884, 60,000,000 pounds; in 1892, 10,000,000 
pounds. There is an American industry beginning to show 
Itself. If the column of raisins were laid alongside of that, 
you would see that the raisins had almost entirely taken 
the place of the raisins from abroad. 

There can be no object in Congress taking a cent off the 
duty so levied on 10,000,000 pounds of raisins, when the 
revenue thereby would be decreased rather than Increased, 
and, even if allowed to remain, would not make very much 
difference with the revenues of the government, which 
requires $500,000,000 or $600,000,000 to support it. So 
there is no argument in favor of reducing the tariff on 

Now, of the almond we imported 3 000,000 pounds in 
1884, and 7,000,000 pounds in 1892. The almonds, some 
of them producing new and excellent varieties, are placed 
upon the dutiable list by Mr. McKinley, and still the im- 
portations are increasing. 

Now, can any Congressman see any logic in reducing 
the tariff upon the almond or upon the prunes and leaving 
the duty as Mr. McKinley placed it upon the almond ? It 
seems to me we have only to present this matter in a busi- 
ness way and in the best light of the interest of the country 
to accomplish what we want. 

Now, look at the number of gallons of olive oil — the 
salad oil: 600,000 gallons in 1884, 700,000 gallons in 1892. 
So, you see, that with all the efforts to displace the salad 
olive oil of the country, the importations are increasing. 

Lemons — The value amounted to $2,000,000 in 1884, and 
in 1892 to $4,000,000; importations doubled in that time, 
and yet our output has largely increased. The same is 
true of the orange. The orange Importations amounted to 
$2,000,000 in 1892. 

Now, we can say to these gentlemen: Here is the matter 
of rice— a breakfast table food, not an article of luxury. It 
is part of our breakfast diet. It has a value of 2, 3 or 4c 
per lb. You can buy it at retail for \% or 5c, and yet they 
keep a duty of 2}ic upon it in order to protect two or three 
States of the Union, and we say, " That is all right, South 
Carolina and North Carolina; we are willing to help you in 
your rice field, and we want you to exchange your island 
rice for our prunes, and we want your delegates to stand by 
us in the matter of our prunes." 

You will find, while it is the most difficult thing in the 
world to form a tariff bill on any lines, it is impossible to 
make one that has not for its object — if not its declared ob- 
ject, at least having for its result— the protection of the in- 
dustries that find their way upon the list. It seems to me 
that, with the class of men we have in Congress, gentlemen 
going there to urge action of the House and the Senate on 
this matter, reserving to us the tariff legislation substan- 
tially as it now is — I have the greatest faith that that will 
be the ultimate result. 


At the suggestion of Mr. H. P. Stabler, of Sutter county, 
the convention endorsed the resolutions of the Los An- 
geles meeting concerning the matters of transportation and 
freights. The resolutions demand quicker time, recom- 
mend the discontinuance of refrigeration and the per- 
formance of special service at the present rate of $1.25 per 
100 pounds to Chicago. 

Prof. Emory E. Smith, Chief of the Department of 
Horticulture of the Midwinter Fair, stated to the conven- 
tion that it had been decided to accord free space to indi- 
vidual exhibitors in the horticultural building. 

Resolutions of thanks to the officers of the convention 
and to the members of the Preliminary Committee were 
passed by unanimous vote. 

January 6, 1894. 



©HE ]E(lEbD. 

The Sugar Bounty. 

Naturally many Californians who are growing beets for 
the sugar factories are interested in what the Government 
will do with the sugar bounty. The same problem en- 
grosses the Louisiana cane growers, and a Washington let- 
ter, which we find in the Louisiana Planter, dated Decem- 
ber 19th, says: 

The developments in Congress during the past week 
have not been unfavorable to the sugar industry. As mat- 
ters progress and new plans continue to evolve it is notice- 
able that one feature prevails through all, however much 
they may differ in other respscts, and this is that provision 
is made in some way or other for protection of the sugar 
producers. Up to the present time the respect and con- 
sideration which their position commands may be consid- 
ered decidedly encouraging. 

The talk of an entire repeal, outright, of the sugar bounty 
act has largely subsided. In its place, in addition to re- 
taining the graduated repeal clause of the bill as decided, 
some of the members of the committee on ways and means 
favor a small duty on sugar. 

While this would make the increased cost to the con- 
sumer very slight It would possess the advantage of raising 
a revenue that would be considerable, in addition to paying 
all the bounty, and thus it would work to advantage in 
both ways. 

The rate proposed is three-quarters of a cent, and it is 
only natural that attention should turn to this in looking for 
a way out of the difficulty in selecting other objects for 
taxation, the opposition to which becomes stronger as the 
canvass proceeds. Whisky and cigars, incomes and other 
sources possible to draw from, all have such powerful 
friends for protection in their respective classes that sugar 
for the masses must, perhaps, be made to contribute its 

Of the new plans so far presented, probably that of Mr. 
Henry A. Brown, of Saxonville, Mass., has the most merit 
and commands consideration as the invention of a sugar 
tariff expert who has devoted many years to his study of 
the sugar problem. His scheme includes the double plan 
of duty and internal revenue tax. It Includes a duty on all 
sugars imported for consumption without refining, to be 
paid according to the Dutch standard in color, 1 % cents 
per pound when above and 1 cent when not above No. 16 
in color, with the provision that where testing 90 degrees or 
over it will be classed as above No. 16. 

Imported sugars intended for refining under his plan 
would be entered and refined in bond, and when taken out 
for consumption pay an internal revenue tax of one cent on 
all above and three-fourths of one cent on that not above 
No. 18 in color of the Dutch standard, exports of refined 
sugar being exempted from taxation. 

In regard to the bounty he provides for its reduction pro 

rata to the tax levied, as he is satisfied the s r industry 
demands protection, but he thinks 1} cents per pound suf- 
ficient, judging from the cost of production. It must be 
evident, however, that those engaged in the business are 
best qualified for judging on this point. 

In regard to the amount of protection necessary for con- 
tinuation of the industry at a profit in its several forms, it is 
safe to assert that the cane sugar producers are practically 
unanimous in believing that nothing less than that afforded 
by the bounty law would be sufficient. It is possible, if the 
restrictive operations of the internal revenue laws could be 
removed, so that the alcohol process might be used for 
separating the sugar, and the alcohol necessary for that 
purpose could be made from the sorghum molasses, 
whereby the process of manufacturing sorghum sugar 
could be conducted from the product of the cane, that its 
production would not require quite so much protection as 
the bounty now affords. But the difficulties which still 
exist, notwithstanding the modification of the law, are suf- 
ficient, Prof. Wiley recently told me, to prevent the practi- 
cal use of this method. 

Dr. Wiley, however, believes that sorghum cane is to be 
the great sugar producer, and has a magnificent future be- 
fore it. For the arid regions of the West he thinks it 
especially fitted, as it has a wonderful capacity for resisting 
drought. Its crop of fourteen or fifteen bushels of seed per 
acre now sells in the localities where grown at $1.25 per 
bushel for sowing crops for fodder, and in this way it pro- 
duces a double profit. 

As to the protection required by the beet sugar industry, 
Mr. Henry T. Oxnard, the best authority in this country 
on that subject, told me a few weeks ago that if the bounty 
should be taken off, as threatened by some, the beet sugar 
factories will be shut up unless a duty is put on. He 
thought if one cent per pound should be imposed, that the 
present factories might be kept running to avoid the loss of 
idle capital invested in them, but that none others would 
be erected. Nearly if not quite the amount of protection 
now afforded by the bounty is still required by the beet 
sugar industry, especially in the States east of the Rocky 
Mountains. At the Grand Island factory, in Nebraska, 
about 500 head of cattle have been fed on the beet pulp 
this season to utilize the waste products and thus help pay 
expenses, and at the Norfolk factory in that State some 
900 head of cattle have been fed during the grinding sea- 
son; three or four pounds of corn meal being mixed with 
each hundred pounds of pulp. 

Mr. Oxnard, however, has faith in the future of the sugar 
industry and a firm belief that the wisdom and justice of 
Congress will retain a protective measure for its benefit. 

Large and Roomy Box-Stalls Beneficial. 

Have your stalls made large and roomy. A stall nine 
feet by four and a half is not large enough for a horse 
fifteen-three. Moreover, it is not certain whether the stall 
will be occupied by a i4-hand horse or a 17-hand horse. 
Some of you have had experience, perhaps, in sleeping in 

a short bed, and you know there is nothing quite so dis- 
tressing, especially after a hard day's work. Box stalls 
are the proper accommodations for horses, but space will 
not always allow for box stalls. Where 300 or 400 horses 
are to be stabled in cities, box stalls are next to impossible. 
Then let the single stalls be constructed, with room suffi- 
cient for the horses to stretch their limbs. The narrow, 
rough-floored stalls which are found in many stables are 
little more than chambers of torture, and many of the 
hardest-worked horses in the country — for instance, street- 
car horses — are forced into these. The extra amount of 
work that horses will be enabled to do by having the right 
kind of stalls provided — stalls in which they can have room 
to stir about and stretch their limbs — will more than pay 
for the extra expense it will take to provide such stalls. 

Let the stable be well lighted. Light is the cheapest of 
commodities — cheaper than any of Nature's gifts, except 
the air we breathe. Sunlight affects everything in a re- 
markably healthful degree. That side of fruit which re- 
ceives the direct rays of the sun ripens first and becomes 
fuller in form. It is not unreasonable to suppose that the 
contour of animals is similarly influenced. The spirits of a 
horse are affected with direct reference to light and dark- 
ness, and not only his spirits, but every part of his physical 
system. A horse began to stumble that never stumbled 
before. The owner could not account for it. "Is your 
new stable dark?" was the query put to him by a horseman. 
"Yes, very dark." "Put a window in it and then watch 
the effect upon your horse." The dark stable was the 
secret of the stumbling. — Sunday Call. 

Cow Tail Holders. 
Take a small, soft cord about one yard long; double it 
in your hands; pass the looped end around the cow's tail, 
and put the two single ends through the looped end; 
tighten it and pass one of the single ends on the inside of 
the cow's leg; meet this with the other single end and tie 
on the outside of the leg with a bow-knot. This is quickly 
and easily untied and taken off. Perhaps this might be 
improved by fastening a small snap-book on one end of 
the cord and small rings on the other. I have found the 
simple cord very convenient. You can have a place to 
hang the cord in the stable where it is always ready, or 
carry it in your pocket. Why is one needed ? Why, to 
hold the cow's tall from switching in your face and even in 
the milk pail sometimes. I have a cow now that has lost 
the soft brush of her tail. When the milker begins to milk, 
she will begin to swing her tail toward bis face; after a few 
strokes, she will get the range and slap across his face, and 
not miss it, if let alone. I have watched this tail-switching 
business for the past 40 years, and I conclude that it is 
natural for a cow to switch her tail when irritated, as well 
as when pleased, and of course to keep off tormenting in- 
sects. Daring fly-time, a cow gets a habit of keeping her 
tail on the swing, and a "cool, dark stable" is not a 
remedy, because she has the habit, but " my tie " has a 
tendency to break the habit, and can be left off after a 
time when other causes are removed. 


Incorporated 1884. 

500 Acres. 


Rio Bonito Nurseries, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 


Our Stock of TREES and VINLS is Most Complete 
in EVERY CLASS of Fruits. 


SHIPPING, CANNING and DRYING Frulte of all Kinds. 

Best Assortment of RAISIN and TABLE GRAPES In California. 

Harly Sliijpioiias a Speoialtv. 


DURING the last three years, trees grown on the FEATHER RIVER BOTTOM LANDS, at RIO BONITO, BUTTE 
COUNTY, have been much sought after, and the demand for them is increasing all over the State where they 
have been planted. Owing to the peculiar adaptability of the soil and climate of this section for growing nursery 
stock, the trees making a very large and well-furnished system of root growth, and maintaining a correspondingly 
strong and vigorous top, maturing the wood thoroughly, we are enabled to supply our patrons with the best of 
trees, healthy in every respeot, entirely free from lneeot pests, and lu perfect condition for transplanting. 

If You Are Going To Plant Trees, It Will Pay You To Corre- 
spond With Us Before Purchasing. 

a T.-ci^g- a Tvr-nmTi c*5 SAMMON, 


Niles, Alameda Co., California. 





SPECIALTIES: OLIVES— 38 sorts, French, Italian and Spanish. 

ROSES— 360 sorts, all the leading kinds, new and old. 
CLEMATIS-25 Varieties. 


JOHN ROCK, Manager. 


VAN GELDER & WYLIE, Proprietors. 


Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 

Our Stock is Free Prom all Insect Pests and for Health and 
Strength of Root Growth Cannot be Excelled. 

Write for Prices on Wholesale or Retail Orders. Address 


Acampo, California. 


BUDDED OKANGK TREES, of the leading varieties, one and two-year buds; also a small lot of 
choice budded and seedling LEMON TREES. Sweet Seedling Oranges, 1 to 4 years old. Shade and 
Ornamental Plants. Prices to suit the times. 


For prices and terms, address 


Coriespondenoe Solicited. 



Januaty fi, 1894. 

Proper Pride. 

" I will not be yours," the maiden said: 
"I admire you much, but I won't be wed. 
You're all that's nice; you haven't a vice — 
But I will not marry you, sir, " she said. 

The youth in sadness turned away; 
For ihe maiden was fair as the dawning day. 
And from over the street he watched that sweetj 
Little girl turn other suitors away. 

Hard-hearted maiden she? Kirst came 
A nobleman with a famous name ; 
And he courted that girl, he did, that Earl ; 
And the mitte n rewarded him, all the same. 

Then came a man with a hoard of gold, 
So big that his wealth could not be told. 
He wooed the maid as a matter of trade, 
And went out, wondering, into the cold. 

Then came a poet with raven hair, 

And a most interesting soulful air ; 

And he wooed in verse, and got left much worse 

Than his predecessors'— and s/ie didn't care. 

And a long string of suitors came to beseech. 
And the very same answer she gave to each ; 
And the young man thought. "Why the prize that 
I sought 

Was about a hundred miles out of my reach! " 

At last when the line had grown to a score, 
And each had been served like the one before, 
The maiden said, as she nodded her head, 
"I really don't think that I need any more !" 

So she crossed the highway, her love to see; 
"You were my first proposal, "said she ; 
''So, for self-respect, I thought I'd collect 
A few more ere I'd marry you, sir," said she. 

"But now — " 

And somehow 
She yielded right under a kiss on her brow — 
"I'll marry you at any lime, sir! '' said she. 


The Way They Emigrate, 

|HE was a scullery maid at 
a private hotel. Jacopina 
scrubbed floors and kettles 
and brass door-knobs; she 
helped cany trunks and 
move furniture; and, as she 
dwelt underground mostly, we should never 
have known about her except that one week 
when the hotel was short of help she was 
detailed to make the service of our rooms. 
She was tall and broad and strong as a 
man, with brawny shoulders and mnscular 
arms and one of the sweetest faces ever 
seen. A simple, childish face to top such a 
stalwart frame — her hair dark, crisping back 
from the forehead, her cheeks glowing and 
her throat white and solt with tender little 
folds and creases in it as one sees in old 
paintings. Jacopina had a romance and a 
lover. He was a miner who had emigrated 
to the Black Hills three years before, and as 
Jacopina bade him good-bye and, wiping the 
tears from her eyes, went back to her scrub- 
bing, she felt that she should never see him 
again. He had pressed her hand at parting 
and had sworn he would hoard every possi- 
ble penny until he could send the money to 
pay her passage over the seas; but Jacopina 
had known other maidens whose lovers had 
sworn to be true, and — well, why should she 
look to have better luck than they. 

After two years he sent for her, actually 
wrote for her to come, and promised to meet 
her in New York, but he did not send any 
money; he told her she must manage to get 
it in some way herself, but that he would re- 
fund it after she came. Jacopina was wild 
to go, but no one would lend her the money, 
and she had not saved a fortune at scrub- 

"You're a fool, Jacopina," cautioned her 
advisers. " It is two years now. Who 
knows if he will ever meet you ? And we 
all know that he would never send the 
money back; what man would ? Over seas 
is over seas. You borrow the big sum and 
you make the long journey, and you find 
yourself in the far country, and you cannot 
speak, and you have no friend, and your 
lover — che, che, all the world knows better 
than to count on a lover; you will find him 
safe married and so, and so — " 

So they dissuaded her. She wept a little, 
and she got out her lover's photograph and 
admired his curly hair (redolent of oil) and 
his dotted cravat with a huge stick-pin in it, 
and then she asked the priest's sister to 
write a letter for her and tell him why she 
could not come. The lover was wiser than 
most men who wear dotted cravats. Let us 
hope It was partly love and not wholly a de- 
sire to add to himself a willing scullion with 
brawny muscles. 

" He had been bitterly disappointed," he 
wrote: "he had travelled all the way to 
New York from the Black Hills, to meet a 
certain steamer, with the money to refund 
her passage in his breast-pocket — and she 
had not come." 

It was a year later now and he had just 
writttn again, sending the money this time, 
bu ending it in charge to a friend, for how 

could he know In what mind his letter might 
find her. He wrote her a lover-like missive, 
reminding her of how many years they had 
cared for each other and saying at last: " I 
send you the money. I had it ready before, 
if you had only trusted me. But I cannot 
come to New York as I did before; I might 
get fooled again; but if you do come, I'll 
meet you at Chicago, and if you don't come, 
adieu, for you'll never hear from me again." 

Jacopina would not listen to any advisers 
this time: she sermed to see only the 
pathetic figure waiting at the steamer's dock, 
careening with unspent gold and turning 
back to those wonderful hills, in sorrow and 
loneliness, to dig out more. She was so big 
and conspicuous and simple that we feared 
the journey for her; a girl who could neither 
read nor write, and who had never before 
been five miles away from her birthplace. 

So we wrote letters for her in various 
languages to officials all along the route; to 
Innsbruck, to the North German Lloyd 
people, to Castle Garden and to the con- 
ductor of the New York Central emigrant 
trains — merely asking for special goodwill 
toward seeing her forwarded. She started 
off one day like a giantess with a bridal bon- 
net on her head and a bundle of steerage 
comforts tied into a gingham sheet. Many 
an anxious thought traveled after her, but it 
was three months before a letter came. 

"She had waited," she wrote, "until 
everything was settled, so that she could tell 
us all. The journey had not been bad, the 
letters had served magically; she had not 
once been allowed to miss a train, and every- 
body had been kind. She had made friends 
with an emigrant family aboard ship who 
were also going West, and she had stayed 
with them until they had reached Chicago, 
where, sure enough, her lover met her. She 
should hardly have known him in that first 
moment, she was glad she wasn't alone, be- 
cause, just suppose, if it hadn't been he? 
He had grown stout and brown, and his 
curls had been shaved off close to his head, 
and be didn't look like his photograph, even 
yet; but he was very good to her and glad 
to see her, and they were married in Chicago 
between two trains. Now she was at the 
Black Hills, the only woman in camp, and 
she bad to cook and wash and mend for all 
the miners— about thirty. It was hard work; 
much harder than scrubbing, but her hus- 
band said she earned her keep and she was 
happy, and on the whole she was glad she 
had emigrated, though she couldn't help 
wishing her husband looked more like his 
photograph. She ended by saying that she 
liked the country, she thought it was beauti- 
ful; and the people — well, if she hadn't seen 
for herself, she would never have believed 
that the Americans could be so fine. 

Some Things Every Self - Respecting 
Householder Should Be Able to Do. 
We are used to being told that it Is not 
enough to give mere money to charity, and 
that our benefactions, if they are to do the 
most good to us and to those whom they 
help, mast include personal service. We 
seem to owe a measure of personal service 
to domestic life as well as to charity, and if 
we do not pay it, domestic life does not 
yield to us all that we might get out of it. 
The ability to do things depends partly upon 
our willingness to do them now and then. 
But the ability to do things is power, and 
power is very sweet to have and to exercise, 
and that not only in great things, but in 
small. The man who cannot do the or- 
dinary small tinkering that has to be done 
from week to week In an ordinary modern 
house denies himself a consciousness of 
power which is very cheap at the price it 
costs. Not to be able to put washers on a 
leaking water-faucet, to take off or put on 
gas-burners, and to remedy the simpler 
maladies of plumbing, is to admit oneself to 
be the mere occupant, but not the master, of 
the modern house. To put in glass takes 
too much time, and altogether It is not as 
necessary to the modern man as it was to 
his grandfather that he should know how to 
be his own glazier. So with most carpenter 
work. It takes too long to do well any job 
of conseqnence; better have in the adept 
from his shop. And yet some tools and the 
ability to use them seem to be Indispensable 
to the householder's self-respect. Not to be 
able to plane the top of a door or the edge 
of a drawer when it sticks, or to drive a nail 
straight, or send home a screw without split- 
ting the wood, or fit a key, or mend a child's 
toy, must involve a humiliating conscious- 
ness of inefficiency. Yet there are men who 
strive to reconcile with self-esteem all these 
incompetencies, and another more inex- 
cusable than either of them — the Inability to 
run a furnace and raise or lower the tem- 
perature of one's habitation at will. — From 
" The Point of View," In the January num- 
ber of Scribner's Magazine. 

"Believe Me If AH Those Endearing 
Young Charms." 

I have a wooden leg. No one would 
know it. It has seldom troubled me. Some- 
times, in fact, it is a convenience; in a 
crowded horse car, for Instance. The stout 
lady who grinds her heel Into one's toe en- 
joys only a fancied triumph over me, for my 
wooden leg is always the prominent one on 
such occasions. Once, alas ! it stood in my 
way, as you shall see. 

I was engaged to a lovely girl. You can't 
think how gracefully I went down on my 
wooden knee and asked her to be mine. 
She used to wonder how I could hold her 
for such a length of time on my poor, long- 
suffering knee. You see I couldn't bear to 
tell her that she wasn't engaged to a whole 
man. She couldn't be expected immedi- 
ately to see the advantages of a foot that 
could never have the gout, that could wear 
the tightest shoe with impunity, and that was 
exactly as much at her service as my more 
proper self. So I put it off (not the leg, but 
my acknowledgement of its existence) till the 
day before the wedding. Then I determined 
to make a clean breast of it, like a man of 
honor. When I have made up my mind, 
nothing can shake me. I walked to Sophia's 
house, entered, and found her in the parlor. 
It was not a time for delay. I rushed up to 
her, and throwing myself this time on both 
knees, exclaimed: 

" Sophia, I have got a wooden leg I " 
The noble creature ! She turned ashy 
pale, and then a lovely pink. After a mo- 
ment, a smile spread over her beautiful face. 
She took both my bands and cried: 

" O, darling George !" (so she was good 
enough to call me.) " So have I ! " 

It was a dreadful shock. I rose and felt 
one knee tremble beneath me. The other 
is fortunately proof to all such emergencies. 
I could hardly believe that one of those re- 
fined and delicate feet which I had so often 
admired was the work of a clumsy artificer. 
I could not love my Sophia when a part of 
her was not my own ! 

" Sophia ! " I cried. " You are not all I 
thought you were ! " 

Then in a hurried whisper I told her that 
everything must be over between us. In a 
man, I said, physical imperfections could be 
overlooked; but in a lovely woman, never ! 
My eyes streaming with tears, I hurried 
from the room and into the street. As I 
passed before the window where she sat, she 
threw up the sash and called me. 

" George '. " she cried, " come to think of 
it, my leg isn't wooden after all ! " 

Then she shut the window. I rushed 
back to the door. To my disgust it was 
locked. Every delay was vexatious till the 
moment when I should fold my restored 
darling in my arms. At last the servant ap- 
peared. "Miss Sophia says she's out!" 
And the door was shut. From that moment 
I have never seen Sophia again — Boston 

Home, Sweet Home. 

At the Congress of Religions at the Colum- 
bian Exposition, Frances E. Willard, in her 
address, uttered the following gem: 

" It is said that when darkness settles on 
the Adriatic sea and fishermen are far from 
land, their wives and daughters, just before 
putting out the lights of their humble cot- 
tages, go down by the shore and in their 
clear, sweet voices sing the first lines of the 
Ave Maria. Then they listen eagerly, and 
across the sea are borne to them the deep 
tones of those they love, singing the strains 
that follow, ' Ora pro nobis,' and thus each 
knows that with the other all Is well. I 
often think that from the home life of the 
nation, from its mothers and sisters, 
daughters and sweethearts, there sound 
through the darkness of this transition age 
the tender notes of a dearer song, whose 
burden is being taken up and echoed back 
to us from far out amid the billows of tempta 
tion, and its sacred words are ' Home, 
Sweet Home ! ' God grant that deeper and 
stronger may grow that heavenly chorus 
from men's and women's Hps and lives. For 

with all its faults, and they are many, I be- 
lieve the present marriage system to be the 
greatest triumph of Christianity, and that it 
has created and conserves more happy 
homes than the world has ever before 

"Any law that renders less binding the 
mutual life-long loyalty of one man and 
woman to each other, which is the central 
idea of every home, is an unmitigated curse 
to that home and to humanity. Around this 
union, which alone renders possible a pure 
society and a permanent State, the law 
should build its utmost safeguards, and upon 
this union the gospel should pronounce its 
most sacred benedictions. But, while I hold 
these truths to be self-evident, I believe that 
a constant evolution is going forward in the 
home, as in every other place, and that we 
may have but dimly dreamed the good in 
store for those whom God for holiest love 
hath made. In the nature of the case the 
most that even Christianity itself could do at 
first, though it is the strongest force ever let 
loose upon the planet, was to separate one 
man and one woman from the common herd 
into each home, telling the woman to work 
there in grateful quietness, while the man 
stood at the door to defend its sacred shrine 
with fist and spear, to insist upon its rights 
of property, and later on to represent it in 
the State." 

A Smoker's Savings. 
Chauncey M. Depew once remarked that 
he regarded his success in life as due, in a 
great measure, to his firmness in breaking off 
the habit of smoking. He enjoyed his cigars 
as much as did any ardent lover of the weed; 
but, when he found that smoking interfered 
ith his thinking apparatus, he promptly 
stopped it. 

Luther Prescott Hubbard is another New 
Yorker who attributes not only his financial 
success, but his long and contented life, to 
his total abstinence from the tobacco habit. 
When a mere lad, he chewed and smoked, 
but was induced to abandon both the quid 
and the cigar by the reasoning of a dear 
friend. For many years Mr. Hubbard has 
been in business on Wall street, and just 
after he had passed his eighty-fifth year he 
printed and circulated a little treatise on 
"How a Smoker got a Home. 1 ' 

Mr. Hubbard says: " My smoking was 
moderate compared with that of many, only 
six cigars a day at 6 V cents each, equal to 
$136.50 per annum, which at 7 percent in- 
terest for sixty-one years amounts to the 
small fortune of $118,924.26. This has 
afforded means for the education of my 
children, with an appropriate allowance for 
benevolent objects." 

This contented octogenarian began saving 
his cigar money by depositing it in the Sea- 
men's Bank for Savings. In a few years he 
had accumulated enough to buy a comfort- 
able home near the city, and overlooking 
Long Island Sound. Daring the long period 
of his patient economy he has been in the 
receipt of a moderate income. — New York 

A Bath that Refreshes and Cleanses. 
The following directions are given by a 
physician: Get enough Turkish toweling by 
the yard (you can get remnants) to make 
two pairs of thumbless mittens, just large 
enough to slip over the thumb and allow to 
stretch flat; also a large rough towel and a 
generous supply of tepid water, and, of 
course, soap, and either another towel to 
stand on or a piece of oil-cloth four feet 
square. It is very important to have a 
warm room, so that the body may not be 
chilled when you drop your garments. 
After taking everything off, stand on the oil- 
cloth or towel in front of your basin, slip 
your mittens on, and dip them in the water, 
squeeze the drips from the mitten, soap well 
and rub the body all over, beginning at the 
neck and ending with the toes. Take off 
the mittens, lay them down beside the basin; 
all the soil of the body will be in those mit- 
tens, slip them on and go over your body 
again, rinsing the mittens several times, 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — I^atest U. S. Gov't Report 



January 6, 1894. 



thus: Take the soap off the arms, then rinse 
the waist, etc. Bathing thus rests and 
strengthens a tired body. It takes from 
eight to ten minutes to wash from top to 
toe, and to rinse the mittens in a second 
water, ready for another day. It is well to 
put them in the air to sweeten, and have 
them boiled once a week to keep them 

Meat-Eating and Bad Temper. 
One deplorable result of excessive meat 
eating in England is the ill-temper which is 
a chronic complaint among us. In no 
country is home rendered so unhappy and 
life made so miserable by the ill- temper of 
those who are obliged to live together as in 
England. If we compare domestic life and 
manners in England with those of other 
countries where meat does not form such an 
integral article of diet, a notable improve- 
ment will be remarked. In less meat-eating 
France, urbanity is the rule of the home. In 
fish and rice-eating Japan, harsh words are 
unknown, and an exquisite politeness to one 
another prevails, even among the children 
who play together in the street. In Japan I 
never heard rude, angry words spoken by 
any but Englishmen. I am strongly of the 
opinion that the ill-temper of the English is 
caused in a great measure by a too abundant 
meat dietary, combined with a sedentary 
life. The half-oxidized products of albumen 
circulating in the blood produce both mental 
and moral disturbances. Brain-workers 
should live sparingly if they would work 
well and live long. Their force is required 
for mental exertion, and should not be ex- 
pended on the task of digestion ; for they 
should remember that the digestion of heavy 
meals involves a great expenditure of nerve 
force. The healthful thing to do is to lead 
an active and unselfish life on a moderate 
diet, sufficient to maintain strength, and not 
increase weight. — Ernest Hart, in The Hos- 



Philip's Success, or What a Boy 
Can Do. 

boy of about ten years came 
to my door one morning. 
Mittie, who had answered 
the bell, called to me, " Do 

come and see what a comic 
little fellow is here." 

When I reached the door there he stood, 
trying to produce sound from what he called I won't let me bring it In when the 

a fiddle, which was of his own construction 
It consisted of a few bent sticks tied to 
gether with twine, and a bent piece of brass 
wire for the bow. By hard work, now and 
then, a little squeaking noise would come 
from it; then his blue eyes beamed with 

I said, " What is your name?" 
" Philip," he answered, but added, " The 
boys call me Phil." 
" Have you a father and mother ? " I asked 
" Yes, ma'm," he replied, " Father says 
we must start out early. 4 Can't 
idlers in these rooms.' " 
" What did your mother say ?" I inquired 
" Mother's nice," he evasively remarked. 
" Have you brothers and sisters ? " I con 

" Yes, ma'm," he responded. " Lots 
em, but I ain't got much else." 

I gave him for his music two pennies, for 
which he seemed greatly pleased 
" They will buy," he murmured to himself. 
" Buy what ? " I asked 
" You see I want to earn money to buy a 
few bouquets to sell on the street," he con 

" Oh, you are going into business, 

" Yes, ma'm," was the response. 

thanked him for his kindness. He raised 
his hat and bade me good-night as politely 
as any boy of polished manners might have 
done, and went whistling down the street 
He was then about io years old. 

I did not see Philip for some time after 
that, but going into the market one day to 
buy preserving fruit, I met him. "If you 
buy fruit to-day," he said, " I'd like to take it 
home for you." 

" How can you ?" I asked, "I may buy 
several kinds." 

" I have a wheelbarrow now," he replied, 
" and brother Dick watches it while I go and 
get things. It is out on the corner. They 



" Where did you get your wheelbarrow ? " 
" Bought an old one and mended it my 
self. It didn't cost much money." 

" But what have you done with the flower 
business?" I queried. 

"Given it to my sister," he answered. I 
made my purchases and Philip was prompt 
to take charge of the baskets. I observed 
that he was a favorite with the market-men, 
often doing some little act of kindness for 
them. If a whip dropped he would run to 
have any | pick it up. If a poor woman was trying to 
cross the street with a heavy basket he would 
help her over, and many other little acts of 
thoughtfulness to lighten others' burdens. 
Those blue eyes seemed to take In every- 
thing. Now and then one would speak 
of | gruffly to him if he chanced to cross his 
path. It is said, "There is a soft spot In 
every man's nature," and so there is. 

I followed the boys as they came with the 
fruit. When nearly home three little roughs 
came up. " See here, give us some fruit," 
said one. "Give us some o' them air 
peaches," said another, and they began pull- 
ing at the covers of the baskets. 

Let them alone," said Philip; but they 
did not heed his order. He stopped, doubled 
his fist and sent the oldest reeling In the 

Several days after in passing through the gutter; the others ran away. He then 

Dried Beef Broiled. — Put nice slices 
of dried beef on a greased, hot gridiron, and 
broil till rather crisp, taking care they do 
not burn. When done place the slices on a 
hot platter and pour over each slice a little 
melted butter. This makes a nice dish for 
luncheon or tea. 

Baked Indian Pudding. — Two quarts 
of milk, a heaping teacup of Indian meal, 
half a cup of white flour, two eggs, a cup of 
molasses, a heaping teaspoonful of salt, half 
a teaspoonful of ginger and the same of cin- 
namon, and a large tablespoonful of butter 
to mix it; boil three pints of the milk. Have 
ready beaten together all the other ingredi 
ents (except the eggs) in the remaining pint 
of milk. Pour the hot milk over them; add 
the butter, and when cool, the eggs well 
beaten. Bake in a deep, well-buttered pud- 
ding dish, holding at least three quarts. 
Bake very slowly seven or eight hours. Do 
not stir, but cover with a plate if it bakes too 

Sponge Cake. — Take the weight of ten 
unbroken eggs in sugar and half that weight 
in flour. Beat the yolks till very light, then 
add the sugar and beat five minutes; add the 
rind and juice of one large lemon, or two 
small ones, and the whites beaten to a stiff 
froth. Stir in the flour gradually and thor- 
oughly. This measure makes three good- 
sized loaves. Bake about half an hour in a 
moderate oven. The oven door must not be 
opened till the cake is nearly done, as it will 
be likely to fall. If you wish to make a 
smaller measure, take the weight of five eggs 
in sugar and half that weight in flour. 
Sponge cake should always be broken; 
never cut it with a knife. 

Squirrel Pie. — Six squirrels, one-quarter 
of a pound of salt pork, one pint of oysters, 
half an onion, salt, pepper, mace and butter. 
Cut the squirrels into neat joints and put into 
a stewpan with water enough to cover them; 
add the pork, cut into slices, and half a 
medium-sized onion — if the flavor is liked. 
Cover close and simmer until tender. When 
done take up the pieces of squirrel, strain 
the gravy and set both away to get cold. 
Line the sides of a deep pie dish with a good 
paste. Put a little gravy in the bottom of 
the dish, then a layer of squirrel and a few 
oysters, and some of the oyster liquor, 
sprinkle with a little flour, season with salt, 
pepper and a little mace, and cover with bits 
of butter. Proceed in this manner until the 
dish is full. Cover with paste, cut a hole in 
the center and bake half an hour. This 
makes an excellent and very inexpensive 
pie. The squirrels can be procured at the 
butcher's, skinned and cleaned, for five cents 
a pair. For a pie for a family of four or five 
persons six squirrels would be required, as 
there is not much to them except the 

hall I heard Mittie saying at the door 
Now, go away and don't come here any 

Then a little voice said, " Please can't I 
see the mistress ? " 

" I looked around and there were those 
blue eyes looking straight at me. I went to 
him and he showed me with pride his card 
of flowers. He had arranged them on a 
piece of cardboard, in imitation of those he 
had seen on the street, and it was a fit com' 
panion-piece to the fiddle. He had earned 
money to buy six small bouquets, and he 
told me they cost him less than three cents 
apiece and he expected to sell them for five 
cents each. 

He often came to the door afterward, but 
Mittie did not send him away again; she 
became greatly interested in the young 
flower merchant's success, and I think sent 
him many customers. 

Once when a number of friends were in 
the parlor she brought him in to obtain sale 
for his flowers. He stood and viewed 
everything, then said: " If ever I git money 
I'll git things jist like these and give them to 

" But," Mittie said, " you came in to sell 
flowers," which seemed to bring him back 
to business again. 

Some months before, when Mittie came to 
assist me with general household affairs, 
she told me her name was Bridget Cath- 

started on with his load as though nothing 
had happened. After that not a word passed 
between him and his brother. They reached 
my house and safely delivered the freight. 

Philip's market business seemed to pros- 
per, and I was surprised when going out one 
morning I saw him standing on the corner 
near my house with a satchel in his hand 
evidently ready for a journey. When 
came to him he said: " I am going West 
I thought I should like to tell you." 
"Going West, and alone?" I said. 
" Yes, ma'm; I have an uncle in the West 
but I don't exactly know where," he 

"Then how will you find him? The West 
is a large place to look over," I said. 

It won't matter much whether I find him 
or not, for I expect to take care of myself." 

" Who will bring things from the market 
for me now ? " 

Oh, Dick will do it for you. I have 
given everything to him and our little brother 
John helps him." With a cheerful good-by 
he said: " I'll do the best I can." He was 
then 14. 

Years passed and I heard good reports 
from Philip through his brother. I knew he 
would do well wherever he went. He was 
not one of those who stand and wait for 
chance to turn the wheel of fortune; he 
turned it himself. 

I hardly expected to see him again. But 

The leader Is Philip. 

F rom being a poor little bouquet peddler 
through perseverance, honesty, labor and a 
determination to rise in the world, he edu- 
cated himself, cultivated his voice, and be- 
came a successful iron merchant in the 
West.— E. H. H., in American Cultivator. 


Warranted Pure White and Perfect, and of 
Extreme Brilliancy. 

This diagram shows the approximate sizes of the stones 

.■♦^i t*&\ j*¥S» f"i«i 

s$ -5&v ^ % } 

1-16 carat . , , 
car fit 

8 % % Y» 

u 00 

25 00 

carat 70 00 

\ carat. 
S carat, 
i carat. 

..S8 00 
. . 35 00 
.. 90 00 


t carat.... $15 00 

8 carat 60 00 

I carat.... 110 00 

I will retail these stones at the above wholesale prtoes 
and mount them In the latest styles in Rings, Pins 
Studs, Ear Screws, Combination sets, etc.. at cost of gold* 
and labor. 

Diamond Engagement Rings a Specialty. 

C. O. D., with privilege of examination, on receipt of 
$1.00 to guarantee charges, or sent express or postpaid 
if cash aeeomvanien order. 

Correspondence solicited. Particular attention paid 
to mall orders. 

Jewelry of every description in stock and made to 
irdor. Strictly First-Class work. No Imitation Good*. 


Manufacturing Jeweler, Watches and Diamonds, 

Room 1 13, Phelan Building, g. p. 



erine. After a short time she asked me if one day in the busy season (and it was un 
she might be called Mittie. I said "Why ?" usually crowded wherever I went), I was 
She replied, " Now, since I live in waiting to cross Fifth avenue and I saw on 
America, I want to be like the Americans, the other side a tall, attractive-looking young 
and they mostly end their names with ie." man who seemed to be watching me. He 

I thought it was easy to make that change soon came over, 
if it would make her happier, and it was de- 1 " Can I help you across ?" he asked, which 
cided to call her Mittie. he did very politely after I replied, " Yes, 

Late one Saturday evening Philip came thank you." 
to the house with a small faded bouquet for I was going on when I thought I noticed 
each member of the family, evidently from a disappointed expression on his face. I 

tock left over. " I wanted to give you 
something," he said, " and this was all I 
had." He seemed pleased at the gift, and 
we were pleased at the spirit in which it 
was given, if the value was small. Philip's 
flowers increased in quantity and quality, 
and he was quite a prosperous business man. 

One day I had been to see a friend and 
was returning quite late in the evening, 
when Philip came up to me. He said: 
"Ain't you afraid? I will walk home with 
you. It will not be much out of my way." 
" Do you live near here ? " I asked. 
" No, ma'm; but it was rather late when 
we shut up to-night, and then I had to go 
on an errand for mother." 

" What are you doing now ? " I asked. 
"You see," he replied, " I have hired a 
basement window in Baxter street and my 
sister sells flowers, while I carry them about. 
I go to night school now, one hour every 
evening. I'll know how to read yet. If I 
once git started I can learn myself a good 

We had now come to my home and I 

turned to look, then he came forward and 
said, " I think you have forgotten Philip." 
My surprise was ill-concealed; he must have 
read my thoughts, for he looked both 
amused and gratified. He said his em- 
ployer had sent him to New York on busi- 
ness, and he was then on his way to the 
depot to return West. 

Time has gone on, and now in one of the 

largest churches in the thriving city of C 

a fine organ peals forth its grand music; the 
leader comes forward, a man whose hair is 
slightly sprinkled with gray; his general ap- 
pearance is pleasant. All eyes are turned 
toward him as his rich, melodious voice 
leads the people in sacred song. It is not 
alone the popular young preacher who fills 
the church every Sabbath, but lovers of 
music come a long distance to worship in 

What Is there in his music," whispered 
a girl to her friend, "that is so spiritual, so 
soul-stirring ?" 

It is not the music," said her friend. "It 
is heartfelt worship in song." 

Hayward's famous Paste and Liquid 
Dips received the Highest Award at the 
World's Columbian Exposition, also the 
Prize Medal at the California State Fair. 
Dips from all over the world were ex- 
hibited at Chicago and practical sheep 
men pronounced Hayward's the best and 
most effective medicine for the cure of scab 
and general benefit to wool, 


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A Handsomely Illustrated nrr CIIDDI ICC 
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A. I. KOOT, Medina, O, 



January 6, 1894. 

Random Thoughts. 

By A. P. Roach*, W. M. 8. G. of California. 

A selfish heart can never know 
The sweets which from true friendship flow. 

New York has thirty thousand grangers, 
who co-operate In numerous ways and make 
their business pay. But she is the Empire 
State. When California has her "thirty 
thousand," and when they co-operate, to the 
extent of establishing a few centrally located 
selling points, in charge of live, wide-awake 
business patrons, and discard the suicidal 
policy of eyery farmer trying to be his own 
salesman, the grange and grange business 
will pay something handsome in California, 

Prosperity in any of the affairs of life can 
only be secured through earnest, honest 
work, mentally and physically combined. A 
great deal of this valuable commodity is 
promised this year, in behalf of the good old 
grange, by sisters and brothers who mean 
exactly what they say. 

One of the prime essentials to the success- 
ful operation of every farm is that the farmer 
shall be a careful reader of one or more 
agricultural papers. In this way alone can 
he keep abreast of the advancement and ex- 
perimental progress of his calling, and the 
avoidance of costly and unproductive crop 
ventures. Remember that one published in 
your county or State deals directly with 
those industries in which you are interested, 
and hence is the most valuable. 

The old year has fled like a foiled shark, 
leaving here and there a ripple on the sur- 
face of events, cut by the keen edge of its 
ugly fin deep into the history of this Colum- 
bian year. The New Year, with its hopeful 
greeting, its unsolved problems and prom 
ised rewards, Is before us. Let every citizen 
of our glorious commonwealth assist In 
driving the plow of thought and labor into 
the active affairs of life, and the blues will 
vanish like a feather before a hurricane, and 
hard times will be shorn of half their sting. 

The Executive Committee of California 
State Grange will meet In San Francisco at 
10:30 o'clock Tuesday, Jan. 9th, 1894, for 
the transaction of important business. Many 
patrons who have valuable plans and sug- 
gestions to offer will be present, and a gen 
eral conference and discussion of vital inter 
est to the order is expected. 

Lecturer's Notes. 

Does Industry Need Protection? 

The above is the general topic for Jan- 
uary. Doubtless the prompt comment of 
many has been: "This is a political topic 
and will involve partisan discussion, which 
is forbidden by the fundamental law of our 
order." But that is not all the truth. First, 
last and all the time it is an economic ques- 
tion, and it Is simply incidental that two 
great political parties have ranged them- 
selves on the one and the other sides of it. 
It still remains to be determined whether, 
under what circumstances and to what ex- 
tent industry needs protection, if at all. 

One thing in particular has encouraged 
me to ask the attention of the Patrons of 
California to this subject, and that is the ad- 
mirable candor and judicial temper with 
which the editor of the Rural Press con- 
siders vexing questions from an " independ- 
ent standpoint." If he, why not others? 
The Rural Press is not a partisan journal, 
and it would be suicidal to use Its columns 
to partisan ends; hence the editor gives his 
views concerning many of the subjects over 
which politicians are struggling without be- 
traying his political sympathies. Let us 
search for the facts without regard to who 
champions or antagonizes them. The im- 
portant thing Is to know for ourselves what 
to champion and what to antagonize. 

Probably the great majority of those who 
will read these notes have never made any 
attempt at a judicial and impartial investi- 
gation of this subject. They have listened 
to campaign speakers when some general 
election was drawing on, usually to the 
speakers on only one side, or read the party 
paper for which they subscribed. That Is 
about the sum total of their education on 
this most Important question. The amount 
of misinformation obtainable in that way is 
unlimited. Such speakers and journals are 
working to win. Party platforms are framed 
to " get in " on and not to stand on. The 
orators and editors of either party do not 
hesitate at the grossest misstatement if they 
think it will serve their ends. Whoever de- 
pends upon them for his education concern- 
ing political issues will soon find himself 

Illustrating Josh Billings' aphorism: " It is 
better not to know so much than to know 
so many things wrong." It will be mar- 
velous how many things he will know 
wrong. Yet reliable sources of Information 
are always available; good sense and candid 
judgment, properly exercised, are rarely 

Again, forbidden to indulge in partisan 
discussion in our granges, does it follow that 
we can bring no influence to bear upon 
political results; that we must tamely con- 
sent to be ground between the upper and 
nether millstones of partisanship, with no 
attempt at self-assertion ? For one I do not 
see bow many of the specifications in our 
great Declaration of Purposes are to be at- 
tained without bringing a strong influence to 
bear on political action. This can be done 
without entering the arena of acrimonious 
political debate. 

It would appear that farmers, " united," 
as they are, "by the strong and faithful tie of 
agriculture," might arrive at substantial 
agreement relative to all the questions that 
concern the interests and prosperity of their 
industries by a thorough investigation and 
study of the whole subject. The fact that 
their interests are everywhere practically 
identical will tend strongly to lead them to 
common conclusions. Once farmers know 
exactly where they stand — what convictions 
and demands they are determined to insist 
upon — and let their position be known, they 
will instantly command respectful attention 
in political quarters. They are too strong 
to be ignored if it is understood that they 
will act on given questions with substantial 
unanimity. Hitherto we have followed po- 
litical guides instead of economic guides. 
Hence, being divided, we have been power- 
less. All that should be relegated to the 
past. Henceforth we should investigate and 
determine for ourselves. No body of peo- 
ple in the country are better able to do so 
intelligently and dispassionately. We are 
the more bound to do this because we are 
really responsible for the welfare of all the 
people. When we guard our own interests 
and assure our own prosperity we promul- 
gate a decree of universal prosperity. Let 
our granges, therefore, be made schools for 
the study of economic questions — in every 
one of which we are directly interested. 
Every grange could own and study a few 
standard works on political economy, and 
the practical good sense of farmers would 
do the rest. 

At the beginning of this note it was my 
intention to give a few hints upon the topic 
for January discussion; but the general line 
of remark which I felt called upon first of 
all to pursue has extended beyond what I 
anticipated, and I have not yet ascertained 
to what extent I may intrude upon the space 
of the Rural Press. To carry out my 
full plan at this time would transgress too 
far the limits which I might presume to ask 

S. G, 
Lecturer S. G. of Cal. 
Oakland, Dec. 27, 1893. 

{Continued on page 18) 

A Steuben County Miracle. 


Miaa Lillian Sparks Restored to Health 
and Strength After Medical Aid Had 
Failed— Her Condition that of 
Thousands ef Other Ladles 
Who Hay Take Hope 
from Her Story. 

(From The Hornelltsville Timet.) 
Painted Post is the name of a pretty little 
village of one thousand inhabitants, situated 
on the line of the Erie Railroad, in Steuben 
county, two miles from Corning, N. Y. The 
name seems an odd one until one learns the 
circumstances from which it was derived. 
When the first settlers came here from Penn- 
sylvania, all this beautiful valley was heavily 
wooded, and abounded in many kinds of game, 
and was a favorite hunting ground for the In- 
dians who then claimed exclusive right to the 
territory. An object which attracted the atten- 
tion of the first settlers and excited their curi- 
osity, was a painted poBt which stood promi- 
nently in a small clearing skirted by great 
spreading trees. It was painted red, as some 
supposed with blood, and evidently commem- 
orated some notable event in Indian life. And 
so from this incident the place naturally took 
to name. 

Your correspondent only knew Miss Lillian 
Sparks, daughter of Mr. James W. Sparks, by 
name. On inquiring at the postoffice for her 
lather's residence, we learned that he lived on 
the road to Hornby, five miles from Painted 

Post village. " And," said a young man who 
overheard the conversation with the post- 
master, " it is his daughter who was so sick 
that the doctors gave her up and she was cured 
by Pink Pills." And the young man volun- 
teered to guide me to Mr. Spark's home. So 
getting a horse we started in the storm, with 
the mercury ranging at zero, for a five-mile 
drive over the snow-drifted roads of Hornby 
Hills. When we reached our destination we 
found a very comfortably housed family, con 
sisting of Mr. and Mrs. Sparks, one son and 
five daughters. The oldest of the daughters, 
Miss Lillian, twenty-two years old, is the one 
your correspondent had gone out there ex- 
pressly to see. This is the story told by Miss 
Sparks to your correspondent in the presence 
of her grateful and approving father and 
mother, and is given in her own language: 

" Yes, sir, it is with pleasure that I give my 
testimony to the great value of Dr. Williams' 
Pink Pills. I was ill for four years, doctoring 
nearly all the time but without any benefit. I 
had six different doctors: Dr. Heddon, Dr. 
Purdy and Dr. Hoar of Corning, Dr. Butler of 
Hornby, Dr. Remington of Painted Post, and 
Dr. Bell of Monterey. They said my blood 
had all turned to water. I was as pale as a 
corpse, weak and short of breath. I could 
hardly walk, I was so dizzy, and there was a 
ringing noise in my head. My hands and feet 
were cold all the time. My limbs were swollen, 
my feet so much so that I could not wear my 
shoes. My appetite was very poor. I had lost 
all hope of ever getting well, but still I kept 
doctoring or taking patent medicines, but grew 
worse all the time. Last September I read in 
the Elmira Gazette of a wonderful cure through 
the u=e of Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale 
People, and I thought I would try them. I 
did so, giving up all other medicines and fol- 
lowing the directions closely. By the time I 
had taken the first box I was feeling better 
than I had been in a long time, and I con- 
tinued their use until now, as you can see, and 
as my father and mother know, and as I know, 
I am perfectly well. I don't look the same 
person, and I can now enjoy myself with other 
young people. Indeed, I can't say too much 
for Dr. Williams' Pink Pills, for I am sure they 
saved my life. I have recommended them to 
others, who are using them with much benefit, 
and I earnestly recommend them to any 
one who may be sick, for I am sure there is no 
medicine like them. I am entirely willing you 
should make any proper use of this statement 
of my sickness and cure by Dr. Williams' Pink 
Pills." In further conversation, Miss Sparks 
said she fell away during her sickness so 
much that she onlv weighed 80 pounds, while 
now she weighs 107. 

"1 suppose," said her father, "that it was 
overwork that made her sick. You see we 
have 400 acres of land, keep 35 cows, and 
there is a great deal to be done, and Lillian 
was always a great worker and very ambitious 
until she overdid it and was taken down." 

The facts narrated in the above statement 
were corroborated by a number of neighbors, 
who all express their astonishment at the 
great improvement Dr. Williams' Pink Pills 
have worked in Miss Sparks. 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills are a perfect blood 
builder and nerve restorer, curing such dis- 
eases as rheumatism, neuralgia, partial paraly- 
sis, locomotor ataxia, St. Vitus' dance, nervons 
headache, nervous prostration and the tired 
feeling resulting therefrom, the after effects of 
la grippe, influenza, and severe colds, diseases 
depending on humors in the blood, such as 
scrofula, chronic erysipelas, etc. Pink Pills 
give a healthy glow to pale and sallow complex- 
ions, and are a specific for the troubles 
peculiar to the female system; in men they 
effect a radical cure in all cases arising from 
mental worry, overwork or excesses of any 

These Pills are manufactured by the Dr. 
Williams' Medicine Company, Schenectadv, 
N. Y., and Brockville, Ont, and are sold only 
in boxes bearing the firm's trade mark and 
wrapper, at 50 cents a box, or six boxes for 
$2.50, and are never sold in bulk or by the 
dozen or hundred, and any dealer who offers 
substitutes in this form is trying to defraud 
you and should be avoided. 

What "Smith" Did He Mean? 

A bright New Yorker won a bet that he could get 
exactly the same answer to the same question from 
fifty people. He asked them if they had heard of 
Smith's failure, and every one of the fifty inquired, 
"What Smith?" 

In like manner when people are told they can get 
roses by mail, if they are bright they will ask, 
"what roses?" 

If they have not learned that there are roses and 
roses, they should get The Dingee & Conrad Co's New 
Guide to Rose Culture and become posted. This 
Company makes a specialty of sending the famous 
D. & C. roses everywhere by mail. They are "on 
their own roots," which is another peculiarity, and 
how good they are may be inferred from the fact 
that they have made the Company the largest rose- 
growers in the world. The book will be sent to any 
flower-lover on request, and early applicants will 
get beside a sample copy of the Company's maga- 
zine, "Success with Flowers. " The address is 
West Grove, Pa. 

— The State Treasury is rapidly being 
filled with gold received from the counties oi 
the State on account of the first installment 
of taxes. The counties that have settled so 
far, together with the amounts, are as follows: 

Placer $40,388 n 

Tehama 43.33° 12 

Solano 89 678 29 

Napa 63,450 01 

Orange 38,301 26 

Glenn 44.5*5 °4 

El Dorado 17,849 55 

Madera 20,646 38 

Nevada 14.083 15 

Yolo $83,019 02 

Piuinas 9.674 50 

Like 18,377 00 

Humboldt 78,019 55 

Siskiyou 27,104 38 

Trinity 5,674 6o 

Tuolumne 13.779 40 

Total $607,596 36 

Commission Merchants. 


601, 60S, 6O6, 607 & 609 Front St., 
And 800 Washing-ton Street, SAN FRANCIBOO. 


Commission - Merchants, 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 


404&4-06 DAVIS ST S.F. 




General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. P. 
Members of the Sid Francisco Produce Exchange 

*W Personal attention given to Bales and liberal advances 
made on consignments at low rates of Interest. 



From ilUUU upwards at market rates. ) PROPERTIES 
We also deal in county lands. Several foreclosed prop- 
erties for sale oheap, on easy terms. Write for Hat, or if 
you desire to eell. send us full particulars. LINDSAY A 
CRAIG, Lind and Financial Agents, Crocker Building, 
San Francisco. 





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Stab, Lain Co., Obigon, Feb. 8th, 1892. 
Db. B. J. Kendall Co., 

Dear Sirs :— I have used your Kevtut.t's Bpatti 
Curb for the last twelve years never being without 
It but a few weeks In that time and I have made 
several wonderful cures with It. I cored • t.'nrb 
of longstanding. Then I had a four year old colt 
badly Sweenled ; tried every thing without any 
benefit, so I tried your liniment, and In a few weeks 
he was well and his shoulder filled up all right, and 
Urn other, a four ycarold that had a Thoroughpln 
nnd Illood Spavin on th« same Joint, and to-day 
no one can tell which leg It was on. These state- 
ment* can be proven. If necessary ; the four year 
olds are now seven and can be seen any day at Cot- 
tage Grove, Or. B. Z. Pajctos. 
—Price $1.00 per bottle.-^— 

Enoaburgh Falls, Vermont. 

January 6, 1894. 






Creameries are multiplying. In addition to 
the new one projected in the lower Niggerhead 
section and a second one near Areata, the En- 
terprise tells that W. N. Ross intends to estab- 
lish a creamery on a large scale on his Bunker 
Hill dairy in the Bear river country. The uni- 
form success of those now being operated is an 
incentive to add to the number. The grain 
farmer, says the Enterprise, harvests one crop a 
year and holds it for a remunerative price 
(which does not always come before a new crop 
is ready to gather). The dairy farmer markets 
his crop and receives his money every month. 
His output keeps money in circulation and 
times in the dairying communities compara- 
tively easy. 

Standard: It is reported that while potatoes 
grown on high lands turned out remarkably 
well and show no indications of decay, there 
are many instances in which lowland crops, 
grown in damp soil, are either rotting badly or 
are entirely worthless. These reports come 
from Eel river valley. Whether the blight re- 
ferred to has taken hold of that crop in the Ar- 
eata section no data by which to judge has yet 
been received. To lose a part of or his entire 
crop by decay while the present prices rule 
would not be deemed a great calamity by the 
average farmer, for the quoted figures leave 
little or no margin after freight, wharfage and 
commissions are paid, but if good, paying prices 
should prevail later in the season he might 
promise himself to never again engage in pota- 
to culture. In Eel river valley at the present 
time the best potatoes of any variety can be had 
for $13 per ton. 

Los Angeles. 

Pomona Progress: With a tomato that 
weighed four pounds, a green orange that 
pulled the scales down to a pound and a half, a 
sugar beet as big as an elephant's hind leg, a 
wedding cake seven stories high and fluted with 
carmine cinnamon drops, a bouquet as large as 
a peck measure, a hen's egg with a girt of about 
eight inches, a Chino cucumber a yard long and 
as crooked as a ram's horn, and a cornstalk 
that reached to the second-floor windows — with 
such gracious bestowments as these, who 
couldn't be happy ? It's worth one's while to 
have been a newspaper man this season. 

Pomona Progress: If the farmers of this re- 
gion had ordered the rain that has visited this 

Sart of California in the last week, they could 
ardly have had a better or more timely one 
for agricultural purposes. The ground is in 
exactly the proper condition for farming and 
horticultural work, and there is sufficient mois- 
ture in the earth to last for several weeks. The 
rain has come gradually, and all of it has 
soaked into the earth. The total rainfall in 
Pomona valley to date has been 7.89 inches. 
That is one-half the average total rainfall in 
each winter for years. The precipitation of 
rain in the past week has been 3.63 inches. 
The heaviest rain of the season has been that 
on Tuesday night, when nearly an inch and 
one-quarter fell in 12 hours. 


Beacon: The prospects for a large yield of 
hay and grain are most encouraging on this 
coast at present. Never before have the pros- 
pects at this season of the year been more favor- 
able. The rain fallen has been lust enough to 
put the ground in good condition for plowing, 
and then held off long enough to permit of 
sowing. Grain is already coming up and in 
some fields is several inches high. 


Bradley Mercury: The farmers in this section 
are now happy, it having rained an inch or 
over for the storm. 

Salinas Index: Charles Louis of San Miguel 
canyon is one of the expert fruit-growers of 
that rapidly developing fruit section. He in- 
forms us that at his place fruit will dry in the 
sun quicker than at San Jose. During the 
past season he dried apricots thoroughly in 
three days in the sun. 


San Jacinto Register: There is considerable 
talk by several of our farmers about planting 
three or four hundred acres to the sugar beet 
this season, as a test. The Southern California 
Railway Co. (Santa Fe system) have made our 
farmers a special rate to the factory at Chino. 
The Santa Ana farmers make on an average $30 
to $50 per acre net on their crop of beets each 
year. Their market is the Chino factory. 

Press: R. H. Howard planted a few cotton 
seed last July on his place near Victoria bridge, 
and to-day he brought to this office a stalk 
covered with large bunches of the white cotton. 

Cor. San Jacinto Register, Dec. 26: Our Fruit 
Exchange has shipped (including three cars 
getting ready) 14 cars of oranges to date. Not 
much more will be done till after New Years, 
as the fruit is still too green. A new style of 
shipping, in a specially prepared car, is now on 
exhibition here, and threatens to revolutionize 
things generally. If adopted, it will do away 
with all boxes, wrapping and packing. It will 
also prolong the keeping qualities of the orange 
two or three weeks in the Eastern markets. 
The car is fitted up with trays made of open 
alats, holding 160 pounds each. These trays 
are the width of the car and slide on castors in 

frooves in the side of the car. A car will hold 
1,000 pounds net of oranges. The shipper pays 
no freight on the trays, so that no expense is 
incurred except for actual weight of fruit. 
This also saves all cost of wrapping, packing 
and boxes. If it works, it will be a big thing 
for the growers, bat will make box-furnishers, 
makers and packers " look down their noses." 

Santa Cruz. 

Pajaronian: One of the fruit-packers of this 
valley has a carload of apples in cold storage 
in San Francisco, and he expects to sell them 
at a good price when the Midwinter Fair is in 
full swing next month. It costs 50 cents per 
box for cold storage. 

Pajaronian: Five carloads of slough potatoes 
have been shipped from here to Texas. They 
brought 40 cents a sack at the local depot. 

Paiaronian: The biggest half day's run of the 
season was made at the factory Monday, 428 
tons of beets having been crushed in 12 hours, 

Surf: It is often remarked that " the last is 
the best," and so it seemed to us when we 
opened the dainty box of dried prunes left at 
the Surf office by W. W. Waterman from his 
Fairview farm near Glenwood. Mr. Waterman 
usually captures the sweepstakes prize at the 
fair for the best and greatest variety of products 
from one farm, and last year his exhibit was 
photographed and a handsome engraving of 
the same published in the Rural Press. 
While displaying great variety, he has made a 
specialty of table grapes, but his prune or- 
chard now promises to be a source of both 
pride and profit. The prunes presented to the 
Surf were magnificent in size, well cured and 
of excellent flavor entirely beyond comparison 
with any foreign fruit. 

Pajaronian: All of the sugar beets of the Pa- 
jaro valley district have been delivered at the 
factory. There are yet over 3000 tons unde- 
livered on the Salinas — mainly on the Moro 
Cojo ranch. There are enough beets in the 
bins to run the factory to the middle of next 
week, providing the storm prevents further de- 
livery of the Salinas beets. 

Pajaronian: That was a mammoth beef 
which hung in front of O. S. Tuttle's shop dur- 
ing the holiday display. It dressed over 1300 
pounds, and cost — landed here — over $100. It 
was a present from the employes of the shop 
to Bony, and he was as proud of it as if it had 
been a quarter section of Pajaro's best sediment 
land. Oscar Buob showed himself an artist 
with the knife in the lettering on the beef and 

Santa Barbara. 

Independent: The new olive mill of the 
Montecito Manufacturing Company was put in 
operation this week, and this year's oil is now 
being turned out in large quantities. The ma- 
chinery is of the best type and the oil is some- 
thing superior. This year's work of the mill 
will be something wonderful. Olives are being 
hauled to Montecito from this and Ventura 
counties by the ton. T. R. More has made the 
largest sale of any individual rancher; he has 
delivered sixteen tons to the company. The 
next largest record is eight tons. The olives 
are of a superior quality. The Montecito 
Manufacturing Company was incorporated 
some months ago, with W. P. Gould as presi- 
dent and T. P. Izard secretary. They have 
started an industry which promises great 


Preparations for the great show to be held in 
Petaluma during February by the California 
State Poultry Association are progressing 
finely. Fanciers in all parts of America, and 
not a few in foreign countries, are greatly in- 
terested in the Petaluma show, says the Peta- 
luma Courier, and many of them will be here 
as exhibitors and spectators. The entries are 
already so numerous that the question of how 
to handle the birds is getting to be a very 
serious problem. That they will be handled, 
however, and in the best of style, too, may be 
relied upon. Past experience has shown con- 
clusively that Petaluma poultrymen are hard 
to swamp when it comes to taking care of a big 
collection of fine fowls, so no one need keep his 
feathered pets at home through fear that they 
will not be taken care of at the Petaluma show. 

Santa Rosa Democrat: A correspondent from 
Peachland writes that last week, while Mr. 
Eperly and Mr. Tilden were chopping wood, 
the fork of a large oak tree fell to the ground, 
disclosing to view the three-spiked horns of a 
deer, imbedded two feet deep in the timber. 
The horns were evidently placed there when 
the tree was small, and the wood grew around 

Cloverdale Reveille: The indications are that 
there will be a very large increase in acreage in 

hops in Sonoma county the coming year. 
It will not be surprising if there will be 500 
acres of new hops. The present year and last 
year have been pretty good hop years for the 
Sonoma county growers, and that accounts for 
the increased acreage. While prices were not 
up to the high-water mark this year, they were 
up to a fairly remunerative figure. 

Santa Rosa Democrat: There has not been as 
much rain this season as last, but it has been 
so well distributed that all kinds of farm work 
are more advanced than usual, and crops are in 
a much better condition than ordinarily at this 
time of the year. There is a large area seeded 
in wheat, barley and oats, all of which is much 
advanced and looking well. The pasturage is 
uncommonly good. It is too soon to form any 
opinion on the fruit crop, but a good year for 
general farming is, as a rule, good for fruit. 


Santa Maria Times: Miller & Lux, the largest 
range cattle owners in California, are growing 
miles of Egyptian corn on their land south of 
Newman, and are now cutting it for feed. One 
thousand head of cattle are being fed daily 
with Egyptian corn. 


The Enterprise has the following from Arthur 
J. Hutchinson, Lindsay: I want you to know 
that a week before Thanksgiving I picked and 
shipped to San Jose a box of ripe, sweet 
oranges, and I really think that by December 
1st half my crop was ready to market. Let me 
tell you another thing about getting early 
oranges, much depends upon irrigating at the 
right time. I don't know just when that is for 
certain, but I should like to hear the question 
discussed and attention paid to it. 

Tulare Times: Thomas Jacob sent to the 
Times office a few delicious pears of the Pat 
Barry variety. He says this variety of pears 
keeps better and longer than any other. This 
must be true, for those sampled were picked 
and stored over two months ago, and were in- 
deed hard to excel. 

The Enterprise has made the following esti- 
mate of the orange crop in the Tule River 
country: Porterville 4000 boxes, Piano 600, 
Frazier and Pleasant Valley 350, and Lindsay 
50 boxes. 

Tulare Times, Dec. 28 : Frank Baker arrived 
from Pixie - this morning, where he has been 
running his rain-making machine for the last 
seven days. He reports that the barometer 
began to go down after the first 12 hours' work, 
and the third day brought the first rain. It 
began sprinkling this morning about 2 o'clock 
and had rained about seventy-five hundredths 
of an inch to the date of leaving. 

Tulare Times : Louis Gill came down from 
Frazier yesterday with a load of oranges raised 
on his father's place, the old H. M. White 
ranch, where stands the oldest lemon and or- 
ange trees in the county. He met with con- 
siderable success in selling the oranges, which 
are among the finest seen in the county. They 
are Seedlings, but equal in all ways to the 
grafted fruit, for orange trees grow like willows 
in Frazier. 


Santa Paula Chronicle: Wm. O'Hara has a 
female hog that exhibits marked peculiarities 
of a generous nature. In the pen with her are 
several of her pigs and two calves. The sow 
will give the pigs their dinner, then lie down 
in such a way as to let the calves have a good 
square meal of warm milk. Both pigs and 
calves are doing well. 


The Woodland Democrat is in receipt of a 
box of oranges and lemons from the orchard of 
R. O. Armstrong of Capay. The fruit is large, 
luscious and of a very rich color, and demon- 
strates beyond any reasonable doubt that Capay 
valley soil and climate will produce as fine 
citrus fruit as any valley in the State. Mr. 
Armstrong now has 30 acres of orchard, prin- 
cipally almonds, and will plant 30 acres more 
this season. 

Turkey red on cotton 

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January 6, 189i. 


Insect Pests and Remedies. 

One of the most interesting papers read 
at the recent Farmers' Institute at Visalia 
was one written by I. H. Thomas of that 
city, a member of the State Board of Horti- 
culture, entitled " Insect Pests and Reme- 
dies." Mr. Thomas' essay is given in full 

An essay on the insect pests of the central 
San Joaquin valley must necessarily be 
short, from the fact that this region is for- 
tunately exempt from the numerous evils of 
scale insects and other diseases that find 
suitable conditions in the more humid coast 
counties of the State for their increase and 
development. Our warm, dry summers are 
more certain in checking the increase of the 
"black scale" than all the formulas and 
carefully prepared tree washes and patent 
nostrums, or even the nimble Rhizobius. 
Still, the conditions can be produced by man, 
on a small scale, that make it possible to 
find a few straggling enemies even in this 
rich and favored land. The only place I 
have found the black scale to thrive here is 
on orange trees or oleander bushes on a 
lawn or grass plot, where the ground is 
damp and cool from frequent sprinklings. 
The " soft orange scale " can also be found 
on the orange, the lemon, rose bushes, and a 
few other ornamental plants, but not in num- 
bers to do or cause any harm. 

Both of these scales can be easily sub- 
dued, and the remedy can be found in 
every house. This is simply one-fourth ol 
a pound of laundry soap dissolved by boil- 
ing in one gallon ot water and applied with 
a syringe or spray pump, at a temperature 
of ico degrees Fahrenheit. The most ef- 
fective time is soon after the young have 
hatched, and this is during the summer; but 
the work can be delerred until September. 
A cheaper remedy, if a large number of 
trees have to be treated, would be the resin 
wash, but this requires considerable care in 
its preparation. The proportions are: Resin, 
18 pounds; caustic soda (70 per cent), 5 
pounds; whale or fish oil, 2% pounds; water 
to make 100 gallons of solution. To prop- 
erly prepare this, a 50 gallon farmer's boiler 
is necessary; Place the resin, fish oil and 
caustic soda together with 20 gallons of 
water in the boiler and cook thoroughly over 
a brisk fire for at least three hours; add a 
little hot water occasionally until you have 
about 50 gallons. Never use cold water to 
dilute with before you have this amount, or 
the resin will settle to the bottom. Pour the 
hot mixture into the spray tank, and then 
add cold water to make the 100 gallons. 

A remedy that is already prepared is a 
great saving of time and annoyance to the 
fruit-grower. The one that we have experi- 
mented with and had good results from is 
" Brown's Insect Exterminator." Full di- 
rections for using this, and the necessary 
amounts for the different scales or insect 
pests, are seut out with the exterminator. 

Another pest that is found, but to a very 
limited extent, in the valley is the "cottony 
cushion scale," that did so much damage to 
the orange and lemon orchards of Los An- 
geles county a few years ago. This is a 10ft 
Insect with a white, coriugated, cottony egg- 
sack. It attacks a greater variety of plants 
and trees than the other scale insects, and 
breeds rapidly, each female producing from 
500 to 1000 eggs. Such an increase, and the 
tact that the native plants and weeds were 
good pasture for this pest, made It expensive 
warfare to try to keep it down. The intro- 
duction of the Australian ladybug, Vedalia 
cardinalis, was a grand achievement, for in 
one year from their 'introduction they had 
increased and were distributed to all parts 
of the State where the " cottony cushion 
scale " was found, and the latter has now no 
terrors for the orchardist. 

If you 'find" this scale Major C. J. Berry 
will place a colony of the Vedalia on your 
trees, or you can address a letter to the 
State Board of Horticulture in San Fran- 
cisco, and a colony will be mailed to you. 
In the latter case it would be advisable for 
you to send specimens of the scale so that 
there will be no mistake, for this ladybug 
will not feed on any other scale. 

The pernicious or San Jose scale got a 
start in the valley a few years ago — intro- 
duced on nursery stock — and spread to other 
trees and orchards, causing a great amount 
of damage and loss to the deciduous-fruit 
growers. It was here that the famous " lime, 
sulphur and salt remedy" originated, and 
was extensively used as a winter wash 
against this scale. This remedy is acknowl- 
edged to be one 0/ the best winter washes, 
as it is also a good fungicide. Wfftin the 
past three years EfatiTre has come to our 
relief, and this scale is now kept in check by 

a very small '* brown-necked ladybird " and 
the twice-stabbed ladybird; so that it is in 
very rare instances that spraying is done for 
the San Jose scale. 

The insects that have given us the most 
trouble are the " red " and " yellow mites," 
or spiders. They are so small that they can 
just be seen by the naked eye. The winter 
eggs are deposited on the trunks and 
branches, and hatch as soon as the trees leaf 
out in the spring. They increase rapidly in 
our dry atmosphere, and are general feeders, 
and are serious pests on the almond, prune, 
walnut, apple, etc., and occasionally injure 
orange and lemon trees. They spin a very 
delicate web on and attack the leaf by tear- 
ing the epidermis. A tree thus attacked 
soon has a blanched or sickly appearance; 
the inner leaves drop and the tree becomes 

The different summer washes will kill the 
spiders, but the cheapest and most effective 
remedy is sulphur, applied with sulphur bel- 
lows; or a more expeditious way is that in 
use in the Rio Bonito orchards in Butte 
county. There they have fixed up a broad- 
cast seeder, mounted on a wagon, and the 
feed and discharge are so arranged that the 
sulphur Is thrown in a cloud in one direction, 
and three to six rows are thoroughly dusted 
in the time necessary to drive between the 
rows. The best time for this work is the 
very early morning, and, if possible, when a 
little moisture is on the leaves. The sulphur 
is not really an insecticide, but acts as a re- 
pellant. It is sometimes necessary to give a 
second treatment. If the sulphuring is at- 
tended to in time the trees will retain their 
leaves for at least two months longer than 
the untreated ones. 

" Codlin moth " demands attention In or- 
der that we may reap some benefit from our 
apple and pear orchards. Unlike most of 
our insect pests this one does not injure the 
vitality of the tree, but destroys the market 
value of the product. A few years ago the 
great fight was made against codlin moth by 
trapping the larvae and destroying the chrys- 
alis found under the rough bark of the 
trunks or branches. This procedure was 
not at all successful, as enough moths would 
escape to deposit eggs on and destroy fully 
50 per cent of the fruit. Now we go at 
them in a different way, and strike at the 
very weakest stage of their existence, that is, 
as soon as they hatch from the egg and be- 
fore they burrow into the fruit. 

The remedy is Paris green — one pound to 
200 gallons of water. To be efficient this 
must be properly mixed and applied. Take 
the Paris green and make a paste before it 
is placed in the spray tank. In this way it 
mixes better with the water. The next im- 
portant point is to keep the water constantly 
stirred when spraying, not simply an occa- 
sional dash, but keep a man or boy at it as 
long as the work lasts. This is the only sat- 
isfactory way to have the poison evenly dis- 
tributed. This work must be done soon 
after the fruit is set and before it turns 
down. A second application three weeks 
later should be given. Enough solution 
should be used to each tree to thoroughly 
moisten it without running off. 

If the fruit was troubled with pear crack- 
ing or apple scab the previous year, a fungi- 
cide should be used in combination with the 
Paris green. A very good mixture is to dis- 
solve 25 pounds of sulphate of copper in 20 
gallons of water; slack 20 pounds of lime in 
water and then add this, strained, to the 
copper solution; pour into the tank and add 
one pound of Paris green and sufficient wa- 
ter to make 200 gallons. Keep it constantly 
stirred, as before suggested. In applying 
this a nozzle having a rubber disk is prefer- 
able to brass. 

Several vineyards in the valley have been 
seriously damaged by the caterpillars of the 
large sphinx moth, sometimes called "hum- 
ming-bird moths," that are noticed toward 
evening hovering over verbenas and petu- 
nias, while they sip the nectar from the 
flowers. They are in the winged form the 
end of April and during May, and deposit 
their eggs singly on the leaves. The egg is 
fastened to the leaf by a glutinous sub- 
stance, and a few days after they hatch out 
small caterpillars, with a dark hair or spine 
near the posterior extremity. They grow 
rapidly and, if not checked soon, devour all 
the foliage. When full grown they enter 
the loose ground and change to the chrysalis, 
and remain in this condition until the follow- 
ing spring. The most satisfactory method 
of fighting this pest is hand picking, or use a 
pair of scissors and cut them in two. 

Plowing and cultivating the vineyard dur- 
ing the winter with a disk harrow will de- 
stroy numbers of the chrysalis, if gone over 
several times with the latter implement. A 
friend remarked to me the other day that he 
was going to turn a lot of hogs into his vine- 
yard, in hopes that they would root out the 
chrysalis and destroy them. It could soon 
be ascertained whether or not the "porkers" 

will be likely to assist In the work by placing 
a few chrysalides within their reach. 

The "cut worm" is another pest of the 
vineyard; they also attack prune and other 
trees. The trees can be protected from their 
depredations by placing a band of stout pa- 
per round the stem and smearing it with 
printers' ink in which a little castor oil has 
been mixed. The oil prevents the ink from 
drying so quickly. This should be renewed 
at least twice a week while the worms last. 
As they work at night they cannot be han- 
dled like the sphinx-moth caterpillars. Dur- 
ing the day they burrow into the loose soil a 
short distance; this can be scratched over 
and the worms destroyed. Paris green can 
be used as a spray, but can hardly be rec- 
ommended in a vineyard. 

Those are the principal insects that we 
have any experience with, and I desire to 
impress upon the farmers and fruit-growers 
the necessity of guarding against the intro- 
duction and spread of new pests and plant 
diseases into our valley. When you pur 
chase trees or plants don't be afraid that 
your horticultural inspector, or, as the law 
designates him, "Quarantine Guardian," 
will swoop down on you and inspect them to 
see that they are free from pests. Don't re- 
move them from the depot surreptitiously, 
but inform him before hand, and when they 
arrive invite him to make a thorough ex- 
amination, for it will cost less to clean them 
before planting than after, and may save 
your own and your neighbors' orchards from 

$100 Reward, $100. 

The reader ot this paper will be pleased to learn 
that there Is at least one dreaded disease that science 
has been able to cure In all Its stages, and that Is 
Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cnre Is the only positive 
cure known to the medical fraternity. Catarr being 
a constitutional disease, requires a constitutional 
treatment. Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken Internally. 
acUng directly on the blood and mucous surfaces ol 
the system, thereby destroying the foundation of the 
disease, and giving the patient strength by building 
up the constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers, that they offer One Hundred Dollars 
for any case that it tails to cure. Send for list of 
testimonials. Address 

F. J. CHENEY A CO., Toledo, O. 

49- Sold by Druggists, 76c. 


We have made arrangements with Dr. B. 
J. Kendall Co., publishers of "A Treatise 
on the Horse and his Diseases," which will 
enable all our subscribers to obtain a copy 
of that valuable work free by sending their 
address (enclosing a two-cent stamp for 
mailing same) to Dr. B. J. Kendall 
Co., Enosburgh Falls, Vt. This book 
is now recognized as standard authority 
upon all diseases of the horse, as its 
phenomenal sale attests, over four million 
copies having been sold in the past ten 
years, a sale never before reached by any 
publication in the same period of time. 
We feel confident that our patrons will 
appreciate the work, and be glad to avail 
themselves of this opportunity of obtaining 
a valuable book. 

It is necessary that you mention this 
paper in sending for the Treatise." This 
offer will remain open for only a short time. 

An Attractive Offer. 

Readers of the Pacific Rural Press need not 
be told of the high character and general value of 
the Cosmopolitan Ma%axine. It is a splendid 
monthly publication, a marvel of beauty and excel- 

We will send the Pacific Rural Press and the 
Cosmopolitan Magazine to any address in the 
United States or Canada for twelve moms for $3.50. 
This is an attractive and unusual offer and will not 
long continue. 



rate of interest on Approved security in Farming Lands. 
A, SCHULLEK, Room 11, 608 Montgomery St., San 
Francisco (Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Building). 

Hay Pressing. 

If you are Interested in pressing hay wrltel Truman 
Booker ft Co., San Francisco. They will save von money 




Wood .choppers, try the 

Kelly Perfect fixe 

It will cut more wood 
than any other axe. 

The scoop in the blade 
keeps it from sticking in 
the wood, and makes it 
cut deeper than any other 
axe. Ask your dealer for 
it. Send us his name if 
he don't Iceep it. It is the 
Anti-Trust Axe. 

Kelly Axe Mfg. Co. 



That one tablespoonful of 


will produce more actual reunite than a whole bottle 
of any liniment or 6 pay In cure mixture ever oiado. 
It la therefore the cheapest (as well as safest audi 
beet) external applicant known for man or beast. 






Proved machinery; 





\ HIQOANUM, CONN u ^ f TSul^ 



i 1 



K ■ 




The Majority Rules. 

And when It says Protection 1b " not in It " we submit. 
Have selected the beet farm fence tor the slaughter. 
Knocked down workmen's wages, robbed agent's com 
missions, strangled manufacturer's profits, and will 
serve up the remains In a new list January 1st. 

Nevertheless tbe OUILED HPKIMO FENCK, 
It-, if, stands unalterably for PROTECTION, now, hence- 
forth and forever. 




For the half year ending December 31, 1899, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of five and one-tenth 
(6 1-10) per cent per annum on term deposits, and four 
and one-quarter («}) per cent per annum on ordinary 
deposits, payable on and after Tuesday, January 2, ISM 
GEO. TO UK NY, Secretary. 




,w l *w p ' stamp for catalogue: ^fcrr 

BOOKlNCUBATlCNjcrs^ ^ & C T« 

c VqkC<jum Inc. Co Da^wARECny. Pel[X 



" Greenbank " Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T.VK7". iTAOKSON e*> CO. . 

Sole Agents, 

No 6 Market Street, Ban Francisco, Oal. 


A dollar a week for sixty weeks, buys a lot 25x126 feet 
east of Chicago Heights, the great manufacturing su- 
burb of Chicago. 8ixtsen factories, streets paved, stone 
sidewalk, beautiful shade trees, schools, churches, etc. 
No doubt these lota will treble In value within one year. 

No such bargain was ever offered in Chicago Heal K» 
late. Iheselots are now on the Belt Line where facto- 
ries are now Is successful operation, employing ove r 
60,000 people. Business transacted for non-residents. 

Address. t'eKorreet Land Co., Unity Building, Chicago. 




STABLE BLANKET an Hk e » tailor-made 
CMt. ilk your dealer for the " BURLINGTON." 
Write for handsome illustrated catalogue— lent free. 


$12 TO $35 k 

n be marie by m orkltia 

TUM. Parties preferred wou 
a hone and ca n give their 
„j)e time to our ocr-ineas 
Even apare lime »Ul pay splen- 
■ ■_ ■ i ■ -. — — mm didly. ThwannouQctiuent is uf 
arjectaJ interest to farmers and fanners' soti*. arid others 
residing- in the rural district* A few vscanoise. also id 
WwnTa^d cities. B. F. JOHNSON A lO., 

No. 5 South 11th ~i R •.■ \ n 

January 6, 1894. 



[Seeds, Wapt?, tic 


years by the large number of trees sold by me tbat 
nnrsery stock grown on the river bottom of Sutter 
count} Is far sujierior to any grown In the State. I am 
prepared to suppiy In large or small quantities: 

Bartlett Feari, Flams and Prunes 

On Myrabalan Plum Roots. 
— ALSO— 

Cherries, Peaches, Apricots, Apple, Almond 
Trees, Etc. 

Special Rates on Large Orders. 
Send tor Price List for 1893-94. 

James T. Bogue Marysvlile Cal. 

Santa Rosa: 



TREES TRUE TO NAME — Warranted clean and 

raised without irrigation. 
PRICES till my surplus is sold. 
Prioe List mailed free. 

Address R. W. Bell, Santa Rosa, Oal. 




Grass, Clover, Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 
Onion Sets. 



Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced Seed Catalogue for 
1894 mailed free to all applicants. Address 

E. J. BO WEN, 

815 & SI 7 Saosome St., San Francisco, Cal. 
65 Front Street, Portland, Or. 
or 214 Commercial St., -cattle, Wasb. 

San Ramon Valley Vurssry. 

Surplus Stock of 

ALMONDS, 8 Varieties. 
PEACHES, 4 Varieties. 
PRUNES, 3 Varieties. 

At very LOW PRICE8. 
other varieties of Fruit Trees. 

Also an assortment of 



Danville, Cal. 


, Are Juet what every 
I sower nteds. The mer- 
Jlts of Ferry's Seeds L 
form the foundation up- 
on which has been built the 
largest seed business in the world. 
Ferry's Seed Annual for 1894 
contains the sum and substance of 
the latest farming knowledge. Free 
for the asking. 
D. M. FERRY & CO. 
Detroit, Mich. 

Trees, Vines and 

FOB 1893 and 1894. 

IS" Terms on Application. "SI 

ADDRESS, - • Xja "*~* T=t ■ I 'I "J.*, 

Penryn, Placer Co California, 






GEO, C. ROE DING, Manager. 



LODI, . San Joaquin Co., Oal, 


Royal Blenheim and French APRICOTS, 
I.X.L, Nonpariel, Ne P/us Ultra and 

Texas Prolific ALMONDS. 
In Variety, 

No. I Yearling Trees, also Jane Bud Trees 
at Bedrock Prices. 

For Particulars Address 

Lodi, San Joaquin County, Cal. 


Davisville, Oal. 

Write for Catalogue and Prices. 

Any one of the following six collections will be sent free by mail for $1. Plants all distinctly labeled. 



Vegetable Seed*. 

20 p'ok'ee, fine aasortm't 
Flower Heeds. 


5 pkti Orna'tl Foliage. 
5 pkts Climbing Plants. 
5 pkts Annual?. 
5 pkts Perennials. 

2 pkts Biennials. 

3 pkts Ornam't'l Grasses 



H liotropa. 




2 Ohrysan the mums 

2 Cannas. 

1 Tuberose. 

1 Artillery Plant. 

3 SinJe Geraniums. 
2 Scented Geraniums, 

2 Double Geraniums. 

3 Fuchsias. 
1 Begonia. 
1 Heliotrope. 

1 French Oanna. 
1 Tea Rose. 
1 Carnation. 
1 Pelargonium. 
1 Fuchsia. 
1 Begonia, Rex. 
1 Rose Geranium. 
1 Lemon Verbena 
1 White Lily. 

Selection of varieties In collections must In all cases be left to us. Substitution made if necessary. 

Sunset Seed and Plant Co., 

Seed Farm and Nurseries, 


487-9 SangomeSt., 
Write for beautifully illustrated catalogue containing instructions for cultivating. Sent free. 


Tlx© Now Yellow Freestone Feacn! 

RIPHN8 IMHEDI VTELY AFTER THE ALEXANDER (White Cling), which Is the earliest 
peach In market. 

Fruit ig round, of medium size, VKBT HIGHLY COLORED, flesh firm and sweet. 

la no new, nntrted variety. 

Tree healthy, strong grower, and heavy bearer, never having missed a crop. 
A limited number of yearling trees for sale this season. Apply early before stock Ig exhausted. 




FRUIT c*3 



large stock of 


at reduced batbs. 

SEEDS. Kentucky Blue Grass, Clover, Vegetable, Flower and Tree Seeds. 3SEDS. 


3RIN. - - - 516 Battery Street, San Francisco 

P. O. Box 2069. 


Known as Clarke's Early, Is coming to be acknowledged as a world beater. Took a medal at World's Co 
lumbian Exposition. They are bl-sezual; large; firm-fleshed; prolific and uniform in size. They can be 
picked while they are white and will bear shipping to New York and come out a beautiful scarlet or crim- 
son, looking as though made of wax, dotted with golden seeds and painted and varnished by an aitist. 
Their flavor is superb. They originated in Oregon. The first crateB that came to Portland this year were a 
fortnight later than last year. It was latter part of May and best California berries were selling at two 
boxes for a quarter. The Clarkes brought at once 30 cents per box by the crate of 24 boxes. They sold all 
over Puget Sound, and at Spokane, Helena, Butte. Salt Lake, Denver, Omaha and Chicago at highest prices, 
standing a 2000-mile trip without apparent deterioration. We challenge the world to produce their equal 
for excellence of flavor combined with shipping quality. Any amount of references. Price per doz., $1.00, 
sent by mail; by express, large, vigorous plants at buyer's charge, $5 per 100, $20 per 1000. Address 



In Variety for Nurserymen, 
Dealers and Planters. 

Will also contract now to propagate Rooted 
Olive Cuttings for persona who wish to 
plant them in nursery spring of 1894. 


Sixteen pages, mailed free. 






Fruit, Nat and Shade Trees, Grape Vines, Etc., Citrus Fruits, Ornamental Shrubs, 
Flowering Plants, Roses, Palms, Bulbs, Seeds, Etc. 

Fruit and Nut Trees propagated from bearing orchards at Sausal Fruit Farm; Uuirrlgated, Clean aud Healthy. 
Do not fall to correspond before making purchases. Satisfaction guaranteed. 





California Paper-Shell, Nonpariel, Ne Plus Ultra 

and I. X. L. 

A pamphlet on Almonds mailed free of oharge ou application. A largo supply of the GOLDEN PKACH and 
FRENCH PRUNE. All kinds of leading fruit trees for sale. No charges mads lor baling tr<ies. 

AddreM, PERCY "VST. *TO33 A-T. 

DavlevUle Nurseries , Joncord, California 


Missions and Nevadillos. 


Two- Year-Old, 4 to 6 feet High. 

Extra inducements offered to intending buyers both 
as regards choice trees and very low prices. Order at 
once or open correspondence with me. 

J. E. PACKARD, Pomona, Cal. 



Nureery Stock. 

Send and get book on Olive Culture. 


Pomona, Oal. 


Twelve years experience has taught me how to 
PROPERLY root the olive. No artificial heat used. 


Montecito P. 0., 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 


Apply for Catalogue. 
C. F. LOOP & SON, - - Pomona. Cal, 

Pepper's Nurseries. 


For Sale at Low Rates, a General Assort- 
ment of Hardy Deciduous Fruit Trees. 

1 do not buy trees to sell; what Is offered is grown in 
my own grounds aud free from scale bugs. No scale 
bugs of any kind to he found In the Nursery. No agents 
employed. Order d rect from the nursery and prooure 
your trees true to label. Order early, as earlv planting 
Is the most successful with deciduous trees. Prices fur- 
nished on application. 

Address W. H. PKPPKR P. taluma. Cal. 


On California Peach Root, for sale. 

No. 1-6 to 8 ft $50 OO per lOOO 

No. 2—4 to 6 ft 30 CO per 10O0 

No. 3-3 to 4 ft., 15 OO per lOOO 

First class stock. Free from insect pest. Samples 
sent on application. Address 

N. B. HABVBT, Milwaukee, Oregon. 

A practical, explicit and comprehensive book embodying 
the experience and methods of hundreds of successful 
growers, and constituting a trustworthy guide by which the 
inexperienced may successfully produce the fruits for which 
California In famous. 600 pages. Fully illustrated. Price S3. 
Postpaid. Bend for circular. DEWEY PUBLISHING OO. 
Publishers 220 Market Street, San Francisco, Oal. 



January 6, 1894. 







Authorised Capital »l,ooe.oo«. 

Capital paid up aid Knnrtr rand SOO.wwP 
DlTldeafU paid to Stockholder* 7»«,O«0 


A D. LOGAN President 

I, 0. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MOXTPELLIER Ouhltr and Manager 


GeDeral Banking. Deposits received, Gold and Silver. 

BiU» of Exchange bought and sold. 

Loans on wheat and country produoe a specialty. 

January 1, 1S93. A. MOXTPELLIER, Manager. 



Complete and Special Fertilizers 


Fruit, Grain, Sugar Beets, Vegetables, Etc. 



For circulars and other information address 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 

309 & 311 SANSOMB STBEffiT, 
San Francisco. 


The valves and work- 
ing parts of the Fulton 
Pump can be removed, 
repaired and replaced 
without taking the pump 
out of the well. 

Pumps fitted up for all 
depths of wells, ready to 
put in. 

Send for illustrated 
circulars and price list to 

A. T. Ames, 


Manufacturer of Pumps and 


IS THE BEST, because 
It combines simplicity 
of construction with 
power and economy In 
.pace. It can be run 
with natural or manu- 
factured gas or gasoline 
at a cost of 20 to 26 
cents per horse power 
per day. 

It can be used for 
pumping purposes, as 
well as for all purpose* 
where a perfeot engine 
is required, with the 
advantage of lessening 
the risk of explosions. 
X» licensed engineer at 
a high silary needed tc 
operate It 

Send tor circulars and 
prices if a good safe en- 
gine is what you need. 

The Orientdl Lanncl is Perfection, 


Inventor and Manufacturer, 






— nan- 
One pound to 5 gallons of water. 

Thousands of Orchardlsts testify to its 
value, using it In preference to all other 
preparations. Where the Red Seal is ap- 
plied it kills the Insects and at the same 
time forms a coating through which 
others cannot penetrate. When used in 
the above proportions, It is a 


Put up in 8IFTING-TOP CANS, 80 that 
any quantity may be used and the bal- 
ance preserved uninjured. 


194 CnllfornlaSt., San Francisco. 




The Red Seal Lye Is Indispensable. 

USED AS DIRECTED It will take the 
place, and st 76£ less cost, of all other 
alkaline preparations, soaps, etc., now on 
the market ONE CAN will make 10 to 
IS lbs of Bard Soap, or 800 Ins 
of .' oft Soap. See direction! In can. 

It cleans floors, kills roaches and bugs 
of all kinds, cleans milk vessels, tin or 
wood; keeps farming implements bright 
and free from rust; is a perfect disinfect- 
ant; softens water, washes dishes and 
clothes; and can be put to a thousand 
uses In place of soap or other prepara- 

P. C. TOMSON & CO., 

Manufacturers, Philadelphia, Ph. 




First Prizes at the World's Columbian Exposition, 1893. 

PARAFFINE PAINT CO, - . 116 Battery Street, 


E. Q. JUDAH, Agent, - - 221 South Broadway, 






Some reasons why yon should keep H. H. H. Llaiment: 

1st— Because It Is the best for Han or Beast. 

3d— Because It is the Cheapest. One bottle mixed with double Its quantity of oil Is th«n as »tro:-< «»■•: 

3d— Because you don't have to wait for It. You can buy It anvwhere. 


H. H. MOORE & SONS, Druggists. 




The Beat, ftlmplett »ad C'lieape... ConpllBs for Tnnk Hoop*. 

Aleufficient lap of hoop render* It unnecessary to rivet the hoop. It will fit the circle of any tank, egardlMS of rizea 

Mftde in -(/• - to 6t any width of iron 
Price*, •l.eo to 91 .50 per Pair. For tmlc to the trade. liberal dlteoont la quae II tie*. 




Nead for Catalogue. 


W. B. EWER. 


DEWET <5c OO.'S 

Scientific Pre;. 

Patent Agency. 


Inventors on the Pacifio Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old 
experienced, first-class Agency, We have able and trustworthy Associates and Agents in Wash. 
Lngton and the capital oities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our edi- 
torial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original cases in our office, we have 
ather advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other agencies. The 
information accumulated through lotg and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent 
;xamination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of 
inventions bought before us, enables us often, to give advice which will save inventors the 
ixpense of .pplying for Patents upon inventions whioh are not new. Circulars of advioe sent 
free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, T20 Market 8fc S. P. 


Your Grocer Has It. 

Ask For It. 



Makes Three Complete 

Brass Machines. 

Rndorsed by the Lead- 
ins; Entomologist of 
the United States. 

Satisfaction guaranteed or 
money refunded. 

A valuable Illustrated book 
on onr Insect pests given to 
each purchaser. 

We will put this pump in 
competition with any other 

{iump made, costing $16 or 
ess. Address 

2716 Mission St., 8. P. 
Only General Agent of the 
Pacific Coast 

m u *0t BY 



Porteous Improved Scraper 

Patented April 8, 1S83. Patented April 17, 1888 

Manufactured by G. LISSENDEN, 

The attention of the public Is called to this Scraper 
>nd the many varieties of work of which It Is capable, 
juch as Railroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, Levee Build. 
Ing. Leveling Land, Road Making, etc. 

This implement will take up and carry Its load to any 
desired distance. It will distribute the dirt evenly or 
deposit Its load In bulk as desired. It will do the work 
of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. Thousands of these 
Scrapers are in use In all parts of the country. 

gr This Scraper is all steel— the only one manufac- 
tured in the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, 140 \ Steel two-horse, $8 1 . 
Address all orders to Q. LI88BNDEN, Stockton, 





Cancer, Tumor, Catarrh, Piles, Fistula, 
Eczema and all Skin and Womb 

CANCER of tbo nose, eye, lip, ear, neck, breast, stomach 
or womb; in fact, all diseased Internal and external 
organs or tissues, successfully treated, without the 
knife or burning caustic planters, but with soothing, 
balmy magnetic oils. Beware of Imitations as there 
are those who hope to profit by advertising an oil cure 
for these diseases. We are the originators of this sys- 
tem, all others are frauds. 

Correspondence solicited. Consultation free. Testi- 
monials furnished. Address 

Cancer Institute, 

Cor. McAllister and Larkln Sts., San Franiieco, Cel. 


1428 Market r t., San Francisco. 

CANCER, Tumors or Malignant Growths removed 
without knlle or oaustle. A GUARANTEED CURE a 
specialty. Call or send for ci'cular. Over 800 cancers 
preserved in alcohol in our office. Consultation free. 


January 6, 1894. 



JS* Market B,Ef of^T 

Market Review. 

Wednesday Morning, Jan. 3, 1894. 
The year opens on a tame wheat market. The 
conditions remain as at the date of our last report, 
business being especially dull owing to the inter- 
ruptions growing out of the holiday time. Quot- 
able at $1.02% per ctl. for No. i shipping grades, 
with $1.03^ for more choice quality. Milling wheat 
keeps steady at $1.05 to $1.10 per ctl. There are 
intimations of better activity in the immediate 
future, although there is nothing very encouraging 
to offer as to prices. The speculative markets have 
been so broken up by the holidays that they yield 
no instruction, and for that reason the usual tables 
of sales on Call are omitted. 


There is steady tone to the market, though noth- 
ing in the way of buoyancy prevails. Dealers will 
likely be well satisfied if demand enough should 
spring up in the near future to make perceptible in- 
roads on stocks. We quote: Feed, 72K@73^ $ 
ctl. for fair to good quality, 75c for choice bright; 
brewing, 77 l A to 8j l Ac per ctl. 

Dried Fruits. 

Market quiet, with no indications of any immedi- 
ate change. We quote as follows: Apples, 3^ @ 
4J4c ^ tt> for quartered, 3M.@$%c for sliced, and 
7@7J£c for evaporated; Pears, S@6c <p lb for 
bleached halves, and 4@Sc for quarters; bleached 
Peaches, s@7c; sun-dried peaches, 4@5c; Apricots, 
Moorparks, n%@i2%c; do Royals, ri@ii}£c for 
bleacheH and 6@y 1 Ac for sun-dried; Prunes, 4%@ 
44^ c ^ lb for the tour sizes, and 3@4C for ungraded ; 
Plums, 4'A @SC for pitted and 1% to 2c for un- 
pitted; Figs, 3 to 4c for pressed and iJi to 2%c for 
impressed; Wh'te Nectarines. 5 to 6c; Red Nec- 
tarines, 4 to 5c lb. 

RAISINS — We quote: London Layers, $1 to 
$r 25; loose Muscatels, in boxes, 75c to $1; clusters, 
$1 50 to $1.75; loose Muscatels, in sacks, 2K to 
3J£c ^ ft> for 3-cr^wn; 2 to 2%c for 2-crown: dried 
Grapes, 1% to 2c ^ lb. 

General Produce Market. 

OATS — The new year opens fairly well. The 
inquiry is good for the season, with reasonable 
prospects for improvement. We quote as fol- 
lows: Milling, $r, i2>4@i.2o; Surprise, $1.20 
(gi.30; fancy feed, $i.i7^@i.2o; good to choice, 
$t,; common to fair, 97^ c@%i.oj% ; 
Black, 85c@s1.22M; Red, $; Gray, $ 
$ ctl. 

CORN— Trade is rather slow. Quotable at 8o@ 
85c $ ctl. for large Yellow, o,o@95c lor small Yellow, 
and 90@92^c for White. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $20.50(121.50 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote feed at $20 to $21 
per ton; fine kinds lor the table, in large and small 
packages, zU@3 l Ac per pound. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $35 per ton 
from the mill. 

SEEDS— We quote. Mustard, brown, $3(^3.25; 
Yellow, $3 50@4J Canary, imported, $4@4,25; 
do, California, — ; Hemp, 3%c $ lb; Ripe, i& 
@2#; Timothy, 6^c per lb; Alfalfa, 8%@gc per 
lb; Flax, $2 25(3.2.50 per ctl. 

CHOPPED FEED— Quotable at I17.50@18.50 
per ton. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $i8@2t p=r ton. 

MILLSTUFFS— We quote: Rye Flour, 3&C; 
Rye Meal, 3c; Graham Flour, 3c; Oatmeal, 4)£c; 
O it Groats, 5c; Cracked Wheat, 3&c; Buckwheat 
Flour, 50,5^0; Pearl Barley. 4@4^c per lb; 
Normal Nutriment, $3 per case of 1 doz>=n cans; 
Breakfast Delight, $3.25 per case of 2 dozen pack- 

BRAN— Quotable at $i6@i7 per ton. 

HAY — Receipts are not large, but are ample to 
meet all current wants. Quotations are un- 
disturbed. We quote: Wire-bound hay sells 
at $i@2 per ton less than rope-bound bay. Follow- 
ing are wholesale city prices (or rope-bound Hay: 
Wheat, $10 to $13.50; Wheat =nd Oat, $io@i2.5o; 
Wild Oat, $io@i2; AUalfa, $8@io; Barley, $9@n; 
Compressed, $n@i2.i;o; Stock, $8@io # ton. 

STRAW— Quotable" at 45@5SC $ bale. 

HOPS- Dealers do not look for any active trade 
for the next week or two. Quotable at io@i8}£c 

RYE— Quotable at $i@i.02'A $ ctl. 
BUCK WHEAT— Quotable at $i.25@$t.40 # ctl 
GROUND BARLEY— Quotab e at $16.50(^17.50 
per ton. 

POTATOES — Supplies are heavy, with prices 
weak. Wequote: New Potatoes, 2@3C per lb; Sweets, 
85c@$i per ctl; Garnet Chiles, 55@65c; Early 
Rose, 50@6oc; River Burbanks, 35@soc; River 
Red. 50@65c; Salinas Burbanks, 70@85C $ ctl. 

ONIONS Quotable at $i@i.I5 # ctl. 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $t.5o@i,65; 
Blacl<eye, $t 63(0)1.75; Niles, $1.50®! 60 $ ctl. 

BEANS — Trade dull with steady holding of 
strictly desirable stock. No sale for poor goods. 
We quite: Bayos, $1. 90(0)2.05; Butter, $1.75 
@i.9i for small and $2@2 10 for large; Pink, 
$1.30®!. 65; Red. $; Lima, $2@2.i2K; 
Pea, $2@2.2o; Small White, $1,90(3)2.05; Large 
White, $1 9 @2 $ ctl. 

VEGETABLES— Green peas are dull and slow 
of sale. Asparagus moves off fairly well. Rhu- 
barb is in light receipt. Trade generally is 
of quiet order. We quote as follows: As. 
paragus, to@i7Mc ^ H>. ; Mushrooms, 8® 
20c ^ lb.; Rhubarb, 5@7C $ lb ; Green 
Peas, 3@6c; String Beans, 8@I2C; Marrowfat 
Squish, $7(0)8 $ ton; Green Peppers, 8c $ lb. ; To- 
matoes, 25@75C W box; Turnips, 75c $ ctl; Beets, 
75C@$i # sack; Parsnips, $1.25 # ctl; Carro";, 
40@50c; Cabbage, 5o@55c; Garlic, %@ic $ lb; 
Cauliflower, 6o@70c # dozen ; Dry Peppers, 5@7C 
# lb; Dry Okra, z2%@ie,c per lb. 

FRESH FRUIT— Supplies of Apples continue 
in excess of market wants, much of the offer- 
ings still being of poor quality. We quote 
prices as follows: Apples, 75c@$i.25 $ box 
for good to choice, and 25(1^650 for common to 
fair; Lady Apples, 75c@$r $ box; Pears, 25@soc 
per box for common and 75C@$i.25 for choice; 
Persimmons, 40@75c per box; Cranberries, Eastern, 

$ per bbl; do Coos Bay, $3.25@3.7S per 

GRAPES — Receipts are smal', but there is no 
demand. Quotable at 25@5oc box. 

CITRUS FRUIT— Oranges are very slow of 
movement, while prices shape altogether in favor of 
buyers. Domestic Lemons are also more or less 
neglected. We quote as follows: Fair to 
choice Navel Oranges, $1.50(0)2.50 per box; Seed 
lings, $i@r.5o; Vacaville Oranges, small boxes, 
5o@65c; Mandarin Oranges, 65c@$i $ box; 
Mexican Oranges, $2.25(0)2.50 per box; Mexi 
can Limes, $6@7 per box; Lemons, Sicily, $4@5 
California Lemons, $r@2 for common and 
$2.25@3 for good to choice; Bananas, $1.50 
©2.50 per bunch; Hawaiian Pineapples, $2.50 
@3I Mexican Pineapples, $3@4 per dozen. 

NUTS — We quote as follows: Chestnuts, 8® 
$tb; Walnuts, 6%®7%c for hard shell, 8@8%c for 
soft shell and — @— c for paper shell; Chile Walnuts, 
8(2>9c; California Almonds, n@i2C for soft shell 
5@6c for hard shell and i2 l A@\^]Ac for paper shell; 
Peanuts, 3 1 A@4%c\ Hickory Nuts, 5@6c; Filberts, 
io@ioKc," Pecan, 8@gc for rough and nc for pol- 
ished; Brazil Nuts, io@n}£c; Cocoanuts, $4@5 $ 

HONEY — No activity to the market and none ex- 
pected for a time. Wequote: Comb, ioK@iic ^ lb 
for bright, and 8@io for dark to light amber; light 
amber, extracted, 4K@5c; dark, 4$£@4Kc; water 
white, extracted, 5@5J$c lb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 22@23C $ lb. 

BUTTER — Another drop in prices marks the 
opening of the new year. Arrivals are free. We 
quote : Creamery, 28@3oc; fancy dairy, 25(0)270 
good to choice, 22 % @ 24c; common grades, I7@22C 
$ lb; pickled roll. i9@2ic; firkin, i8@i9C; East 
ern ladle-packed, i7@i8c $ lb. 

CHEESE — Choice quality shows firmness, there 
being no large stocks of such product. Common 
grades are plentiful and easy in price. We 
quote as follows : Choice to fancy new, 
nK@i2}{c; fair to good, g@ioAc; Eastern, ordi- 
nary to fine, n@i4C $ lb. 

EGGS — The demand is anything but urgent, 
and stocks diminish very slowly. Wequote: Califor- 
nia ranch, 27(0)300; store lots. 23(0)260; Eastern Eggs, 
2i@23 for ordinary and 24(0)250 # dozen for good 

POULTRY— Turkeys are falling back again and 
the general market is beginning to ease off once 
more, owing to expected Eastern imports. We quote: 
Live Turkeys — Gobblers, 13(0)140 $ lb; Hens, 
I3@i4c; dressed Turkeys, i8@20c; Roosters, 
$4.50® 5. 50 for old and $5@6.5o for young; Fryers, 
$4.50(085; Broilers, $4@5; Hens, $5(86.50; Ducks, 
$S-5°@6.5o; Geese, $i.5o@2 $ pair; Pigeons, $i@ 
1.50 i@ doz. 

GAME— The demand this morning was light, 
and buyers had matters their own way. We quote 
as follows: Quail, $1 to 1.25 $ doz; Canvas- 
backs, $3@6; Mallard, $2.5o@3; Widgeon, $i@ 
1.25; Teal, $t to 1.25; Sprig, $i.75@2; Small Ducks, 
$1 ; Gray Geese, $2(0)2.50 ; White Geese, 
75C@i; Brant, $t@i. 25; English Snipe, $213,2.50$ 
doz ; Common Snipe, 75C@$i ^ doz.; Honkers, 
$3@$3-5o; Hare, $1 to 1.25; Rabbits, $1(0)1.50 
per doz. 

PROVISIONS— We quote as follows: Eastern 
hams, T2@i55£c # lb; California hams, n@i2c; 
Baron, Eastern, extra light, isM@i6^c; medium. 
n@uX c ; do. bght, 12c; do, light, clear. 13® 
@i3Kc; light, medium, boneless, I2%c; Pork, ex- 
tra prime. S13@13.50; do, prime mess, $I4@I5; do, 
mess, $2i@22; do, clear, $20@20. 50; do, extra clear, 
$21 $ bbl; Pigs' Feet, $12.50 $ bbl; Beef, mess, 
bbls, J7.5o@8; do, extra mess, bbls, $8.50@9; do, 
family, $9. 50@io; extra do, $n@n.5o $ bbl; do, 
smoked, io@io}£c; Eastern lard, tierces, 7M@8^c; 
dn prime steam, 10c; Eistern pure, 10-lb pails, nc; 
5-tb pails nKc; 3 lb, ix'Ac; California, io-lb tins, 
ioJ£c;do, 5-lb, nc; do. kegs, nj£®i2c; do, 20-lb 
buckets, nc; compound, 8c for tierces and 8J£c 
for hf bbls. 

WOOL — Much interest is manifested in the con- 
vention of wool-growers that will be held in this 
city on the 10th inst. Trade quiet. We quote 
spring : 

California, year's fleece, 7@9c; do 6 to 8 months, 
7@8c; do Foothill, io@nc; do Northern, I2@i3c; 
do extra Humboldt and Mendocino, n@i3c; Ne- 
vada, choice and light, I2@t4c; do heavy, 8@ioc; 
Oregon. E>stern, choice, io@i2c; do Eastern, poor, 
7(090; do Vallev, 12® 15c. We quote fall: Free 
Mountain, 6@7c; Northern defective, 5@7c; 
Southern and San Joaquin, 3@5C 

HIDES AND SKINS— Quotable as follows: 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers, 57 His up, $ lb. 5 @ — c 4 @ c 

Medium Steers, 48 to 56 lb;. 4 @ — c 3^® c 

Light, 42 to 47 fbs 3 @3'Ac 2'A@3 — c 

Cows, over 50 lbs 3 @3%a 2'A@- c 

Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs 3 @ — c 2 l A@ c 

Stags 2}4@ — c 2 (€b, c 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs 4 @ c 3 @ c 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 tb; 5 @ c 4 @ — c 

Calf Skins, 5 to 10 lb-' 6 @ — c 5 @ c 

Dry Hides, usual selection. 6A@jc; Dry Kips, 6j4 
(ctyc; Calf Skins do, 6K@7c; Cull Hides, Kip and 
Calf, 4c; Pelts, Shearling, io@20c each; do, short, 
2 5@3S C each; do, medium 4o@soc each; do, long 
wool, 50@75c each; Deer Skins, summer, 25c; do, 
good medium, 15c; do, winter, 5c per lb; Goat Skins, 
25@40C apiece tor prime to perfect, io@20c for 
damaged, and 5@ioc each for Kids. 

TALLOW — We quote: Refined, 5c; rendered, 
45i@4^ c : country Tallow, 4Ji@4^c; Grease, 
3@3Ac per lb. 

San Francisco Meat Market. 

Following are the rates for whole carcasses from 
slaughterers to dealers: 

BEEF — First quality, 5K@6c; second quality, 
4X@5<": 'bird quality, 3M@4C $ lb. 

CALVES— Quotable at4@5c lor large, and 6@7c 
$ lb for small. 

MU fTON— Quotable at s'A@6 l Ac $ lb. 

LAM B Quotable at 6@7C $ lb. 

PORK— Live Hogs, on foot, grain fed, heavy and 
medium, 5c; small Hogs 5@55£c; stock Hogs, 
4&@5c; dressed Hogs. 7@?'Ac # lb. 

la the Largest Illustrate, and Leading Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Weekly of the West 
Established 1870. Trial Subscriptions, 60c for 
8 mos. or $2.40 a year (till further notice). DEWEY 
PUBLISHING CO., S30 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Breeders' Directory. 

3fx lines or less In this directory at BOo per line per month. 


V. H. BURSE. 820 Market St., S. F. Registered 
Holstelns, winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums than any herd on the Coast 
Pure registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

Butter and Milk Stock; a>so Thoroughbred Hogs and 
Poultry. Wm. Niles & Co.. Los Angeles, Cal., 
Breeders and Exporters. Established In 1876. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co. Importer & Breeder 
of Registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young Bulls for sale. 

PEBCHERON HORSES.— Pure bred Horses and 
Mares, all ages, and Guaranteed Breeders, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake County, Cal. New 
Catalogue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

PETER SAXE St SON, Llok House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 21 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

JEHSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. Registered Prize 
Herd is owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale, 

U. V. WILLITS, WatsonvlUe, Cal., Black Perch, 
erons. Registered Stallions for sale. 


WM. NILES Sf CO., Los Angeles, Cal, Breeders of 
nearly all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

Cal. Send for Illustrated & Descriptive Catalogue, tree. 

&. Q. HEAD, Napa. Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 


R H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. Breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


MONROE MILLER, Elisio, Ventura Cdunty, Cal., 
Breeder of Registered Berkshire Hogs. 

H. J. PHILPOTT, Niles, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Tecumseh and other oholce strains of Registered 
Poland-China Hogs. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, Cal. Breeder and Importer 
of Thoroughbred Swine. Sma>l Yorkshire Victoria, 
Essex and Poland-China. Superior Stock, new Prices. 

Best Stock; also Dairy Strains of Jerseys and Holsteins. 
Wm. Nlles & Co. Los Angeles, Cal. Established 1876. 

P. H. MURPHY, PerkinB, Sao. Co., Cal.— Breeder of 
Short-Horn Cattle, Poland-China and Berkshire Hogs. 

T. WAITE, Perkins, Cal., breeder of registered 
Berkshire Hogs and Plymouth Rock fowls. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose. r a l. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

CHAS. A. 8TOWE, Stockton, Reglst'r'd BerkshireB. 

In These Dull Times 

Too Can I.nrct ly Increase 

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and engaging in the chicken business 
Send stamp for our catalogue of 
Incubators, Wire Netting, Blooded 
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Alley's Traps, Perforated Zinc Honey Boards. Shipping 
Cases, Cans and Cases for Extracted Honey, Bee Tents, 
ROOT'S GOODS, and everything required by the trade, 
wholesale and retail, 

wm. STYAN. "an Mateo. Cat. 


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Myrtle Street, Oakland. Cat. 

Send Stamp for Circular 

Calves, Yearlings and 2-year-olds 



Baden Station, San Mateo County, Gal 

Tiie cars of the S.,'F. and San Mateo Electric Road 
pass the place. 






The numerous diseases that are usually 
prevalent among very Young Turkeys 
may be prevented by the use of 


Send for Circular. 


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Los Angeles, Cal. 
Direct Importers of 

Large Draft a;d 
Coacn Stalks, 

German Coach English Shires, Percherons, 
Belgians, Cleveland Bays and Yorkshire 
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herd prizes at World's Fair, 1833. Correspondence 
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85 Fine Engravings showing 
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SANTA ROSA, CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National Bank.) 
Importer, Breeder, Exporter. 

S. O White Leghorn 
B. C. Brown Leghorn 
Barred Plymouth Rock 
Black Mmorcas, 

Eggs, $3 per 13. Send for circular. 


The Brighton Herd w«s awardnd Three Sweepstakes 
and Three First Class Premiums ">t the Statu Fair. Sows 
were selected from the leading herds of Ohio. Ovutlon, 
(Vol. 16), heads my herd; purchased from Shellenberger'e 
World's Fair Viiz* Herd. The host is the cheapest. 

October pigs for sale. 

P. H. MURPHY, - - Perkins, Cal. 



Poultry and Eggs for Sale Cheap. 

Tolou3e Geese a Specialty. 

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January 6, 1894. 

Secretary's Column. 

A meeting of the executive committee of 
California State Grange will be held Tues- 
day, Jan. 9, 1894, at 10:30 a. Mi 1 for the 
purpose of transacting such business as 
may properly be brought before it. 

Subordinate granges are reminded to get 
themselves in proper shape for receiving the 
A. W. All members must be clear on the 
books of their respective granges, or in 
other words have their dues paid up to Dec. 
31, 1893, before they are entitled to the 
evidence of good standing. 

We have not as yet mailed all the Sixth 
Degree certificates, owing to not having the 
necessary pasteboard tubes for mailing, 
which have been ordered from San Fran- 
cisco, and, as soon as they are received, will 
immediately mail to their respective destina- 
. tions. 

Inquiry regarding the organization of a 
subordinate grange in the State of Nevada 
has been received at this office, and the re- 
quired information forwarded. 

We have received the quarterly reports of 
Florin. March, Stockton, Petaluma, Locke- 
ford, Glen Ellen, Grimes, Merced, Yuba 
City and Hollister Granges for the quarter 
ending Dec. 31, 1893; also cash from the 
respective granges. 

Sebastopol and Bennett Valley Granges 
will install their officers Jan. 6th at their re- 
spective places of business. A Harvest 
Feast and general good time is expected at 
both places. 

Owing to the holidays, very little grange 
news has been received, outside of elections 
held and the receipt of quarterly reports, 
which in most cases is strictly business. I 
hope that all secretaries and members will 
furnish this office with all grange news in 
their respective districts, as we find it very 
difficult to write grange news without having 
the required Information from your several 

Let us all endeavor to commence this year 
in good shape, and furnish our official organ 
weekly with good, fresh, readable news. Let 
us hear from all sections of the State. 

Wishing you one and all a happy New 
Year, I remain, yours fraternally, 

Don Mills, Secretary. 

Grange Elections. 

Two Rock, No. 152. — Master, W. D. 
Houx; Overseer. Sister E. C. Hinshaw; 
Lecturer, Geo. W. Gaston; Steward, J. C. 
Schwobeda; Assistant Steward, J. R. Den- 
man: Chaplain, S. Q. Barlow; Treasurer, 
C. Nisson; Secretary, R. W. Andrews; 
Gate-Keeper, M. C. Freeman; Ceres, Sister 
M. A. Gaston; Pomona, Sister J. R. Doss; 
Flora, Sister Alice Harvey; Lady Assistant 
Steward, Sister C. Hunt; Trustee, H. 
Church. Date of installation, Jan. 4, 1894 

Petaluma, No. 23. — Master, D. Walls; 
Overseer, M. D. Hopkins; Lecturer, H. 
Johnson; Steward, Mrs. D. M. Winans (re- 
elected); Assistant Steward, W. M. Deck- 
son; Chaplain, D. G. Heald; Treasurer, A. 
S. Hall (re-elected); Secretary, Mrs. T. 
Skillman; Gate-Keeper, C. D. Grover; 
Ceres, Mrs. F. F. Ennis; Pomona, Mrs. J. 
W. McNally; Flora, Miss Mary Kelsey; 
Lady Assistant Steward, Mrs. W. M. Dick- 
son ; Trustee, G. W. Park. Date of instal- 
lation, Jan. 13, 1894. 

Glen Ellen, No. 299. — Master, Mrs. M. 
A. Miner; Overseer, C. A. Kennedy; Lec- 
turer, J. V. Miner; Steward, Benj. Clawson; 
Assistant Steward, H. J. Chauvet; Chaplain, 
Mrs. M. A.Zane; Treasurer, J. M. Zane; Sec- 
retary, E'ecta Z. Bones; Gate Keeper, C. H. 
W. Brunning; Ceres, Mrs. Hendley; Flora, 
Miss Lottie Howard; Pomona, Miss E. 
Kurtz; Lady Assistant Steward, Miss Minnie 
Brunning. Installation of officers Jan. 6, 

Grimes, No. 293. — Master, H. D. 
Strather; Overseer, G. Beckley; Lecturer, 
Mrs. C. P. Wilson; Steward, A. A. Thayer; 
Assistant Steward. J. H. Kilgore; Chaplain, 
Mrs. T. Watson; Treasurer, Mrs. Gleason; 
Secretary, F. G. Schillig; Gate-Keeper, W. 
W. Kilgore; Pomona, Miss Nettie Howell; 
Flora, Miss Sadie Vaun ; Ceres, Miss Liza 
Rose; Lady Assistant Steward, Miss Anna 
lialsdon; Trustee, J. M. Dixon. 

South Sutter, No. 207.— Master, Chas. 
Brown; Overseer, Frank Donaldson; Lec- 
turer, Jessie Donaldson; Steward, H. J. 
Grunewald; Assistant Steward, Ella Decker; 
Chaplain, M. E. Donaldson; Treasurer, 
John W. Jones; Secretary, Francis F. Purin- 
ton; Gate Keeper, Annie Howsley; Ceres, 
Delia Sankey; Pomona, Lucy Purinton; 
Flora, Edna Jackson; Lady Assistant 
Steward, Cornelia Purinton; Trustee, Chas. 
Brown. Date of installation, Jan. 27, 1894. 

March, No. 280.— Master, T. M. Bruce; 
Overseer, Lizzie Sterenson; Lecturer, Aaron 
Pugh; Steward, Ida Fairlee; Assistant Stew- 
ard, M. J. Sterenson; Chaplain, Mrs. E. 

Young; Treasurer, W. T. Lam; Secretary, 
Jennie Clyma; Gate-Keeper, J. H. Myers; 
Ceres, Mrs. Kingsbury; Pomona, Irene 
Kingsbury; Flora, Mrs. M. T. Lam; Lady 
Assistant Steward, Clara Fairlee; Organist, 
N. A. Sterenson; Trustee, J. H. Myers. 

Leoturer's Notes. 

To the Editor: — The virtual promise of 
further hints upon our January topic has 
been forestalled by the editor's comments on 
the "Wilson Bill" and "Minority Report," in 
the Rural Press for Dec. 30th. Instead 
of further exercise of my own pen, I earnest- 
ly recommend California patrons carefully 
to read the editor's keen and pointed para- 
graphs. They will find there the hints I 
contemplated giving, along with some other 
valuable considerations that will greatly aid 
the study of the question, " Does Industry 
Need Protection ?'' Politicians are using it 
for party advantage. Neither party giving 
it fair and unprejudiced attention. It re- 
mains for the farmers and workingmen to do 
so. It is for us to understand and maintain 
the right without fear or favor. Personally 
I thank Editor Holmanfor saving me a frac- 
tion of time that is valuable to a busy man. 


Oakland, Jan. 2, 1894. Lecturer C. S. G. 

Man's Place in Natnre. 

President David Starr Jordan of the Stan- 
ford University lectured last week at Golden 
Gate hall in this city on " Man's Place in 
Nature.'' " Huxley's essay, published 15 
years ago, really tells all that the scientists 
of to-day know," said the speaker. "No 
positive new light has been thrown on the 
subject since then. The study of heredity 
has been taken up to a great extent, scien- 
tists preferring to work upon something 
which will give results, of which the study of 
man's origin has not been particularly pro- 
ductive. Homology is the stamp of hered- 
ity, and the nearness of blood relationship 
is proportioned to the closeness of ho- 

" At one time, when teaching in an East- 
ern medical college, an alligator from Flor- 
ida was given me to dissect for the students. 
They crowded around, all expectant as I 
dissected the beast, anticipating the sight of 
some unusual internal organs. But none 
of any marked prominence were found. The 
students had to look most carefully to notice 
a slight difference in the heart and dia- 
phragm of the alligator to those of a human 
being. Homology has but one explanation. 
We believe we are all descended from the 
common stock, and have but one reason for 
believing so. By the law of continuity, if in 
19 999,999 species of life homology means 
blood relationship, it must indicate the same 
in all other cases. 

" Darwin concluded that if each species 
arises through natural law by processes of 
orderly change, then man must have thus 
arisen. The homology of man with the ape 
family indicates common heredity. Hence 
both man and apes are from some simian 
stock; not the same as any apes now living, 
for all show marks of divergence, but from 
some stock that we could call monkeys; a 
stock, according to Darwin, that were arbo- 
real, hairy, long-armed and had moving, 
pointed ears. On this latter peculiarity 
there exist at this day men who can move 
their ears in a like manner to Darwin's pre- 
historic man-ape. Darwin thought also that 
man at one time had a tail, and the latter- 
day theory is that human beings still have 
tails, which have shrunk away s6 as not to 
project beyond the skin. The question as 
to what has become of the tail is one of later 
development, but as many monkeys were 
and are tailless, argument is productive of 

" A group of man primates may be said 
to be composed of lemurs or semi-apes, 
new world monkeys, old world monkeys and 
man. In general structures man goes with 
the old world monkeys. One great authority 
so grouped the higher order of mammals, 
and took the stand that the orang-outang 
was more akin to man than the common 
monkey. The lemurs or semi-apes were 
monkeys without any of the mischievous or 
cunning habits of the latter-day monkey. In 
special development lies the great hiatus be- 
tween lemurs and apes. Another division 
apparent is the low or high brain capacity 
of the lemurs as against that of man and 
the new world monkeys. In the lemurs it 
was wholly undeveloped. Man goes with 
higher forms, as an old world ape. If we 
were not a prejudiced party, and not our 
own classifiers, we would not hesitate in ac- 
knowledging our brotherhood to these crea- 

" Now touching upon an attempt to sepa- 
rate man as a group from other primates: 
The difference in structural distinctions is 

slight. In the embryo man and all animals 
the tail is just alike. The hair — extremely 
specialized in higher races. Some are well 
covered, all monkeys are so, and the hair 
cells on our bodies are the same as those of 
monkeys. Toes — monkeys have used their 
great toe as a finger for climbing, and that 
member has always showed out prominently. 
In an Asiatic race at this day the great toes 
stand out larger than the others. Attitude— 
that of man becomes more erect, but the 
apes still shamble and shuffle along. The 
jaw— that of the larger apes is greater than 
the human jaw, but in the smaller monkeys 
there is not so great a difference. The 
prominence of the eyebrows goes with the 
development of the jaw, and skulls of the 
larger apes have been obtained the eyebrows 
on which were plainly visible looking on the 
back of the skull. The brain in normal 
man is much larger than in the normal ape. 
The brain of man is growing. Admitedly 
so. Then on that admission we must allow 
that original man's brain was no bigger than 
an ape's. A big monkey's brain of this age 
will compare very favorably with that of 
some pigmy men of Alrica. 

" Mental differences, speech — All races of 
man have some forms of speech. The 
higher animals sing, roar, growl or emit 
noise. As to a monkey's speech, we must 
wait till the result of Professor Garner's in- 
vestigations are all known. Garner insists 
that apes can talk and that he can follow 
their speech, and until evidence to the con- 
trary is forthcoming his statement must 

"The use of tools — The most primitive 
man knew the use at least of flints for pro- 
ducing fire; monkeys have not been known 
to use flints or any tools to prepare anything. 
They may sometimes use an article for some 
visible purpose, such as to throw a tool, but 
no more. Affection — The possession of it 
by man needs no reference to. Apes show 
affection by jealousy, and Rudyard Kipling, 
in a true story, describes the exhibition of a 
tragic power in a monkey's affection. The 
Intelligence shown by an ape is that of a 
narrow-minded, short-sighted old man. 

" My own belief is that man was a no- 
madic ape, but not hairy-tailed. That man's 
body came from the lower ape forms is 
likely, but the intellect had an introduction 
quite separate." The professor concluded 
his lecture by quoting the closing paragraphs 
of Darwin's well-known " Descent of Man." 


TEN 18" dtam. auction and discharge 


with engine attached, 

Together with 

N INK UPRIGHT BOILERS, 65" dlain., V high 

TEN FOOT VAtVKB, and about 800 feet of 18" 
dlam. STEEL FLANGED PIPE In 4, 8 and 

12 toot lengths. 

This machinery Is practically new, and was built 
specially (or use as a wrecking plant. The pumps hare 
each a maximum capacity to deliver 60 tons o( water per 
minute. The plant will be sold very low as a whole or 

Thee pumps are suitable (or irrigating purposes or 
under any conditions whsre a large volume of water H 
requlied to be moved quickly and cheaply. 

For price and other particulars, address 

MORAN BROS. CO., Seattle, Wash. 

RUDY'S PILE SUPPOSITORY is guaranteed to 
cure Piles arjd Constipation, or money refunded. 60 
cents pe r box. Send stamp for circular and Free 
Sample to MARTIN RUDY, Lancaster, Pa. For sale 
by all first-class druggists. 

— Cove, Or., is shipping quantities of ap- 
ples East. 




This College Instructs in Shorthand, Type-Writing, Book 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
for full six months. We have sixteen teachers and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
Its graduates in every part of the State, tr 8END FOR 
CIRCULAR E. P HEALD, Pres. O. 8. H ALKY. See. 

JL choice and cheap properties, 


Send (or circulars giving full particulars. Now is the 

time to buy, before the flood tide aeis in. 


82 Market 8tr«et Ran Francisco. 


Now that the Interest in the culture of the orange Is 
extending so as to embrace nearly all parts of the State, 
a book giving the results of experience In parts of the 
State where the growth of the fruit has been longest pur. 
sueri will be (ound of wide usefulness. 

" Orange Culture in California" was written by Those 
A. Garey of Los Angeles, after many years of practical 
experience and observation In the growth of the fruit. 
It is a well-printed hand-book of 227 pages, and treats of 
nursery practice, planting of orange orchards, cultiva- 
tion and Irrigation, pruning, estimates of cost of planta- 
tions, best varieties, etc 

Thebook is sent post-paid at the reduced price of 76 
cents per copy, in cloth binding. Address DEWEY PUB- 
LISHING CO., Publishers "PaolOo Rural Press," WO 
Market St., San Francisco. 



Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 


ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. T. R. BAL. LINGER, Grain Salesman. 


Prize Herd of Southern California. 


SESSIONS & CO., Los Angeles, Cal. 

P. ' . Box 688. 


Chickens are easily and successfully 
raised by using the Petaluma Incu- 
bator* and Brooders. Our illus- 
trated catalogue tells all about It. Don't 
buy any but the Petaluma if you want strong, vigorous chicks. We 
are Pacific Coast Headquarters for Bone and Clover Cutters, Markers, 
Books, Caponizing Tools, Fountains, Flood's Roup Cure, Morris 
Poultry Cure, Creosozoue the great chicken-lice killer and every other 
article required by poultry misers. See the machines in operation at 
our exhibit with the Norwalk Ostrich Farm, Midwinter Fair, hatch- 
ing ostriches and all kinds of eggs. Catalogue free, if you want It, 
write to us. PETALl ItlA INCI BtTOB CO., 

750-752-754-756 Main St., Petaluma, Cal. 

Send lor Price Lists 

And all Articles used 
by Hunters and 



January 6, 1894. 


List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer 
Patent Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 



610,868.— Self-Laying Tback— A. P. Anderson, Oriental 
N«v _ _ 

510 674.— Dumping Car— D. P. Cameron, S. F. 

610,675 —Safety Goard for Cars— I. P. Clarke 
nv da, Cal. , A 

610,409.— Typewriter— W. S. Cress, Portla-d, Ogn. 

610,692 — Turn table— E W. Edwaide, S. F. 

610,593.— Signal for Cable Roads— E. W. Edwards, S. F. 

510 694 — Air Brake-J. Erdody, S. F. 

510, 7'9 — Lubricator— L. Fawcett, Eureka, Cal, 

510 638.— Elevator— H. B. Gale, S F. 

610 786 —Furnace Door— E. W. Harris, Palisade, Nev. 

510,802. — Gate — J. E. Knapp, Brownsville, Ogn. 

610,810. — Tablet — A. Marks, S. F. 

610 647. — Conduit — J. P. Michifll, S. F. 

510 649 —Closet Tanks— C. Ottershagen, Portland, Ogn. 
610,521.— Pipe Organ— F. F. Shoenstein., 8. F 
610,824.— kucrle— P. B. Southworth, Marysvllle, C»l. 
610,622.— Cash Register— E. T. Taylor, Oakland, Cal. 
610,454.— Bar Bounding Machine— Wagner & Beaure- 
gard, S. F. 

22,964.— Badge Design— J. L. Sale, S. F. 


610,679— Gab Engine— Barrett & Da'y, S. F. 
511, lu9— Hay-Loader— F M Bi'd, Wenatchee, Wash. 
511,117— • * r Coupling— S. C. Broun, Magara, Or. 
611,076— Hydr»ulic Time Apparatus — J. F. Franke, 

Sin a Ana, Cal 
511,298— Brake Shoe— J. T Hall, S. F. 
511,149— Filter— O. K Lamb, S F. 
10,019— Toy— J D. Latimer, S F. 
511,243— self Binder — J. M. Laurence, Mew Whatcom, 

611,062 -Lamp Draft Regulator— J. W. Lawsou, San 
B in .r lino, Cal 

611 054— Lamp- Filler -I. W. Lord, CucamoDga, Cal. 
511,304— Paving Block— E. V. Map 1, Antioch Cal. 
51 i, ;J4— Telegraph Relay— F. P. Medina, S. F. 

511 057— Tool-Holder- F. Obiols, Ventura, Cal 
611,249— Hollow Tile, Etc —O. P. Ouain, Spokane, 


610,990— Stamp Stem Guide— T. Pilkington, S. F. 
610,986— Catapult- C. W Renear, Stockton, Cal. 
611, 54— Electric Railway W.S.Smith Berkeley, Cal. 
510 944— Stringing P.anos— C. S. Weber, San Jose, Cal. 

Note.— Copies of TJ. 8. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co. in the shortest time possible (by mail or 
telegraphic order). American a> d Foreign patents obtained 
and general patent business for Pacific Coast, inventors 
transacted with perfect security, at reasonable rates, and in 
the Bbortest possible time. 


the Water of 

the Great 

r eed$, Mapts, tie. 


"Gold Dust Cling," says H. E. Van Deman, 
ex-U. S Pomologist, "is a yellow cling of medium 
size, round and regular in shape, and very firm 
in rieah. The color is very attractive, being dark 
yellow with a very red cheek. It bears heavily 
and carries to market with very little damage. 
Coming as it does before the main peach crop is 
gathered, it is about the first yellow cling of any 
special value and therefore finds a ready sale. 
Each year it gains in favor, but as it is a variety 
but recently originated the public know little of 
it. It is a very profitable variety." Price $1 each, 
$5 per half dozen. For sale by SACRAMENTO 
HIGH-GRADE Fruit Trees, Walnut Grove.Sac- 
rameato County, California. Our Specialties- 
Genuine Tragedy Prunes, Clyman and Japan 
Plums on true Myrobolan whole root seedlings— 
we use no pipce roots nor cuttings; price 15 cents 
each; Sacramento River Bartletts and Peaches- 
price 10 cents each. Large qua tities at lower 
rates. We guarantee our trees true to 



On Qold Dust Clings, 32$% off on Plums 
and Prunes, and 26% off on Pears and 
Peaches. In orde' to find out who reads 
the above advertisem nt we offer this 
disc >unt for the next thirty d»ys. 

Where do the waters of Lake Michigan 
come from ? is an old question, and it is a 
question as old as the artesian wells, says 
the Chicago Herald. Where do their 
waters come from? Colonel Foster, an 
eminent civil engineer, for many years in 
charge of Government interests on the 
lake, was fond of talking on the first subject. 
*' Every drop of those waters," he was often 
heard to declare, "came from the Rocky 
mountains." His theory was that they were 
brought here snbterraneously, but he never, 
to our knowledge, marked out the course of 
the subterranean stream. 

He announced that as bis conviction long 
before— indeed, he died before— the sinking 
of artesian wells in Chicago, and the con- 
sequent discovery of the now undoubted 

William B. Ogden held the same view, 
and used at times to make himself very in- 
teresting in expatiating upon it. With him, 
as well as with Colonel Foster, it was no 
more than a theory, but he adhered to it 

Mr. Cregier, who is scientific before he is 
a politician, is wont to talk approvingly ol 
the theory in a manner to convince any man. 

The phenomenon is the running out of 
this lake through the others of the easterly 
chain and over Niagara Falls of an incalcu- 
lable quantity of water, and this continually 
every minute in the hour, every hour in the 
day, every day in the year, and every year 
in progressive time ! 

The lake has no visible inlets; where, 
then, does it get its replenishment ? From 
the Rocky mountains. 

Through rents and crevices, down into 
caverns at the roots of these mountains, pour 
ever the waters from melting snow. Four 
thousand feet they sink to strike a gravity 
incline that levels with their floor under 

Under this city and elsewhere on the 
west side of Lake Michigan this is the proved 
theory, theory as good as proved — the snow- 
covered Rocky mountains are constantly 
sending their waters to supply flowage and 
evaporation that is ever going forward in the 
watery expanse. 

— The Southern Pacific earnings for 1893 
will make a gratifying showing. In 1892 the 
gross earnings amounted to $48,972,000 and 
the operating expenses were $31,288,000, 
giving the net result of $17,684,000 to the 
good. The operating expenses for this year 
will aggregate about the same as last year, 
and though the officers of the company ad- 
mit that they look for a slight decrease in 
the net earnings they think the falling off 
this year will be very slight. The difference 
will certainly be smaller proportionately 
than was shown at the end of October in 
this year, for the reason that the November 
and December receipts were much in excess 
of the receipts of those months last year. 


Grown on high rolling fir land without irrigation or 
manure. 8aO OOO Prunes — French, Italian, Silver 
and Golden. Pearlies— E. Crawford, Alexander, Ams- 
den, Foster, Muir, Ma'ta, and 20 other kinds, Including 
K«riy Charlotte the greatest ptach that Nature has 
yet invented (Write to us about it.) flams — Bur- 
bank, Satsumas, Ogon. Clyman, Trag"dy, Boton, Colum- 
bia, and a dozen others. Clark's Early Straw- 
berry. If you want the above in quantity, we will give 
you the finest trees grown, htalthy, true to name and at 
u> precedentedly low prices. Address PILKINGTON 
& CO., Portland, Or., or Dr. J. B. Pilkington, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 


Fine for Canning, Drying and Shipping. 

They run 3 and 4 to the pound. The Largest and Finest 
fruit of the Aprioot variety. 


N. B SMI TH, Ventura, Ventura Co., Cal. 


I hive some 15 000 Lisbon and Eureka Lemon trees, 
budded from my o*n b arlng orchard, for sile cheap. 
NATHAN W. BLANCHaRD Santa Paula, Cal. 


One year old, for sale at prices to suit the times. 









Embodying the Experience and Methods of Hundred? 
of Successful Growers, and Constituting a Trust- 
worthy Guide by which the Inexperienced 
may Successfully Produce the Fruits 
for w i Ich California is Famous 



Assoc. Prof. Agriculture, Horticulture and Entomology 
University of California; Horticultural Editor 
Pacific Rural Prbss, San Francisco; Sec'y 
California State Horticultural So- 
ciety; Pres. California State 
Floral Sooiety; Eto. 

Large Octavo— 599 Pages, Fully Illustrated. 




Publishers Paoifio Rural Press, 
2i0 Market Street,- Elevator, 12 Front Street 


^Colossal Pansies. 

This pure stra'n of Pansies cannot be aur- 
passed for brilliancy of colors, mammotu size, 
luxuriant growth and rich blending of gay col- 
ors, while tbfir profu ion of bloom is truly 
wonderful. The flowers possess great sub- 
stance t-nd a*eof the most perfect form, and 
frequently measure three or Jour inches across. 
There are over one hundred different shades 
and markings, the numerous blending** »i*d 
combination* being of exquisite beautv. This 
lovely strain is so beaut f ul that no description 
or praise can do it justice, and we can safely 
say that those who sow this strain are sure to 
be delighted. By Mail, 1 Pkt. 4(Jc. 

We will mall free, on application, our Beautifully Illus- 
trated Catalogue containing description and prices of GkABS, 
Vegetable and Flower Seeds of all descriptions; Fruit Trees, etc. tZWIt will be to your advantage to send for %l. 

Address: SEVIN VINCENT & C X . 607 Pansome St., Baa Francesco. 





Also Fine Stock of Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrnbs, Palms, Roses and Carnations, 


Correspondence Solicited. 



FOR SALE— 50,000 Trees on Myrobolan Stock. 

Imported from one of the first French nurseries. Scions from an orchard near Saratoga. Fruit raised In this 
celebrated district has taken for ua six first-class awards, INCLUDING HIGHEST AWARD, COLUMBIAN 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., 316 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 
Agents for Saratoga Packing Company. 

Or to HERBERT BROS., 24 North First St ) QAW TnqP 

HARttY POoTLEIHWAITE, 18 Fountain St. f BA ™ Ju31! '- 

We Grow T h f r a ee M%onof s Roses Annually 

Many other things as largely. Are headquarters for the choicest 
Fruitand Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Roses. Plants, 
Seeds. Our elegant 168 page Catalogue free; contains everything good, 
Old or new, with natural illustrations, true descriptions, right prices, square 
dealing ; don't buy before seeing it. Seeds, small size trees, etc. by 
mail, larger by freight or express ; sale arrival and satisfaction guaranteed. 
40th Year, 1000 Acres, 28 Greenhouses. 

THE STORRS & HARRISON CO,, Box 28 Painesville, Ohio. 






This Is the Standard Work on the Ralaln Industry In California. It has been 
approved by Prof. Hilgard, Prof. Wlckson, Mr. Ohas. A. Wetmore and a multitude of 
Practical Raisin Growers. 

Sold only by the DEWEY PCBLISHINO CO. or lta Agents afl lhe uniform price of 
$80O, postage prepaid. Orders should be addressed: 


320 Market St., San Francisco, 



January 6, 1894. 

Deere Gazelle Gang Plow 

NEW FOR 1893-94. 





U niform 
A Perfect 

DEERE & COMPANY, Moline, Illinois 





Spark's "Mammoth" Apricot, 



Ventura County California. 

An Excellent Apricot for Canning and 
Drying. Fine Shipper, as the Following Tes- 
timonials will Show. It la a Regular Bearer, 
Requires but Little Thinning and Runs Three 
and Four to the Pound. A Most Luscious 
*lttv->r. SmMI Hit- Ripens Just at the Close 
of the Royal. Growers Intending to Plant 
Apricots Should Obtain I his Most Excellent 

To quote the Pacific Rural Prem of August 8th: 

"The MAMMOTH is extra Urge, exceeding, we bs- 
lieve, ev n the Moorpark. It is of very symmetrical 
lorra, high e lor, and seenn to tipen fu^ly ai d evenly, 
whic i U, o( course, a very important point It is ve y 
rich ano j lev when fully ripe, and it has exceptionally 
giod keeping and t-hlpptng qualities. No diubt all apri- 
cot growers will dea're to iry this rromlsing variety, if 
It doei everywhere as it dots In Ventura, it will be a 
great acquisition to the apricot list." 

NIAGARA FALLS, August 8, 1893. 
N. B. Smith, Dkar Sir: — The " 'c jta" arrived in 
Chicago in fl'St rate condition on tbe 27th, six days after 
thfy were thlpp d. and they were beauties. Some of 
them kept in tood condition until August 1st and 2d. 
Thev are the best keepers I ever saw and I shall try them 
at Yuma. Yours truly, H. W. BLM3DEL. 

Mr. Blalsdel has Large Interest? at Yuma. 
Six Days In a Hot Express Car, and Kept 
Six Days Thereafter, Is a Pretty Good Test 
of Their Shipping and Keeping Qualities. 

HXTa. B. Sxxiitlx, 

Ventura County California. 


Who ride in thoee famous 


are protected from the storm. They never have lame hackr. They never sliD or 
i SJGtSXJS Si " ut Their nWk Is not churned. TIIKV MVK J.Oil«J 
AND Til t: Y rKOsPKR, y u can get full particulars by writing the 





Teaches How to 
Sent on Trial mm Make Money with 

Six Months for W ■ #s^ A Few Hens. 


it Is well worth $1.00. Send stamps. Sample frro. 
C1DU nnill TDV'sthfniiiii.oi it. Mention this ud. 
t flUm-rUUL I HI L a. Johnson & Co., Huston, iUm* 

AN 01 D STYLE pglverizkb, < 

«H ULU « » » Lt one small oov and a i 

I by 

THF LATFST STY1 F ''"-'lvkrizer. o P er- 

1 t LH I CO I «3 I I LC fttednyon^smallboy. 


G»lvp.stoh, Tax., Dec. 50, '93. 
Messrs. T ■ UM AM. HOOKER at Co., an Francisco, 
Cal.— Gentlemen: The H *CI KIC etP .» UKR which I 
have purchased from you has done noble work io getting 
raw prairie land with about nix inches of tough sod In 
th ruighand Una condition In fact, I believe that my 
land Is in twice as good condition as that of any of the 
neighbors whose land has been In cultlva'ion for a 
period of time and who have used other kinds of Imple- 
ments. Yours truly. W. TERRY, 

Solicitor for Texas of the Santa Fe Ry. Co. 

Write us for full particulars. 



school ol Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
Open All Tear. 
A, VAN DER NAILLKN. President. 
Assaying of Ores, t2t; Bullion and Chlortnatlon Assay, 
$26; Bloapipe Assay, $10. Full course of assaving, $60 
ESTABLISHED 1-W aV Sand for circular. 


At the Midwinter Fair. 

This great aggregation of industries and entertainments 
is progressing toward completion as rapidly as circum- 
stances will permit. Every day shows notable advances, 
and visitors who place a week between calls are surprised 
at the developments which have progressed as they pro- 
ceeded. There is a vast amount of work still to be 
done and amounts of material still to be transported and 
set up. There was a great fire in Chicago last week, which 
destroyed a considerable portion of the White City. Many 
exhibits awaiting shipment to our Midwinter Fair nar- 
rowly escaped destruction. - Fortunately there was only 
trifling injury done to these displays, but possibly the 
wreckage may retard shipment. California exhibitors, 
though putting forth every exertion, are still far from 
ready with their buildings and their displays in the main 
structures, The authorities contemplate the formal open- 
ing about January 20th, but the finished exposition must 
come somewhat later than that. 

To come nearer to the buildings than we have done in 
previous illustrations, we give on this page a picture of 
one of the entrances to the Agricultural and Horticultural 
building. The photographic view was taken by Taber on 
December 10th, so that at the present day the building is 
ranch further advanced toward completion. The ribs of 
the great dome now hold the glass, which of course adds 

vastly to the finish. The debris of the builders is also 
cleared away, and the building is now being tenanted by 
the exhibits, which have, we understand, nearly or quite 
covered the available space. Annexes, too, have been, 
and others will be, constructed for the accommodation of 
special classes of exhibits. 

The building, of which we show an entrance on this 
page, is generally acknowledged to be one of the hand- 
somest and most fitting of all the Fair structures. It fol- 
lows the lines of the new and very popular mission type. 
The design is by Samuel Newsom, who has produced an 
ornate an artistic effect. The building may be said to be 
in three parts, one of which is really an annex in the 
form of a tall redwood tower, about 80 feet high and 25 
feet square. It will be connected with the main structure 
by a bridge. Of the main building, the portion next the 
tower will be rectangular in form, with an open court in 
the center. This portion is intended particularly for agri- 
cultural exhibits, and in its spacious galleries the products 
of the field and market garden will be exhibited. The 
remainder of the building will be covered by a huge dome 
100 feet high, which is shown in the engraving. Around 
it there will be a roof garden, and within it the treasures 
of the garden can be displayed. The exterior of the 
building, as this entrance intimates, will be richly orna- 
mented. It is to be 400 feet long and 200 feet wide, and 
completed at a cost of $70,000. 

Just as we go to press on Wednesday the announce- 
ment is made of the failure of the firm of Walter F. Beck 
& Co., the largest commission house on the Pacific coast. 
The firm has made an assignment for the benefit of its 
creditors. The liabilities of the firm amount to $750,000, 
though the schedule filed shows but $315,513. As to the 
assets, nothing whatever can be stated. They may cover 
the liabilities, and again they may fall far short. The 
firm has been dealing in dried and canned fruits, has op- 
erated canneries both for fruits and salmon on its own 
account, and, in short, has been doing an immense and 
varied business. It has suffered somewhat from the 
peculations of an employe, but the failure must be traced 
to other causes. It will take several days, probably, to 
reach a full statement of the matter. 

The Viticultural Commissioners have commenced a 
campaign against certain features of the Wilson tariff law 
which would operate to the detriment of th« wine and 
grape interests. This fight will be expensive, and the 
commission will be obliged to retrench somewhat in order 
to accomplish its ends in this direction. 

A special tbain of thirty cars of beef cattle was 
shipped from Carson, Nevada, on Tuesday, to San Fran- 
cisco. It is the largest shipment ever made out of the 




January 13, 18S>4. 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market St.: Elevator, 12 Front St., San Franoisco., Col. 

Ass-uil SumcRiPTioN Rate Three Dollars a fo*r. While this notice 
iuuears, ... «uUcribor« paying #3 In advance will receive 15 months (one year 
a !m ij weeka) credit. For $3 in advance, 10 months. For $1 in »°>»? cei fi ™ 
in juths. Trial snbscriptlons for twelve weeks, paid In advance, each 50 cent*. 


1 Wttk. I Month. S MotUht. I Year. 

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H , If Inch (1 square 1.00 J.50 6.60 32.00 

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Registered at 8. F. Post Office as secon d-claw mall matter. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

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or by personal letter. The answer will be given as promptly as pra cticable. 


J. F. HALLOKAK General Manager 

K. J. WICKSON Specla ^Oontrlbntor 

San Francisco, January 13, 1894. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— Agricultural and Horticultural Building at the 

fDI roRlALa— AUhe Midwinter Fair; Miscellaneous, 81. The Week; 

Some Reflections for Fruit Producers; The Government Agricultural 

Work; Miscellaneous, 22. The State Fruit Exchange; The Mule in 

Agriculture; From an Independent Standpoint, 23. 

CORRESPONDENCE. — Fruit Transportation, 2*. , 

THE DAIRY —What Governor Hoard Thinks of Cow-Keeping; Cow 

Losing Her Cud; Creameries in Humboldt County; Black Pepsin 

Brings its Own Reward, 26. - . ... 

POULTRY YARD —The Chance for Profit in Poultry; Dryness in the 

Poultry House, 25. How a Florida Woman Manages a Setting Hen; 

Give the Hens Teeth, 26. 
TRACK AND FARM.— Shall Farmers.Breed Horses.' 26. 
THE FIELD.— Significant ChangeB in American Agriculture, 26. 
THE STABLE.— How to Breed Mules, 27. 
CEREAL CROPS.-lndiau Wheat Production, 27 

THE IRRIGATION1ST.— Irrigation Practices in Eastern Washington, 


HORTICULTURE— California Canned Goods; Meeting of the County 

Commissioners; Room for More Fruit, 28. 


PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Random Thoughts;' From PeEcadero; 
From Yuba City; San Jose Grange; The Secretary's Column; Grange 
Electious; From Watsouvllle, 32. From Waterloo Grange. 33. 

FRUIT MARKETING.— How Much. More Fruit Should the East Take'.' 

MARKET REPORTS.— The I-ocal Produce Market, 37. 




,.l 0ws _The Oliver Chilled Plo * Works 40 

Anneot Stock — N. B Smith, Ventura ... 40 

Wagons. Buggies, Harness, Etc.— California Wagon & Carriage Co 29 

Nur-ery Stock— J. J. H Gregory & Son, Marblehead, Mats 39 

Farm Tools— S. L. Allen & < o , Philadelphia 29 

VialcbtB, Jewelry. Etc.— Johu H Drumgold 40 

Nuiveiy Stock— K. W. Baneldes & Co.. Lawience, Kansas 40 

Slump Pulier— H. L. Bennett & Co. , Weslerville, Ohio 34 

see Advertising Cvluinns. 

The Week. 

The cold snap of 1S94 cornea rather early in January, 
and if we get along wilh one bucIi snap, as we usually 
do, we have escaped reasonably well. The dispatches 
from the south at the close of last week were as usual sen- 
sational as to extent of injury. Later accounts show that 
earlier reports were gross exaggerations. It seems that 
in a few orchards on the low lands the loss was heavy. 
These instances, however, are very few. Many orchards 
have been scarcely touched, and others have escaped en- 
tirely. Nearly all the reports brought to the Riverside 
Fruit Exchange on Tuesday were of like reassuring char- 
acter. From i> to 10 per cent is now believed to represent 
the damage. It should be remembered that the orange 
crop of this year is an enormous one. The loss of a small 
percentage will not cut much of a figure in the total re- 
turns. But of course there are individual growers here 
and there who will lose considerably, but in the higher 
slopes and mesas, where the chief orchards are situated, 
there has been little harm done. Probably a high wind 
would have injured much more fruit than did the frost. 

Although such fortunate reports as these come from 
careful examination of the citrus regions, the temperature 
was respectably low everywhere, and those who enjoy a 
little something to brace them up from the " enervating 
effects of a semi-tropical climate" must have had it. And 
to get this without injuring winter fruits and without harm 
to the tender plants in the flower gardens and parks is 
something Oalifornia possesses in marked contrast to other 
parts of the country. Just about that much of winter 
goes with a relish and has no after effects. 

Sak Diego seems to be advancing with the proposition 
to bond the county for better roads. At a public meeting 
called by the supervisors, on Tuesday, resolutions were 
adopted recommending the submission, at the next regular 
election, of the question of raising $100,000 by a bond 
issue, for the construction of five main roads extending in 
various directions over the county, and for the improve- 
ment of laterals. Great interest is manifested, and all the 
members of the board of supervisors favor the issuance of 
bonds, hence the recommendation of the convention will 
be adopted. 

Some Reflections lor Fruit Producers. 

If the world-wide complaint of agriculturists be well 
founded, that their annual product no longer sustains 
them according to the standard of comfort attained by 
other classes of no more intelligence and thrift, it is prob- 
ably because labor-saving appliances have resulted in the 
production of more food than mankind requires, or at least 
more than the social machinery can so distribute as to 
get eaten. Doubtless there are hungry men enough to 
relieve the overflowing granaries. 

Now, all food competes with all other food. A man can 
eat but so much. By as much as we can persuade him to 
eat prunes and olives, by so much, or nearly so much, we 
diminish the market for beef and potatoes. There is, 
therefore, constantly going on the inevitable competition 
between the classes and sections producing the varied 
food products, just as within each class there is a strug- 
gle between individuals. For the past quarter of a cen 
tury there has been a rapid increase in the amount of 
fruit consumed as compared to other food products, and 
the rate of increase continues. All those portions of earth 
which are fairly adapted to raising fruit are now being 
" exploited " for fruit production. By " exploit " is 
meant that land-owners are striving to make land 
sales at prices which are not justified by any pos- 
sible annual yield from the property, unless it 
be from a fruit crop. This is the case in Australia, South 
Africa and California. In all southern Europe it is certain 
that the fruit acreage is largely increasing in the hope of 
advanced profits. There are great areas in South America 
where, apparently, an enterprising population is the only 
thing wanting to ensure a great fruit product. All these 
fruits will compete with each other and with other food 
materials in the markets of the countries which produce 
no surplus of fruits. 

Assuming equal intelligence, vigor and thrift in the 
people of the different fruit-producing regions, the matter 
of supremacy among them is one purely of physical geo- 
graphy. In the end the country will conquer which na- 
ture has beat fitted for producing fruit. On this score we 
have probably nothing to fear; it is almost certain that in 
a struggle for existence by fruit raising Oalifornia will be 
in good shape when all other present fruit-producing 
countries are done up. Our natural conditions are most 
favorable, the average intelligence of the farmers higher 
and their average vigor equal to any and greater than 
most. In one essential we are doubtless deficient, and 
that is in thrift. It is probable that the proportion of 
farmers who habitually exceed their incomes is larger in 
California than elsewhere. It is in the air. 

This larger view of affairs is perhaps requisite to an ade- 
quate understanding of our position. It ia a characteristic 
failing of farmers that they do not know what even their 
neighbois are doing, much less what mankind is doing; 
and yet the doings not only of their neighbor, but of man- 
kind, affect their annual incomes. 

Coming now to California, some orcbardiata are making 
money and some are not. Since all fruit of similar quality 
and shipped at the same season brings about the same 
price, the difference in profit must arise irom a difference 
in cost of production, or difference in the expense of 
selling. Some men can doubtless make a fair profit if 
they sell green fruit at $20 per ton — and great quantities 
are sold much cheaper. If so, all might do the same if 
they had invested in the fruit business with the same 
judgment. But that is not the case. The mass of our 
fruit is raised, not by the large growers, whose names we 
all know and from whose carefully kept books come the 
only accurate figures available, but by small growers, 
many of whom have invested or incurred debt with poor 
judgment, who keep no books and don't know what their 
fruit costs them. 

And costs will inevitably differ. The cost of fruit to 
the small grower, who has only his farm to live by, are his 
family and working expenses, whatever they may be — 
since these have to be met — and the intereat on hia invest- 
ment. It is useless to show such a man that some can 
make money raising fruit at $20 per ton. He may know 
that if he does not get more he will in time lose hia farm, 
unless he reduces his standard of comfort possibly to that 
of the French or even Bulgarian peasant. His invest- 
ment or his indebtedness may have been made with bad 
judgment, but it is made. If it ia investment, he may 
maintain his standard of comfort and consider that he ap- 
plies the interest that way. If it is indebtedness, he must 
live cheaply or have trouble. The small grower will usu- 
ally have less information, experience and skill than the 
large grower, so that his ratio of first-class to inferior fruit 
will be less, and his net proceeds decreased accordingly. 
This, however, ia by no means universal. Sometimes it is 
the other way. There is also to be considered the very 
large class of salaried and small business men who have 
invested in fruit farms, very few of whom probably get 

expenses from them. They put outside money into their 
farms year by year, and thus compete with those who 
must live by their farms alone — not unfairly, perhaps, but 
very unfortunately for both. 

The large grower has a very great advantage in selling. 
He is usually a good business man, and his crop is large 
and its quality known. He is able to inform himself of 
markets, and sell at the actual necessary coat of Belling in 
the ultimate market; or, if he apeculates by selling to a 
middleman, he does so on equal terms with the purchaser. 
Sometimes he apeculates by buying of his less informed 
neighbor. The cost of marketing a product is the differ- 
ence between the price paid by the producer and that re- 
ceived by the consumer. This difference averages very 
much less to the large grower than to the small. 

It is to the interest of California to have the number of 
small growers ot fruit indefinitely multiplied, if with in- 
definite multiplication they can all continue prosperous. 
It is a vision of happy homes and contented people. It is 
not to the interest of California that it have a population 
which its industries do not support in comfort. 

It is probable that California can and will support in 
comfort, in fruit growing, a population vastly larger than 
at present. That may come finally by the survival of the 
fittest after a severe struggle, or come speedily by the wise 
and united action of those now engaged in the industry. 
Some of those are trying by State co-operation to bring it 
about sooner than it would otherwise come, and to the 
profit of those now engaged in the business. To do that 
work profitably it is requisite to fearlessly consider the en- 
tire situation, that we may direct our efforts to the leal 
evils. If the majority of growers are making money and 
paying off their debts we should do best to let well enough 
alone. If many are running behind and dragging the 
more prosperous down with them there is need of a remedy, 
which all, both strong and week, should unite in devising 
and applying. 

The Government Agricultural Work. 

There seems to be some apprehension at the East that 
the policy of the present Administration is to curtail and 
abridge the work of the Government for the promotion of 
the agricultural interest. We do not refer to phases of 
the proposed tariff which place some of our agricultural 
producers at the mercy of foreign producers of the same 
articles. There has been already aroused an indignant 
protest against such enactments, which it would seem 
should cause the Administration to pause in its ruin-carry- 
ing. Nothing that we could say would probably add an 
atom to the weight of the cry against such legislative ac- 
tion. There is, however, another phase of the Administra- 
tion's policy which we should think could be easily modi- 
fied by a general declaration of the popular will. 

Our Eastern agricultural exchanges fear that the Gov- 
ernment provision for experimental work in agriculture, 
which has already done so much good at home and won 
ua such credit abroad, may be in some way interfered 
with. There seems a possibility that the appropriation 
for such work may fall between two stools, in this way: 
The Secretary of Agriculture protests against having on 
the agricultural appropriation bill the item for the support 
of experiment stations, because (ostensibly) he does not 
have any control over the expenditure. Thus, he strikes 
out this item in his estimate for the coming year and 
then seema to claim credit for saving so much — according 
to his own showing it is saving what he cannot spend, a 
method of economy which does not carry much moral 
force, to say the least of it. As, then, the Secretary of 
Agriculture leaves this item out of his budget, and the 
Secretary of the Treasury does not insert it in his budget 
of the general expenditures of the Government, the item 
seems to fall somewhere between the two. Of course it 
does not fall silently, because Mr. Hatch, Chairman of the 
Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representa- 
tives, raises bis voice in Congress in thia manner: 

" Deducting from the annual amount appropriated for the 
Department of Agriculture the $1,000,000 that ia given to the 
Weather Bureau, and the $720,000 for the experiment stations 
in the States, only about $1,000,000 is left for the agricultural 
interests. Yet the President says in hia message that the 
farmers represent more than one-half of the people of the 
United Statea, and that their labors resulted in $800,000,000 be- 
ing paid to thia country for agricultural exports. The repairs 
to the ironclad that is dancing attendance upon the nations of 
the earth, and affording an opportunity for some admiral or 
commodore to get us into a row, more than overbalances all 
that is appropriated in any one year for the Department of 

" If the Administration ia really in earnest," concluded Mr. 
Hatch, " and desires to cut down appropriations that are of no 
benefit to the United States, I could modestly suggest that there 
are several other directions in which this can be done, rather 
than destroy or cripple the one department of the Government 
in which more than one-half of the people have a direot con- 
tact and intereat. Outside of the postofflce department the 
masses of the people come more directly in contact with the 
Department of Agriculture than any other, and they will not 
see the few advantages which they enjoy under it curtailed 
without a protest." 

This protest which Mr. Hatch foreshadows should be 

January 13, 1894. 



persistently and loudly made. For the last twenty years 
the vast and growing agricultural industry has struggled 
for some respectable share of the money expended for 
promotion of national interests. It has achieved some 
progress and was just beginning to be credited in public 
councils for something like its proper dignity and impor- 
tance. As in the nature of things the Department of 
Agriculture could not be fully aware of the diverse needs 
of the different States of so vast and varied a domain, it 
was wisely arranged under Mr. Cleveland's previous ad- 
ministration that there should be some localization of the 
work in the different States and Territories. This was to 
be achieved by the Agricultural Experiment Stations 
under the auspices of the Department of Agriculture. 
But few years have passed since the inception of this 
movement. The work of organizing these establishments 
naturally consumed some time, and the effort of a new 
form of organization to bring itself into near and useful 
affinity with the interests it was planned to serve also re- 
quired time. And yet the experiment stations of the 
United States during their short life have accomplished 
wonders. Their publications upon subjects of pressing 
local importance are in demand in all the States. Con- 
densed statements of their conclusions and deductions 
from them constitute a large portion of the agricultural 
literature, both in special agricultural journals and in the 
pfess at large. Common farm practice is coming upon a 
more rational basis and new cultures of great value and 
promise are being introduced. Farmers are beginning to 
understand better the obscure agencies and influences 
with which they have to contend and manufacturers are 
continually taking hints for improved devices and ma- 
terials. In fact, the experiment station work, even though 
it has been but so imperfectly developed, is exerting a 
most important influence upou the agriculture of the 
country and is winning the co-operation and approval of 
all progressive agricultural organizations and individual 

It is sincerely to be hoped that the Government's dis- 
position toward this work is not what our Eastern ex- 
changes apprehend. Possibly, with the great vexations 
of the time, including silver and Hawaii and the tariff, 
this matter of maintaining the special agricultural work 
of the Government has not been carefully considered. 
If this be the case, nothing better can now be done than 
for farmers who approve this work to take occasion to 
inform their Congressional representatives of the fact. 
Mr. Hatch, in the paragraph we have quoted above, shows 
clearly how insignificant is the sum of money expended 
for the purpose when compared with some of the flash 
expenditures of the Government which render no service 
but entailment of greater expenditures as antidotes for 
their effects. This matter should receive the attention of 
our agricultural writers and speakers and the action of 
our agricultural societies, and if brought before the public 
and the Administration in its true light and importance, it 
can hardly be doubted that the present apprehension 
would pass away, as the occasion for it would be removed. 

The State Fruit Exohange. 

The newly elected Board of Directors of the State Fruit 
Exchange will facet at 220 Sutter street on Tuesday next 
to organize and assume charge of the business for which 
they were chosen. The movement has received wide dis- 
cussion by large and small assemblies of fruit-growers in 
all parts of the State, and may safely be assumed to repre- 
sent the deliberate judgment of the great body of those 
most interested. 

Nothing which has been proposed as the policy of the 
Exchange can injuriously affect any legitimate trade in- 
terests, but undoubtedly it is directed against the sharp 
practices of some of the unscrupulous and reckless of 
them, and from these and those whom they may be able 
to inspire there will doubtless be active opposition to the 
movement. No one is likely to oppose the general prin- 
ciple involved, for that would be hopeless and unpopular, 
and defeat itself. The methods taken will be opposition 
to all definite plans proposed, on the ground that other 
plans are better; local and individual rivalries and 
jealousies will be stimulated and made the most of, so as 
to prevent united action; the acts and motives of those 
actually connected with the movement are likely to be 
attacked and misrepresented; shortcomings of existing and 
former co-operative associations will be rehearsed and ex- 
aggerated; and all other forms of indirect attack will be 

We have entire confidence in the vigor and ability of 
the Directors of the Exchange, and have no doubt that 
they will be found entirely equal to the occasion. 

Starr & Co. incorporated has undergone an internal 
revolution during the week in which Mr. Alfred Bannister 
has retired from the management of the concern. 

The Mule in Agrioulture. 

We publish upon another page some practical sugges- 
tions upon the breeding of mules by a leading breeder of 
the famous mule belt of the country, the lower Mississippi 
valley. These suggestions we consider of direct local im- 
portance, because the mule is a very important factor in 
our agriculture and our mining as well, and in addition to 
our home product of mules we are continually bringing 
carloads of them from Missouri and adjacent States. This 
being the case, it seems assured that the California mule 
product can be profitably increased, and this may be a 
suitable direction for the enlistment of a portion of our 
surplus horse-power. 

The mule has always been of great value to the country, 
and yet this value has not been generally recognized. It 
is true the mule is lowly in animal society, and it also has 
a moral aspect which is not inspiring to contemplate. 
Mule enterprises have also been a little clouded, possibly 
by the pointed paragraphs of humorists. And yet, viewing 
the mule as a most satisfactory motive power, and one 
which it requires no little sagacity and insight to satisfac- 
torily produce, we cannot see why the producer of good 
mules should not find as much satisfaction for his produc- 
tive pride as money for his pocket. As a matter of fact, 
those who intelligently pursue mule-breeding do muster 
this pride ; n their business, and rightly too, and yet those 
who know nothing of the business and its requirements 
are prone to look upon it as working over some sort of 
animal refuse, and producing something which bears the 
stamp of Nature's disapprobation. It is not wise nor 
profitable to take any such view of the matter. 

The mule as an industrial force has an honorable his- 
toric record. In the time of Pliny, mules had been used 
to build temples, and both in Greece and Rome they were 
used for chariots and saddles as well as for bearing bur- 
dens. In all the countries of Europe for centuries they 
have been prized for their sterling qualities of gentleness 
and faithfulness. In this country the first great mule- 
breeder was the immortal Washington, who used jacks 
sent to him by the King of Spain and by Lafayette, for 
crossing upon his mares, and produced mules which sold 
for $200 each — a lot of money for those days. If we are 
not mistaken, Mr. Washington also perpetrated some sort 
of an essay on the mule, in his correspondence or else- 

The mule interest of the United States amounts to con- 
siderable in the aggregate. According to the census of 
1890 the principal States in which mules are raised are as 
follows, in their order as to numbers foaled in 1889, viz : 
Missouri, 34,500; Texas, 25,300; Tennessee, 19,500; Ken- 
tucky, 18,200; Kansas, 8200; Arkansas, 6600; Illinois, 
6400; California, 5000; Indiana, 4400; Mississippi, 4200; 
Alabama, 3500; North Carolina, 3300; Iowa, 2300; Ne- 
braska, 2300; Georgia, 2000; Virginia, 2000; Louisiana, 
1300; Oregon, 1300; Ohio, 900; South Carolina, 700, and 
Pennsylvania, 600. Many other States raised mules, mak- 
ing the number foaled in 1889,* 157,000. In the same year 
there were sold 330,000 mules, of which number Missouri 
furnished 68,300, Tennessee 56,800, Kentucky 50,000, and 
the other States in proportion, the sales being more than 
double the number foaled in that year, which is greater in 
proportion than any other kind of this class of live stock. 

We shall be very glad to hear from some of our readers 
who have raised mules some conclusions from their ex- 
perience; also from mule-users some tributes to their prac- 
tical value. The animals are marvels not only of gentle- 
ness and faithfulness, but they possess an intelligence in 
their work which is most gratifying. We never saw a 
more satisfactory animal in an orchard than a mule which 
we once saw at work on A. T. Hatch's place at Suisun. 
This was years ago, and probably the mule is there still, 
for, to all its other qualities the mule adds longevity. 
Their effective life exceeds that of mankind, for the mule 
begins when man is a baby, and, in some cases, continues 
until a man loses his teeth and totters in his walk. Let's 
have a symposium on the mule. 

The Record- Union tells of a large horse which tarried 
in the capital city on his way from Minnesota to the Mid- 
winter Fair. He is 21 hands, or 84 inches, high, and 
large in proportion, measuring nearly 15 feet from his 
nose to the end of his tail. He has fallen off in flesh dur- 
ing his journey, so that he weighs only about 1750 pounds. 
His sire was a Norman horse, and his mother an ordinary 
mare weighing about 1050 pounds. A Missouri horse 19 
hands high has been on exhibition for three years past, 
but this animal throws him in the shade. 

In orange culture in Florida, it is stated that girdling, as 
of the grape vine, is becoming a part of general practice, 
and Prof. Meehan says perhaps this may account for the 
enormously large increase of sour instead of sweet orauges, 
which is being poured into northern markets from that 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

Whoever takes even passing notice of the current news 
these days cannot fail to know that the railroads of the 
country are in extremities. The Northern Pacific system 
is in the hands of receivers, the Union Pacific is just 
staggering along from month to month, while the Santa 
Fe, the Burlington & Missouri, the Chesapeake & Ohio, 
the Reading, the Denver & Rio Grande, the Atchison — 
and others too many to name — are in varying stages of 
financial tribulation. The assumption is that the rail- 
roads, like the rest of us, are hard hit by the stress of the 
times; and, in a superficial sense, this is the truth. Their 
revenues have been cut down by conditions which effect 
all forms of business alike; and to this fact obviously is 
chargeable the immediate effects now so severely felt. 
But the root of the trouble lies deeper. It lies in the fact 
that the railroads are trying to earn interest on too much 
capital; that they must earn it, in fact, or go bankrupt. 
Every one of them is required to pay interest on what is 
called its " capital " over and above the charges of opera- 
tion, repairs, wear and tear of equipment, etc. Now, on 
the face of things, nothing could be fairer; but the curse 
of the situation is that the so-called capital in most cases 
represents two, three, four or five times the actual cash 
value of the property. To illustrate, there is a railroad in 
the Columbia river basin in the States of Oregon and 
Washington worth in cash to-day about $15,000,000— that 
is, it could be duplicated for approximately that sum. It 
is capitalized at about $46,000,000 and leased upon that 
basis, the lessees being bound to pay to the owners six per 
cent annually on that vast sum. Is it surprising that the 
lessees find it impossible to make the property pay its run- 
ning expenses and, in addition, six per cent on three times 
its real value? Is it right that the people who support 
the road should be taxed in railroad charges to support 
the interest on $46,000,000 when they have the service of 
a property worth only one-third of that amount? Of 
course the thing is absurd. A railroad company has 
the right to a fair interest on the value of its 
property, with fair allowance for contingent losses, but it 
has no right to exact interest upon a capitalization which 
in all but the half, third, fourth or fifth part is mere wind, 
water and buncombe. Something like this, as some of our 
readers may remember, has been said before in the Rural; 
but it cannot be too often repeated until it is fully com- 
prehended by the public. At this time when so many 
railroads are going to the wall, it is right that the public 
should know the reason why, and not be led into a mis- 
taken sympathy based on false claims and misunderstand- 
ing of the facts. 

The ways by which bogus railroad capitalization is 
created make, in their recitation, a familiar song; but our 
readers may not be unwilling to trace how the game of 
wolf and lamb continues to be played. The latest disclos- 
ure is in connection with the Northern Pacific system and 
is in the form of allegations made by certain stockholders 
in applying for the removal of receivers who are identi- 
cal, personally, with the managing officials of the system 
before it got into the bankruptcy court. The allegation is 
that these men — Thos. F. Oakes, Henry C. Paine and 
Henry C. Rouse — while filling the higher official places in 
the Northern Pacific organization and thereby controlling 
its policy, sold to the company at various times within the 
past four years lands, buildings, rolling stock and branch 
lines of road for sums aggregating sixty millions of dollars 
more than actual value; that these purchases were of small 
use to the Northern Pacific even if they had been valued 
fairly; and that the transactions were not in the interest of 
the company, but of its dominating ring of officials. In 
plain terms, it is charged that President Oakes and his 
associates have swindled the company out of $60,000,000. 

Now this sixty million, thus, according to the plaint of 
stockholders in court, "lost," still figures — every penny 
of it — in the capitalization upon which the public is re- 
quired to pay interest in the form of passenger and freight 
charges. Not even those stockholders who complain of 
and denounce the alleged fraud would be willing to see 
the sum stolen marked off to the profit and loss account. 
It is of course to be kept up as part of the " investment," 
upon which it is claimed that the public owes six per cent 
or more per annum. And, really, there seems no more 
reason why this particular sixty million should be lost, in 
the sense of being thrown out of the books of capital ac- 
count, than the various other stupenduous capital figures 
created in the same way and always reckoned in support 
of demands upon the public for " fair treatment." It is 
by such methods of figuring that the railroad capitaliza- 
tion of the country has largely been built up. In other 
kinds of business something — very often, indeed, much — 
goes to the account of profit and loss. If a merchant 
makes an unwise purchase, the loss is with him; if he is 
robbed by his book-keeper, again he suffers; and so with 



January 13, 1694, 

the farmer, and with every other man of affairs, and with 
every private company. But not so with the railroad. All 
the mistakes and extravagances and frauds and robberies 
practiced upon it or through it go to swell not its loss ac- 
count but its capital account, to be used as the basis of 
further exactions from the public upon specious demands 
for fair and honest treatment. 

The worst of this absurd and sinful system is that it im- 
poses upon the producing public— tor in the disposition of 
public burdens the producer is made always the pack 
horse — an unreasonable aid intolerable load in the form 
of transportation charges. It would not be hard to pay a 
fair rate of interest on the actual value of railroad proper- 
ties, but it is oppressive and ruinous to pay on the actual 
value swollen by the sums of all the mistakes and villainies 
practiced on railroads since railroading began. There is 
another bad thing about it, too, in the fact that "securi- 
ties" representing these inflated and fictitious capitaliza- 
tions have been palmed off upon careless investors. The 
swindlers have gotten the swag, and, largely speaking 
have made off with it, leaving innocent people to hold the 
empty bag. When it is proposed to put the railroad busi- 
ness on a fair basis, to make it rest content with a fair in- 
come upon the actual value of its property, a cry goes up 
from and in behalf of innocent stockholders, asking if 
they are to be damaged because somebody who came be- 
fore them did wrong. It is hard to say so, but in ihe end 
they must suffer. The public cannot go on forever paying 
interest on railroad capital that has no tangible existence, 
simply because a host of careless and foolish people have 
invested in the funds. If people make bad bargains in 
railroad stocks, they must suffer the consequences, just as 
in any other form of human folly. 

The present times, by showing the inability of the coun- 
try in periods of extremity to sugport the load of bogus 
railroad capital, are leading up to the day when the whole 
vast fabric of falsehood and fraud shall be swept away. 
Such a consummation would be worth all the pains in- 
volved in a season of business stress. 

The Hawaiian business gets in worse shape as time goes 
on. When we last made reference to it, the President 
had, in his special message, formally turned the whole 
matter over to the "wider powers" of the legislative 
branch of the Government. That was three weeks ago. 
But it seems that in turning the matter over to Congress, 
Mr. Cleveland forgot or neglected to withdraw his instruc- 
tions to Minister Willis, who had been told to arrange 
with the Queen for amnesty for all rebels, and then to in- 
vite the rebels to step down and out. And now comes 
news from Honolulu that ten days after the President had 
a»ked Congress to take charge of the matter, Minister 
Willis, acting under orders from the President which had 
not been recalled, invited the Provisional Government to 
surrender. The islanders declined with civility but firmly 
to surrender, and so the matter stood at last ac- 
counts. Now, either the United States must enforce this 
demand, absurd and outrageous as it is, or submit to the 
snubbiest kind of a snub from the weakest government on 
top of the earth. We ought, in fact, to submit to it — to 
take the dose, nauseous though it be — because our position 
is utterly false and wrong. That Mr. Cleveland should 
allow his original instructions to stand after he had in 
express terms yielded the matter into the hands of Congress, 
is perhaps no greater violation of propriety than his 
original assumption and disregard of Congress. 
The whole matter illustrates the tendency of things to 
persist in wrong-going when they have once been started 
wrong. There is a certain momentum in moral as in phys- 
ical forces, and as difficult to check in the one as in the 
other Mr. Cleveland is said to be deeply chagrined 
at Willis' obvious blunder, and there is, perhaps, small 
comfort in the reflection that it is but the natural out- 
come of his own graver blunder at the beginning. 

On the whole, the Hawaiian matter — with all its humili- 
ations — may do the country good, since it has brought to 
the bar of public judgment a question which must be Bet- 
tied some time, and would better be settled in quiet than 
in stormy times. The issue is well put by Gen. N. P. 
Chipman of Red Bluff in a recent letter, as follows: 

Mr. Cleveland is the exponent of a construction of our funda- 
mental law which has been steadily growing, and has been en- 
forced by other Presidents, but which has too long escaped 
public censure and criticism. He will have done our country 
signal service if by his alleged usurpations he shall have aroused 
public thought, and shall have brought the judgment of the 
people to a proper understanding of executive limitations. It 
will not hurt even partisans to halt a moment and re-examine 
our fundamental law and recall the scheme of government 
handed down to us by the fathers of the republic. 

Wisely said indeed; and there will, we fancy, be few 
to reject the conclusion which follows that in all this busi- 
ness of quasi-nullification President Cleveland is wholly 

The men engaged in the sheep industries of the State 

are taking active measures to mass the influence of Cali- 
fornia against the proposed tariff changes as they affect 
wool and dressed meats. Last week the Wool-Growers' 
and Dealers' Association telegraphed to each California 
member of Congress a demand that he work and vote 
against the Wilson bill. As we go to press (on Wednes- 
day) a convention representing the sheep industries of the 
State is in session in this city under the presidency of Mr. 
Barclay Henley (a Democrat and former member of Con- 
gress), and with all parts of the State represented. Reso- 
lutions have been proposed reciting that 4,500,000 sheep 
are owned in California; that they produce annually 35,- 
000,000 pounds of wool; that $50,000,000 is invested in the 
business; that it directly employs 30,000 of our citizens, 
and that, in the judgment of the convention, to admit 
wool free would, in its effects, destroy the whole 
sheep interest, wipe out the capital employed in it, and 
turn many of those dependent upon it penniless upon the 
highways. An emphatic protest against the proposed 
changes follows, the resolutions concluding with a ringing 
declaration that the higher interests of American char- 
acter and life are bound up in the continuance of the 
present system of protection to industry. The meeting is 
wholly non-partisan, there being as many Democrats as 
Republicans in attendance. 

A Note from Mr. Hatch. 

To the Editor : — It seems to me that Mr. Adams' pessimistic 
articles should not be encouraged by being published. They 
go to an unwarranted extreme, and are just as unreliable as 
those extravagant articles written so often by real estate agents 
and others for boom purposes. There should be a midway 
between the extreme isolated cases in either direction, a la 
Adams or Mr. R. E. Agent, wherein are shown average facts 
based on industry and intelligence. It does not to me seem 
necessary to imply that our fruit industry is necessarily going 
to the bow wows, if this season just passed we did not make 
the large profits we are used to. Everybody knows the circum- 
stances leading to these bad results. I refer to the season of 
poverty and disaster in all lines of business through which we 
are passing. It is not at all strange that luxuries are abstained 
from to a great degree — our fruits are luxnries in every sense 
of the word, yet we can produce them pro fitably and sell them 
at prices which ought to cause them to be considered as the 
poor man's delicious, healthful, nutritious every-day food. 
Therefore why (apparently) for the purpose of frightening fruit- 
growers into co-operation, should it be deemed by any one 
necessary to i ublish pessimistic facts that are only true to a 
small extent? 

The benefits of co-operation can be shown clearly to the 
average intellect without the publishing of articles calculated 
to mislead all who do not know the object of them. Put me 
down as in favor of co-operation. A. T. Hatch. 

San Francisco, Jan. 9, 1894. 

" The adoption of resolution No. 6. for immediate subscrip- 
tion to the capital stock of the Exchange, acted like a fire 
alarm in emptying the hall. While Mr. Adams was making a 
vigorous appeal to those present to come up and complete 
what they bad pledged themselves to Ho, his andience rapidly 
melted away through the front doors leaving him nearly alone 
with the emply chairs." — California Fruit Grower, Jan. 6. 

No one who attended that convention could have any 
doubt of the earnestness of its members. While subscrip- 
tions were being handed in Gen. Chipman arose and said 
that he should certainly take stock in the Exchange, but 
that he thought the best way was to wait until after 
actual incorporation; to which Mr. Adams assented, re- 
marking that if upon reflection it seemed a good thing, 
then was time enough to subscribe, and if it did not seem 
good after deliberation no stock ought to be taken. The 
amount of Btock required, if all paid up, would be from 
$15,000 to $20,000. At the close of the meeting, 21 per- 
sons had subscribed for 322 shares of stock, amounting to 
$1610, or nearly one-tenth of the amount required. 

The State Board of Examiners has resolved that it will 
not pay any more coyote-scalp bounties until further or- 
ders by the Legislature, on the grounds that funds are 
low and that the act providing for the payment of coyote 
claims is not in itself an appropriation, and, therefore, 
that a specific appropriation should be made by the Legis- 
lature to pay the same. According to State Controller 
Colgan over $187,000 has been paid out of the treasury for 
coyote scalps, while claims to the amount of $118,000 remain 
unpaid. The present action is due to the fact that no one 
has pressed these claims by suit, and therefore there could 
not be any decision by the Supreme Court aa to whether 
the money had been properly appropriated or not. The 
resolution adopted by the Board will no doubt result in 
some holder of a coyote claim bringing suit against the 
State, and the question as to whether or not the act pro- 
viding for the payment of coyote claims is in itself an 
appropriation will be speedily settled. 

The thanks of the editor are due to Mr. C. H. Leggett 
for a box of white Adriatic figs, produced and cured at 
his place near Oroville. They are simply perfect — 
superior in all the points of flavor, texture and cleanliness 
to the best Smyrna figs. Mr. Leggett's methods of curing 
and packing are his own, and he has promised to give 
them to the readers of the Rubal at an early date. 

Fruit Transportation. 

Members of the State Horticultural Society and Others 
Interested: — I, in common with all fruit-growers and ship- 
pers, am interested in the problem of cheaper and better 
transportation. We are told that oar refrigerator cars are 
too heavy and carry too much surplus weight to make 
either good time or cheap freight, which to a certain extent 
is doubtless true; but I am satisfied that practical relief can 
be had by a much cheaper and better method. In order 
to render the proposition plain, I will give a short descrip- 
tion of my plan. First, the refrigeration as well as ventila- 
tion is accomplished by compressed air alone. I will 
begin at the front end of the train. A locomotive arranged 
to supply steam to the operating car, a larger tender car 
than usual, two water tanks — one about three times the 
capacity of the other, with a four-inch chamber between 
them filled with charcoal or some other non-conductor, the 
small tank to hold hot water, made by compressing the air, 
partly compensating for the use of the steam from the 
locomotive. Next we want a light car with a small engine 
taking its steam from the locomotive, a compressor air 
pump, a water force pump, an air tank with a cold water 
Jacket, a safety valve at the top and a blow-off cock at the 
bottom for the purpose of freeing the water of condensation. 
Next, a train of light cars as well insulated as the C. F. T. 
cars. Each of these cars should be arranged to take com- 
pressed air from both ends — no other air to be admitted; 
a ventilating door at the top and middle of the car; a 
telemeter and electric connection with the operating car 
where, from its connecting telemeter, the exact temperature 
of each car can be known. This train can be of from five 
to fifty cars, and the expense would be trifling in com- 
parison with ice refrigeration. The gross weight would be 
much reduced. 

Some of the reasons for the success of a train thus con- 
structed I will now give. As our fruit in going East passes 
through a very moist air, we must get rid of this moisture 
before admission to the car, and we also must get rid of 
the heat caused by compression, otherwise there would not 
be the proper condition of refrigeration for the preservation 
of fruit in transit. We now have compressed air, which is 
both cold and dry. The expansion of the air, when ad- 
mitted to the car rapidly, takes up the heat from the fruit 
and at the same time creates a positive movement of all 
the air in the car, making the best ventilation possible. 
The air, being very dry, takes up the free moisture con- 
stantly exhaling from all green fruit. This moisture going 
into the gaseous state is another source of refrigeration. 
Thus, it is seen, we have two sources of refrigeration, and, 
combined, they produce the best possible conditions for 
preserving fruit — namely, coolness and dryness. The 
ventilator door is at the top and center of the car ; at the 
top because moist air is lighter than dry air, at the center 
of the car because for equal and perfect ventilation the 
compressed air is admitted at both ends. In practice it 
will be found that half an hour, or at most an hour, will 
place the car in good condition, and less after the right 
temperature is reached. Six cars or more can receive the 
compressed air at a time, and thus a large train can be put 
in condition in a very few hours, much sooner than by the 
ice process. 

There may be some objections to this method proposed 
which would not be tenable. One, that operating cars 
could not be sent to all shipping points. Admitted ; but a 
car of fruit which had been subjected to this treatment as 
far east as Omaha, provided the car had been properly 
insulated from outside heat, would carry two days in per- 
fect condition — certainly time enough to reach any place 
from the main railroad lines. I have not gone closely into 
a description of all the machinery to carry out this plan, 
but enough to show its practicability and comparative 
cheapness and lightness. As refrigeration from compres- 
sion is no new thing, the only value in this article is to 
show bow the principle can be applied to practical rail- 
roading. K. B. Blowers. 

Woodland, Cal., Dec. 29, 1893. 

The auction sale of oranges in this city has opened 
promisingly, and will proceed hereafter with tri-weekly 
offerings. The San Francisco Fruit Auction and Storage 
Company has been incorporated for this purpose. Its 
capital stock amounts to $50,000. The incorporators are: 
The Judson Fruit Company, Allison, Gray & Co., Dalton 
Bros., Eveleth & Nash and W. H. Wood & Co. The in. 
corporation is the result of the unsatisfactory experience 
of orange-growers with the old ways of doing business. 
The auctions will be held Mondays, Wednesdays and 
Fridays. For every auction it will be arranged to have in 
readiness about what the state of the market seems to war- 
rant. At present the trade will be confined to oranges al- 
most exclusively, but the purpose is to handle all kinds of 

If there is anything in past experience and present con- 
ditions, the season of 94 will prove both light and unprofit- 
able for canners of California fruits, says the Cutting Pack- 
ing Co. 

January 18, 1894. 



P^he D.a ,ry - 

What Governor Hoard Thinks of Cow-Keeping. 

Ex- Governor W. D. Hoard of Wisconsin is a creamery 
owner and a pleader of humane treatment for cows. We 
take the following from a recent address of his on the latter 

Handling a cow should be placed before feeding her, for 
environment or "handling" will always and easily alter the 
effect of feed. Many farmers forget in handling their cows 
that they are dealing with problems of life and maternity. 
Such forgetfulness lies at the bottom of a large portion of 
so-called ill luck. The mystery of these maternal functions 
is just as great in the bovine mother as in the human 

As the pasture grows short the cows increase their exer- 
cise to obtain food, causing shrinkage of milk. There is 
an intimate relation between bodily ease and full-fed con- 
tentment and the largest production of milk. A profitable 
cow -with plenty of feed never seeks exercise. 

Serious losses occur frequently through hasty and incon- 
siderate driving, particularly from the pasture at night. 
Every owner should provide himself with the means of de- 
tecting these losses before it Is too late to correct them. A 
small feed of bran to each cow at the milking stable will 
soon bring the whole herd regularly to the yard. 

Cows need shelter in summer much oftener than we 
think. I doubt if it is wise to allow them to remain in a 
rain storm even in midsummer. In our eight creameries 
we have found that a long rain storm, even in hot weather, 
is almost sure to rtduce the fat percentage of the milk. The 
Babcock test is telling some important truths. 

The modern dairy barn must be well ventilated, must 
not be over crowded, must be well lighted. The matter of 
cheap and effective ventilation is a difficult one. I can 
see only one way and that is to allow at least from 8oo to 
iooo cubic feet to each animal. We must either stable a 
less number in a room or build wider or higher. Lumber 
is cheaper than tuberculous cows. Square wooden venti- 
lating pipes can easily be built from the stable to the roof, 
starting two feet from the floor. It is well to insert a slid- 
ing damper to regulate the current. 

It is a serious question whether to store hay and fodder 
over the cows. The finest barn I ever saw was in the form 
of an L. The hay and ensilage were at the short end. 
The cows were tethered heads toward a center feeding 
alley in the longest end. The alley was ten feet wide, ran 
through both wings; seven feet over head was hung an 
iron railway. Suspended thereto was a large box on 
rollers capable of holding iooo pounds of ensilage or about 
300 pounds of hay. One man can easily push the box 
along loaded with all it can hold. 

In this way the fodder was kept free from all effluvia 
from the stables and thorough ventilation was easily 
secured. The barn was only a story and a half, quite 
cheaply built, but I never saw cows thrive better. Every 
barn should contain one or more box stalls for a sick cow 
or one about to calve. Milk fever may often be averted if 
the cow is placed in the box stall a few days before calving, 
where she can have full, free use of her body during partu- 
rition. The box stalls should command view of the other 
cows to promote contentment in the occupant. They 
should be thoroughly and often cleaned and well disin- 
fected after each birth. 

To promote the efficiency of the cow we must promote 
her comfort. In fastening the cow in the stable it is of the 
highest profit to first consider her physical economy and 1 
the promotion of her milking function. Too many first 
consider " how many can I crowd into a given space," or 
economy of time and labor. 

Tb° r °\d ' anchion should be indicted for being a bar- 
barous "i .n profitable device. It was invented solely for 
the com;oi.t and convenience of the owner and not for the 

An ordinary cow of iooo pounds will drink on winter 
feed from 80 to 1 50 pounds a day. Cows giving a large 
flow of medium quality milk will drink the most water as 
a rule. 

Allow as little exercise as is possible, consistent with 
health and vigor. Exercise costs feed and a lessened pro- 
duction of milk. A certain amount of exercise is no doubt 
necessary for health. If we shut the cow up in a barn for 
six months for the sake of extra flow of milk, no doubt we 
will get it; but we must take extra pains to make the en- 
vironment as perfect as possible. She must have good air, 
plenty of light and dry quarters. The ualural instinct of a 
cow, when left to herself, is to eat her fill, if she can get it 
easily, and then lie down and digest it. 

Milk is a highly nitrogenous compound, composed of 
about four per. cent butter fat, three and one-half per cent 
casein, 4.70 per cent milk, sugar, etc. The composition of 
milk should teach us approximately, at least, how to feed. 

If you are fattening a pig which has attained its growth, 
you feed for fat, and corn meal will do the work well. But 
if the pig is not full grown and you feed a fat-producing 
food, you hinder growth. To get that you must produce 
sufficient muscle and bone-producing food. This sort of 
food is known under the three names of nitrogenous, 
albuminoid and protein, all practically meaning the same 
in their effect on physical economy. 

In butter making we make direct commercial use of only 
one part, the fat, but we must feed for the production of all 
the constituents in the milk. To this end it becomes 
necessary to select largely of foods that most abound in 
albuminoids. These are cotton-seed meal, oil meal, pea 
meal, bran, gluten meal in grain, etc. There is another 
reason why the cow should have plenty of nitrogenous or 
muscle and nerve-supporting food. Milk giving is a ma- 
ternal function, drawing exhaustively from the nervous 
forces. The cow that produces a pound of butter a day 
has drawn more on her nervous force than the ox who 
palls at the plow all day. For this reason she must be 
bandied so as to prevent nerve exhaustion, and fed so as to 

support the nervous system. The protein foods^are essen- 
tially nerve and muscle supporting. 

Care, comfortable cows, milk test, dissatisfaction with 
low yields, search, constitute the keystones to the develop- 
ment of a successful dairyman. 

Cow Losing Her Cnd. 
The superstition entertained by some people that cows 
possess a certain something, which thty may lose by being 
a little careless, and which must have a substitute in the 
form of a piece of salt pork or other thing, is described by 
Prof. Law, who says: This idea is fundamentally wrong, 
as the "cud" which is brought up and chewed by the 
healthy cows is simply a small portion of the solid food 
that has recently been swallowed, and in ruminating the 
animal Is simply working over this solid material, portion 
by portion, until the whole contents of the stomach have 
been worked over and more finely divided by this second 
chewing. All animals that do " chew the cud " have the 
stomach divided into at least three separate compartments, 
of which the first one is simply a temporary store for the 
accommodation of food hurriedly swallowed and very im- 
perfectly chewed. When the healthy animal has leisure, it 
sets to work to bring this up, morsel by morsel, and to 
grind it down to a condition of fineness better fitted for the 
work of the manifolds and the chemical or digesting 
stomach. In doing this, each morsel is floated up in a 
mass of liquid and on reaching the mouth the liquid is 
swallowed, the solids being held between the tongue and 
the roof of the mouth for mastication. As only the solids 
are detained in the mouth for this second and thorough 
chewing, the finely divided material being swallowed with 
the liquid before this second mastication begins, it follows 
that each successive "cud" is made from new and different 
material from the last. 

Her failure to " chew the cud " is due to ill health, just 
as a lack of any desire for food characterizes a sick man. 
A cow that fails to chew the cud is a sick cow, and as soon 
as she recovers from that sickness she will recover her abil- 
ity to chew the cud. The exceptions to this are very few, 
and are almost all due to a mechanical impediment to the 
bringing up of the cud. For example, a cow fed exclu- 
sively on dry hay and grain, and denied all water, will soon 
cease to chew the cud until water is again supplied. In this 
case the available water in the paunch is soon used up in 
floating the food over into the third stomach, and soon 
there is too little liquid left in the paunch to float any part 
of its contents. These contents, under the compression of 
the contracting walls of the paunch, are formed into one 
semi-solid mass, and no small morsel can de detached and 
floated up through the gullet to be masticated. Furnish 
water and the trouble is gradually corrected. Under the 
movements of the paunch, portions of the semi-solid mass 
are detached, floated and finally brought up to the mouth. 

But it will be asked how, then, is the "cud " restored by 
giving a large mass of salt pork ? It does not by any means 
follow that the salt pork was in every case the cause of re- 
covery. The majority of diseases tend to recovery after a 
few days of their own accord, and if the salt pork has been 
given in the interval, it gets the credit of what was the suc- 
cessful effort of nature to cast off the illness. We hear little 
of the many cases in which the salt pork was given, but the 
cud was not restored. The only way in which the salt pork 
can assist in the recovery is by the action of the salt as a 
condiment encouraging digestion, and of both salt and lard 
as a laxative serving to unload the stomach of food that had 
tended to keep up indigestion. In the case submitted to us, 
in which the recovery occurred two days after the giving of 
the salt pork, there may possibly have been an action of 
this kind, but there is no direct evidence of this and the re- 
sumption of cud chewing may have been but the result of a 
spontaneous recovery from some temporary illness. It 
may be said in conclusion that no part of the system of the 
ox is so frequently deranged as the complicated chain of 
stomachs, and under almost any derangement the contents 
of these tend to become drier and impacted; also that in all 
cases of illness attended by fever the same result is brought 
about, so that a dose of laxative medicine to relieve the 
stomachs is a help toward the recovery of health. But in 
any such case it is much more rational to give a pound or 
of glauber salts and an ounce of ginger than to force upon 
the animal a mass of salt pork. To a carnivorous animal 
such a morsel might be appetizing, while to a herbivorous 
one like the cow it can only be disgusting. 

Creameries in Humboldt County. 
Senator McGowan reports that the business depression 
in Humboldt county is keenly felt. " Hard times," said 
he, "have stopped building on the coast, and that of course 
immediately affects the lumber trade. The mills are doing 
but little work, and many men are idle. As the lumber 
interests of Humboldt county constitute one of its great 
sources of wealth and trade, naturally all other lines of 
business are more or less affected. The agricultural and 
dairy interests of the county are quite prosperous, and they 
serve to keep matters from going from bad to worse. 
Humboldt is the great dairy county of the State. Owing 
to the cool summers of the northern coast, the feed on the 
ranges and in the valleys keeps green through a great por- 
tion of the year, and this greatly assists the dairymen. 
Many new creamerirs are in operation in the vicinity of 
Ferndale, in the Eel River valley. The butter product of 
the county for the past year is estimated at $1,000,000." 

Black Pepsin Brings Its Own Reward. 

Readers may remember the exposure in these columns 
last year of a humbug butter-making compound bearing 
the name " black pepsin," the promoter being identified as 
one James A. Bain of Ohio, already known as the author of 
other frauds of the same description, notably of a swindle 

in the spring of 1892, in which be signed himself secretary 
of a bogus "North American Poultry Association," and 
offered information about incubators which proved to be 
worthless. The outcome of these operations is the sen- 
tencing of Mr. Bain last week to three years in the peni- 
tentiary and a fine of $300 for using the U. S. mail for a 
fraudulent purpose. The case was stubbornly contested in 
the courts, but justice and common sense have triumphed. 
We hope we shall now have a respite from the many petty 
frauds which have emanated from Ohio. 


The Chance for Profit in Poultry. 
Referring to what we said in the Rural recently con- 
cerning the desirability of wider attention to the smaller 
industries of the farm, we introduce the following, espe- 
cially relating to the services of the hen in farm economy: 
By a wise selection of breeding fowls and a little of the 
best kind of care, the farmer may supply himself with a 
real luxury for his own table, but at the same time estab- 
lish an income which will sum up an amount not at all 
insignificant at the end of the year. Upon the conditions 
named, any of the prominent breeds of chickens will fill the 
bill. Slipshod methods In the care of poultry will not pay 
any more than in the pursuit of any other branch of hus- 
bandry. A Pennsylvania correspondent says that in the 
Eastern States grain and cattle can no longer be raised at 
profit, and the farmers are casting about to find some other 
production which will enable them to make a liviog. I 
would suggest, what others have already suggested, that 
the poultry business offers an inviting field to increase the 
farmer's income. While breadstuffs and beef have gone 
down to ruinous rates, the price of eggs is nearly twice as 
great as it used to be. Instead of there being an over- 
production of eggs in this country, our Eastern States are 
importing them from France and Canada every year to 
supply the demands of our own people. 

That the poultry business properly conducted can be 
made profitable in connection with farming has been 
proved over and over, and the methods practiced by the 
successful have been printed many times in the agricul- 
tural papers, and yet in the year 1889 we imported 
nearly two and a quarter million dollars' worth of 
eggs, and the year following almost as much. I have 
not the figures at hand, but there is no dnubt we are still 
importing as many eggs as ever and sending the gold to 
pay for them. We can raise eggs cheaper than the French, 
because wheat, wheat screenings, meat and meat scraps 
and milk, which are the best egg-producing foods, are 
cheaper here than in France. Our hens can produce eggs 
cheaper than the Canadian's hens because our winters are 
not so severe, and our fowls, if well taken care of, can be 
made to lay more eggs in the winter when they are the 
dearest. Instead of buying over two million dollars' worth 
of eggs from other countries every year, we ought to supply 
our own markets and the markets of Great Britain. 

An English book on poultry says: " Poultry is a class 
of stock deserving more attention than farmers generally 
give it. It is rare to meet with an instance where the 
breeding and management of poultry is conducted with the 
care and intelligence bestowed on other kinds of stock." 
The same might be said of the farmers of the United 
States — they do not give poultry-raising the attention which 
its importance demands. Not only this, but by many it is 
considered too small a business, not very profitable, and 
beneath the dignity of full-grown men. The poultry busi- 
ness on the farm is generally left on the hands of the wives 
and daughters without the provisions of a poultry-house or 
any coops for raising young chickens, and even the grain 
fed to them is given grudgingly by the head of the family. 
The poor creatures are forced to roost in trees, the wagon- 
shed or the toolhouse, where they defile the buggy and the 
tools with their droppings. If hens do not pay kept in this 
manner, it is not their fault. It is the testimony of reliable 
people that their hens have yielded them a clear profit of 
$1.50 a head per year. If a farmer keeps but 50 hens, 
which are about as many as can be kept in one flock with- 
out breeding disease, and we sav the clear profit is but $1 
per head, they will supply him $50, which will be found 
very convenient to have in these hard times. Dressed 
poultry generally brings a good price except when the 
market is glutted about Christmas, and eggs are always in 
the best demand of anything raised on the farm. 

Dryness in the Poultry House. 

H. B. Greer writes in Texas Farm and Ranch as follows: 
Dryness in the poultry house is all important. A good 
roof should be the main feature. It don't pay to fool with 
any sort of a new fangled, cheap and weak roofing stuff, 
simply because it is only a " chicken house." It is best to 
get right down to business, and put on a first-class shingle 
roof at the start. It is the cheapest in the long run, and 
will be a source of satisfaction and congratulation as long 
as it lasts. In the first place, the hen manure is highly 
valuable for fertilizing, and should be saved dry. The best 
way to preserve it during the winter is to store it In barrels 
in the proportion of two parts of dry earth to one part of 
hen droppings. To effect this the latter must be kept dry, 
and dry earth should be stored in advance and, for con- 
venience sake, under the same roof, and used as a deodor- 
izer under the perches. In this way the droppings and the 
dirt are mixed naturally, and may be shoveled into con- 
venient barrels and set aside until needed. 

A good roof and dryness, however, is necessary for the 
preservation of the droppings. A dry hen house is a bless- 
ing to the poultryman, and it insures health to the fowls. 
It is easier and more pleasant in every respect to care for 
the chickens under a good roof, where all Is dry and dust 
plentiful, than under an old leaky shed where mold and 



January 13, 1894. 

bad odors abound. The latter is freighted with disease 
and discomfort. 

'* Fanny Field," some years ago, fooled us into building 
several straw poultry houses with straw roofs. We had 
read her account of some she had seen, and we liked the 
Idea. We made the walls of rails— double walls— and filled 
In with straw. Then we laid rails on top of them four or 
five feet deep. It certainly made a snug, warm house, and 
we were well satisfied at first. It rained a little, but still 
we were happy. Finally, however, the rains developed 
into storms. The winds blew and surged about and drove 
the rain through the sides of our straw houses, and a little 
later it trickled down through the straw piles on top, and 
in a short time we had several good sized puddles right 
under the roosts, and the houses became chilly and uncom- 
fortable Inside. The chickens took the roup, and we lost 
a great many of them. So much for following theory. It 
is all very pretty on paper, but the only roof that is of any 
account is a shingle roof, or a tin one, and the best is the 
cheapest. ' ' _ 

How a Florida Woman Manages a Setting Hen. 

There are many good ways to handle a hen during Incu- 
bation and they are always interesting to read about. The 
following is a woman's way, as described for the Florida 
Agriculturist : 

Select a healthy, gentle hen, of medium size, not a very 
large or heavy one; get 13 good fresh eggs, have a box two- 
thirds full of clean dried pine straw, or hay (I prefer the 
pine straw, as insects do not thrive in it), put in three or 
four eggs, then let the hen sit on them. Give her the rest 
of the eggs as she draws them under her. In warm 
weather the nest should be cleansed once a week, while the 
hen is off for food and water. Remove the eggs carefully 
from the nest and have a small tin bucket with cotton in 
the bottom, In which to place the eggs; empty the straw 
out, and burn it; brush the box carefully, replenishing with 
clean straw. The third time this is done let it be done two 
days before the eggs are expected to pip. When chicks are 
heard chirping, pass the right hand directly in front of the 
hen, under her breast, and if several chicks are batched, 
lift the hen off the nest by taking firm hold of her wings 
close up to the body, while with the other hand remove the 
empty shells. Then turn all pipped eggs with the holes 
down, so that the hen's toe nails cannot stick into them. If 
all the eggs are not hatched in 24 hours after the first chick 
is hatched, there is no use in keeping the hen and chicks in 
the nest. Put the hen and her little family in a clean, com- 
fortable coop with a plank floor, so that the hen cannot 
scratch and cover up the chicks with the earth, and that 
there may be no chance for vermin to dig under. The hen 
now needs nourishing food after sitting so long — something 
fresh and green, such as lettuce, onion tops, or tender 
grass, also a handful of oats and plenty of water put in a 
shallow tin pan so the chicks can drink too. Put the pan 
close in the corner so that it will not turn over easily. Feed 
the chicks with coarse grits well soaked in water, but not 
sour. Occasionally sprinkle in a little red pepper. Young 
chicks should be fed five times a day the first week of their 
lives, just a little at a time. Keep them cooped up about 
three days. It is better to set two bens at the same time, 
so, if the eggs do not hatch well, all of the chicks hatched 
may be given to one hen. Hens will not carry their chicks 
long in the early spring, scarcely long enough for them to 
get feathers. One February I had three hens to wean their 
chicks, 36 in all, when only three weeks old. The first 
night their mothers left them; it being a cold night, they 
all huddled together in one coop. In the middle of the 
night they suffered so with the cold that they woke us up 
with their chirping. My husband, feeling sorry for them, 
got up and placed a gunny sack over them, and they imme- 
diately hushed their racket and went to sleep. The sack 
had to be placed over them every night until they had 
feathers enough to keep them warm. None of them ever 
got smothered, and I raised all of those chickens. 

Give the Hens Teeth. 

Grit takes the place of teeth possessed by all quadru- 
peds, says the Farmers' Guide. Fowls swallow all their 
food whole and when supplied with grit It is ground by the 
action of strong muscles of the gizzard bringing it in forci- 
ble contact with the short grit; they thus grind it upon the 
same principle that the old-fashioned millstones ground 
our wheat and corn. If no grit Is within the gizzard then 
the action of the muscles proves abortive, the food Is not 
ground up and the juices essential to proper digestion can- 
not be incorporated with it, and as a natural consequence 
it passes from them undigested, and while feeding an 
abundance of food, from lack of digestion our fowls starve 
to death. It is not the food eaten that determines the food 
problem, but the food actually digested and taken up by 
the blood and carried up by this agency to every part of 
the living animal. When food is masticated, as by the 
horse or pig, as soon as it enters the stomach it is ready to 
receive these juices of digestion, and no internal machinery 
is necessary as a further aid to proper digestion. With 
fowls it is entirely different. They must consume sufficient 
grit to complete the machinery in their grist mill. I have 
dwelt upon this subject because I have found so many to 
be so careless about supplying their fowls with grit. 

Mayor Carlson of San Diego, president of the San 
Diego.Yuma & Phoenix Railroad, has returned from Mexico, 
having secured the right of way through General Andre- 
ade's lands, and the most valuable concession granted 
by Mexico for years — the freedom from all taxes for thirty 
years. The road will run ninety miles in Mexican terri- 
tory, and parallel to the big canal for forty miles. Eastern 
capitalists wired Carlson that the money was ready to 
build the road. 

Deputy Fish Commissioner Hunt, of California, has 
left Carson, Nev., with 90,000 ova of Eastern brook trout, 
to be placed in the water at Bear Valley, Cal. 

Shall Farmers Breed Horses? 

" Will it pay farmers to breed horses ? ■ is a pertinent 
question to us all, and worthy of careful and earnest discus 
sion. We all admit that the business of breeding horses, 
especially since the trotting boom, has been greatly over 
done. The country to day is full of horses, trotting-bred 
horses, that cannot trot and are not fitted for any practical 
purpose. Surely it will not need any argument to convince 
the farmer that it will not be profitable for him to add to 
this overproduction by breeding a few more. 

The chances for getting a fast colt by breeding an ordi- 
nary mare to a fast stallion are remote indeed. Under the 
most favorable circumstances, when the fastest and best- 
bred animals are mated, the prizes are far from plenty. We 
see C. J. Hamlin, or Miller & Sibley, or William Corbett, 
send a stable of trotters through the grand circuit, and a 
Fantasy, with her record of 2:08 V at three years, or a 
Belle Flower or a Muta Wilkes wins many thousands of 
dollars, and we are apt to think good fortune will strike us, 
and we breed a few more trotting foals in the hope of get- 
ting a world-beater. If we stop a moment to consider the 
other side we may do differently. Does it ever occur to 
you, dear reader, that each of these breeders has probably 
half a million dollars tied up in trotting horses ? That 
from among 300 to 400 under the most careful training the 
few sensational performers are found ? That it costs at 
least $10,000 a year for the salaries of trainers and attend- 
ants upon the horses in training, to say nothing of the 
traveling expenses, entrance fees and other expenses inci- 
dental to campaigning a stable of horses ? If any one will 
take these figures and make a fair comparison with his own 
resources, he can figure out the probable chances of his 
success in breeding trotters. There was a time when the 
farmer — when any one — could make money breeding trot- 
ting stock, but that time has passed. 

What, then, shall the farmer breed? This is a hard 
question to answer, but I believe the Hackney will for 
some time to come be the most profitable horse for the 
farmer and small breeder to produce. By this I do not 
mean the pony without a tail that one can see every day 
prancing through Central Park. I mean horses of sub- 
stance and size. Many people think the Hackney fit only 
to draw a tandem cart or fancy trap for style, but this Is a 
great mistake. The Hackney is a type of much more 
powerful build than the trotter, and a much more useful 
animal for general utility. Where a trotting-bred horse, 

15 ' 2 hands, will weigh 950 to 1000 pounds, a Hackney of 
the same height will weigh 1200 pounds. This size is fully 
heavy enough for the coach or heavy family carriage, and a 
pair of nice half-bred or full-bred Hackneys, from 15} to 

16 hands, will bring a price representing a nice profit to 
the breeder. Those that range from 15 to 15* hands will 
make ideal road horses and also be adapted for general 
farm work. 

It has been aptly remarked that trotters have too much 
nervous energy for farm work. This nervous energy is 
the essential thing for extreme speed, but when extreme 
speed is not attained it does not follow that the speed fail- 
ure will be an ideal plow horse or family driver. Give a 
farmer a pair of compact, full-bred Hackneys, 15 or 151 
hands and weighing 1000 to 1 100 pounds each, and he has 
an Ideal team for the plow, the mowing-machine, the mar- 
ket wagon, the family carriage — in fact, for every purpose 
except to enter in the speed classes at the county fair. 

As to the expense of raising a horse, every reader can 
figure that for himself. It will certainly cost less to get a 
horse of this type ready for market than the trotter that 
must be developed and the speed shown to command any 
price. A Hackney is ready for sale when matured and 
nicely broken, although, of conrse, If driven abont the ad- 
joining town and accustomed to the sights of the city, this 
is a great advantage. One point I believe every breeder 
should study, and that is finish. Breed handsome horses 
and good size. Many trotting families incline to be small, 
and the greatest sires and many of the greatest performers 
were small. George Wilkes was a small horse, less than 
15 hands; Electioneer was a small horse and very plain in 
conformation; Daniel Lambert was under 15 hands; Dic- 
tator is only 15 hands, and Harold, the sire of Maud S., 
was no larger. Size seems of little importance in extreme 
speed. Fantasy, that trotted to a record of 2:o8| this year 
at three years of age, stands nearly 16 hands, while Sea 
King, that acquired a record of 2:21}, is 13! hands high. 
When, however, a horse cannot trot fast, size becomes very 
important. I bred two trotting mares this year to a Hack- 
ney stallion. The mares were small, one being 14} hands, 
and the other 15} hands. Both are mares of high nervous 
energy and fast at the trotting gait. I bred them to a 
Hackney stallion standing nearly 16 hands, and I find by 
referring to the catalogue of Bloodgood Farm that his sire 
was 1 si hands, his grandsire 1.5.3} bands, his great-grand- 
sire 1 Si hands and his great-great grandsire 16 hands. 
His dam was by a horse 15} hands, and her dam by a 
horse of the same size, and all through the pedigree the 
prevailing size Is from 15A to 16 hands. 

If there is any law of heredity — and we know there is — 
the produce will be larger than the dam, and I shall have 
made a beginning to breed up in size. Unless a farmer or 
small breeder has a natural adaptation for handling horses 
there is little prospect of profit in breeding trotters. There 
was a time when young stock could be sold on the pedigree 
—and sometimes on a mighty poor pedigree at that — but 
that time has passed, never to return. A buyer now de- 
mands to see speed and value before he pays out his money, 
and the only way to get speed is to develop it. 

The Hackney type is the farmer's type par excellence. 
By breeding his mares in the fall, they can be used to do 
nearly or quite the entire work on the farm, and any breed- 
ing animal is really better for moderate work rather than to 
be kept in idleness. Again, if the foal Is liberally fed as it 
should be for the first two years, It can then be put at light 

work, such as the harrow, the hay rake and the family car- 
riage; in this way it can be made to more than pay its 
keep, and it will at the same time be receiving lessons that 
will add to its future usefulness. Under such circumstances 
it will scarcely cost the farmer more to raise a first-class 
horse than it would to raise a cow or an animal for beef, 
and certainly the horse would far outsell either of the 
others. — L. C. Underhill in Country Gentleman. 

(She ]Q ,EbB - 

Significant Changes in American Agrionltnre. 

New farms were created in the United States to a 
number exceeding 600,000 during the ninth decade, which 
closed with 1889— almost three times as many farms as 
there are in the Empire State. Yet the increase in pro- 
duction was nothing like the marvelous expansion which 
American agriculture witnessed in the eighth decade. The 
figures afforded by the eleventh census, taken in June, i89o ( 
compare as follows : 


Census Year. 


Wheat, bushels. 

Corn, bushels 

Oats, bushels 

Cotton, pounds 

Tobacco. poundB 

Hops, pounds 

Sheep, No 

Wool, pounds 

Milch cows. No 

Other cattle and oxen.. 





60 165,78* 





2,124.6 89.312 






8.646, 564,330 

2,572,646 473 










28 477.961 




16.611 950 





14 885.276 

To get a fair idea of the development indicated by these 
figures, their relation to population must be considered. 
If we produce twice as much of a food staple now as we 
did when our population was only one-fourth its present 
size, this means retrogression — failure of consumption to 
keep up with production. Hence Table B is given, show- 
ing (i) the percentage increase in the production of the 
various staples during the two past decades, and (2) the 
supply of each staple per 1000 population at three in- 
tervals : 


Percentage Increase. 

In '89 In '79 In 
over '79 over '69 over '69 


Wheat, bushels 

Com, bushels 

Oats, bushels 

Cotton, pounds 

Tobacco, pounds 

Hops, pounds 

Sheep, No 

Wool, pounds 

Milch cows, No 

Other cattle & oxen.. 


47 6 


Supply per 1000. 


85 8' I 
53.9 | 
26.2 I 



•SO, 166 


•38 658 
7 463 

•Population, last OOO's omitted. 

The attention is at once arrested by the fact that while 
population increased nearly one-fourth from 1880 to 1890, 
the wheat crop of '89 gained only one-twelfth as much, or 
two per cent, whereas in the previous ten years the wheat 
crop gained 60 per cent. The corn supply did not keep 
pace with population, instead of the tremendous increase 
of the previous period. Much the same was true of cotton; 
the supply of tobacco was actually less than ten years ago, 
though hops show a large gain, but the increase of oats 
took on enormous proportions. Though sheep have not 
added much to their numbers, the wool clip has kept up 
with population; milch cows have gone ahead of it, and 
the gain in other cattle and oxen has been still greater. 


Cenbus Years. 


Wheat, acres 

Corn, acres 

Oats, acres 

Cotton, acres 

Tobacco, acres.. 
Hops, acres 




Acres per 1000 ot Population. 




1889 over 

1879 over 

1889 over 




















70 7 























Percent'ge Increase in Ac'ge. 

It is the acres of each crop, however, that form the only 
true basis for comparison, owing to the many influences 
that affect yield. Table C gives this information. There 
were actually five per cent fewer acres of wheat in 1889 
than ten years earlier. The breadth of corn, tobacco and 
hops has not increased at any such rate as population in 
the past decade, but the cotton acreage has made great 
strides, and oats have increased in acres even more than 
in yield. 

The census of 1890 is certainly offering strong evidence 
in favor of the theory that production is not likely to in- 
crease faster than consumption. Certainly the conclusion 
is justifiable that the era of over-production by extensive 
farming has reached its limit in the United States, with a 
consequent upward tendency to land values and an increase 
of yields per acre only as market prices warrant Intensive 
farming. — American Agriculturist. 

Grapeland irrigation district, San Bernardino county, 
has run a tunnel 800 feet under the bed of the Lythe creek. 
Recently the workmen broke through the bedrock and 
struck a large stream of water and work had to be sus- 
pended until the tunnel can be protected from the wash of 
the stream. It is proposed to extend the works 150 feet 
further and tap the entire overflow of the stream, with 
which it is expected to irrigate the entire district. 

January 18, 1894. 



1£>HE jSTABbE. 

How to Breed Mules. 
The Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry just is- 
sued has an excellent paper on breeding mules which has 
much local interest in California, for here the male is in 
high esteem, and no doubt more mules could be profitably 
produced. The essay is from a leading Tennessee breeder, 
and we make the following extracts: 

The Kind of Sire to Breed From. — There are two kinds 
of jacks — the mule jack and the jennet jack, or combined 
jack, that is, good tor either mares or jennets, and is used 
chiefly in breeding jacks for stock purposes. It is only 
with the mule jack that we will deal, as the jennet jack is 
too costly to breed to mares, as a rule, unless the mares are 
of extra quality. 

A good mule jack ought to be not less than 15 hands 
high, and have all of the weight, head, ear, foot, bone and 
length that can be obtained, coupled with a broad chest, 
wide hips and with all the style attainable with these quali- 
ties. Smaller jacks are often fine breeders, and produce 
some of oar best mules, and, when bred to the heavier, 
larger class of mares, show good results; but, as " like 
produces like," the larger jacks are preferable. 

Black, with light points, is the favorite color for a jack, 
but many of our gray, blue and even white jacks have pro- 
duced good mules. In fact, some of the nicest, smoothest, 
red -sorrel mules have been the product of these off-colored 
jacks; but the black jacks get the largest proportion of 
good-colored colts from all colored mares. 

The breed of the jack is also to be looked into. There 
are now so many varieties of jacks in the United States, all 
of which have merits, that it will be well to examine and 
see what jack has shown the best results. We have the 
Catalonian, the Andalusian, the Maltese, the Majorca, the 
Italian and the Poitou — all of which are imported — and 
the native jack. Of all the imported, the Catalonian is the 
finest type of animal, being a good black, with white points, 
of fine style and action, and from to 15 hands high, 
rarely 16 hands, with a clean bone. The Andalusian is 
about the same type of jack as the Catalonian, having per- 
haps a little more weight and bone, but are all off colors. 
The Maltese is smaller than the Catalonian, rarely being 
over \s,yi hands high, but is nice and smooth. The Ma- 
jorca is the largest of the imported jacks, the heaviest in 
weight, bone, head and ear, and frequently grows to 16 
hands. These are raised in the rich Island of Majorca in 
the Mediterranean sea. While they excel in weight and 
size, they lack in style, finish and action. The Italian is 
the smallest of all the imported jacks, being usually from 
13 to 14 hands high, but having good foot, bone and weight, 
and some of them make good breeders. The Poitou is the 
latest importation of the jack, and is little known in the 
United States. He is imported from France, and is re- 
ported to be the sire of some of the finest mules in his 
native land. These jacks have long hair about the neck, 
ears and legs, and are in some respects to the jack race 
what the Clydesdale is to other horses. He is heavy set, 
has good foot and bone, fine head and ear, and of good 
size, being about 15 hands high. 

The native jack, as a class, is heavier in body, having a 
larger bone and foot than the imported, and shows in his 
entire make-up the result of the limestone soil and grasses 
common in this country. He is of all colors, having de- 
scended from all the breeds of imported jacks. But the 
breeders of this country, seeing the fancy of their customers 
for the black jack with light points, have discarded all 
other colors in selecting their jacks to breed to jennets, and 
the consequence is that a large proportion of the jacks in 
the stud now, for mares, are of this color. 

The native jack, being acclimated and to the manor 
born, seems to give better satisfaction to breeders of mules 
than any other kind. From observation and experience, it 
is believed that our native jacks, with good imported crosses 
behind them, will sire the mules best suited to the wants of 
those who use them in this country, and will supply the 
market with what is desired by the dealers. The colts by 
this class of jacks are stronger in make-up, having better 
body, with more length, larger head and ear, more foot and 
bone, combined with style equal to the colts of the im- 
ported jacks. 

While many fine mules are sired by imported jacks, this 
is not to be understood as meaning that imported jacks do 
not get good foals, yet, taken as a class, we think that the 
mule by the native jack is superior to any other class. 
This conclusion is borne out by an experience and observa- 
tion of some years, and by many of the best breeders and 
dealers in the United States. 

The Kind of Mare to Breed Front. — As the mule par- 
takes very largely in its body and shape of its mother, it is 
necessary that care should be taken in selecting the dam. 
Many suppose that when a mare becomes diseased and un- 
fit for breeding to the horse, then she is fit to breed fot 
mules. This is a sad mistake, for a good, growing, sound 
colt must have good, sound sire and dam. 

The jack may be ever so good, yet the result will be a 
disappointment unless the mare is good, sound and prop- 
erly built for breeding. First, she should be sound and of 
good color — black, bay, brown or chestnut is preferred. 
Her good color is needed to help to give the foals proper 
color, and this is a matter of no small importance, as we 
shall see further on. 

This should not be understood as ignoring the other 
colors, for some of the best mules ever seen were the pro- 
duce of gray or light-colored mares, as many dealers and 
breeders will attest. The mare should be well bred — that 
is, she would give better results by having some good 
crosses. By all means, let her have a cross of thorough- 
bred, say one- quarter, supplemented with strong crosses of 
some of the larger breeds, and the balance of the breeding 
may be made up of the better class of the native stock. 
The mare should have good length, large, well-rounded 

barrel, good head, long neck, good, broad, flat bone, broad 
chest, wide between the hips and good style. 

How to Breed the Mule. — Having selected the sire and 
the dam, the next thing is to produce the colt. The sire, 
if well kept and in good condition, is ready for business, 
but not so with the mare. The dam is to be in season — 
that is, in heat. She should be bred about the first of 
April In the latitude of Tennessee, and at other places as 
the season opens, according to climate. Before being bred, 
to prevent accidents, the mare should be hobbled or pitted. 
Having taken this precaution, the jack may be brought out, 
and both will be ready for service. Care should be taken 
not to overserve the jack, as he should not be allowed to 
serve over two mares a day, and not nearer than eight 
hours apart. 

The mare, after being served, may be put to light work, 
or put upon some quiet pasture by herself for several days 
until she passes out of season, when she may be turned out 
with other stock to run until the eighteenth day, when she 
should be taken up to be teased by a horse to ascertain if 
she be in season; and, if so, she should be bred again. 
Some breeders think the ninth, some the twelfth and some 
the fifteenth day after service is the proper day to tease, but 
observation has taught us that the best results come from 
the eighteenth-day plan. After she becomes impregnated, 
she should have good treatment; light work will not hurt 
her, but care should be taken not to overexert. She should 
have good, nutritious grass if she runs out and is not 
worked, but if worked she should be well fed on good feed. 
The foal will be due in about three hundred and thirty- 
three days. As the time approaches for foaling, the mare 
should be put in a quiet place, away from other stock, un- 
til the foal is dropped. She will not need any extra atten- 
tion, as a rule, but should be looked after to see that every- 
thing goes right. 

After the foal comes, it will not hurt the mare or colt for 
the dam to do light work, provided she is well fed on good, 
nutritious food. Should she not be worked and is on good 
grass, and fed lightly on grain, the colt will grow finely, if 
the mare gives plenty of milk; if she does not, the foal 
should be taught to eat such feed as is most suitable. 

In weaning the colt, much is accomplished by proper 
treatment preparatory to this trying event in the mule's life. 
It should be taught to eat while following its mother, so 
that, when weaned, it will at once know how to subsist on 
that which is fed to it. The best way to wean is to take 
several colts and place them in a close barn, with plenty of 
good, soft feed, such as bran and oats mixed, plenty of 
sound, sweet hay and, in season, cut grass, remembering 
at all times that nothing can make up for want of pure 
water in the stable. Many may be weaned together prop- 
erly. After they have remained in the stable for several 
days they may be turned on good, rich pasture. Do not 
forget to feed, as this is a trying time. The change from 
a lactic to a dry diet is severe on the colt. They may all 
be huddled in a barn together, as they seldom hurt each 
other. Good, rich clover pastures are fine for mules at 
this age; but, if they are to be extra fine, feed them a little 
grain all the while. 

There is little variety in the feed until the mules are two 
years old, at which time they are very easily broken. If 
halter-broken as they grow up, all there is to do in break- 
ing one is to put on a harness and place the young animal 
beside a broken mule and go to work. When it is thor- 
oughly used to the harness, the mule is already broken. 
Light work in the spring when the mule is two years old 
will do no hurt, but in the opinion of many breeders and 
dealers make it better, provided it is carefully handled and 

CU^EAb Qrops. 

Indian Wheat Production. 

Until we get large enough to eat all our wheat in this 
country, we shall be interested in knowing what other 
countries can do. The situation in India as described by a 
resident, Mr. T. P. Hughes, in the American Agriculturist 
is interesting reading. He says that now that the rupee of 
British India is a recognized factor in the monetary condi- 
tions of the commercial world, it is interesting to note that 
India ranks third among the countries of the world as a 
wheat-producing country, with every prospect of taking a 
second if not a first place, both as to production and ex- 
port. The United States exports some eighty-three 
millions of bushels out of its annual yield of four hundred 
and forty, and Russia is able to spare about the same quan- 
tity out of its production of two hundred and forty millions 
of bushels. And although France stands second on the 
list, as a producer of three hundred and ten millions of 
bushels, she is the importer of thirty-eight millions of 
bushels, and the rapidly increasing population of the United 
States would indicate a gradually increasing demand for 
home consumption. In the meantime the growth of wheat 
in India is rapidly increasing, and the yearly exports of 
wheat from the ports of Kurrachee and Bombay show a 
marvelous development of the country as a wheat con- 
tributor to the markets of Europe. During the last year 
the estimated growth of wheat in India was two hundred 
and three millions of bushels, or about one bushel to each 
unit of the population of that vast empire. Out of this 
quantity, thirty millions of bushels were exported, being 
about one-eighth of her production, as compared with the 
one- fifth of America and the one-third of Russia. This 
year the yield is estimated at two hundred and sixty-seven 
million bushels. But while the export of wheat from the 
United States may be expected to dwindle, as her popula- 
tion and industrial development progresses, the surplus of 
wheat in India must be an increasing quantity. 

Owing to a magnificent system of irrigation carried on 
throughout the Indian empire, under the control of skilled 
experts in the science of irrigation employed by the govern- 
ment, the growth of wheat in those sunburnt regions ao 

longer depends upon the rainfall. In those fertile distrk. 
where the government irrigation works have been con- 
structed, the farmer gets his spring and autumn harvests 
without waiting for the " former and latter rain." 
This is especially the case with the valley of the Punjab, 
which only 30 years ago was dry and arid, but now blos- 
soms as the rose under the fertilizing influences of those 
great works of irrigation so efficiently worked and con- 
trolled by the government irrigation department. The 
opening of a railway to Cashmere brings another almost 
unknown wheat-producing country into the market. And 
the recent annexation of Burmah another. In fact, British 
India is still undeveloped. It is a country in which you 
can never say of any enterprise, it is finished. The Indian 
zamindar, or land-owner, is as ignorant of the possibilities 
of his country as a settler in the Wild West. He has not 
yet awaked to the fact that there is a wheat market beyond 
the limits of his own land. The native farmer never reads 
a newspaper, and is a man destitute of ambition in com- 
mercial life. It was only a few years ago that he had to 
protect his lands against the inroads of the enemy, and he 
can scarcely realize that a reign of peace and commercial 
prosperity has begun. There is, in fact, no organized sys- 
tem of commercial development beyond the paternal rule 
of " the barra sahib," or the " great gentleman," as the dis- 
trict magistrate " is called. This officer, to use the native 
expression, is literally the "mabap" or "mother and 
father " of the Indian farmer. But such a form of rule is 
not conducive to the development of private enterprise, 
and it might safely be said that whatever India has done in 
the way of increasing its export of wheat, it has been the 
result of a happy " kismet " rather than of any organized 
system of trade. What is needed is increased capital and 
increased energy. A few millions of British capital and an 
importation of American enterprise would make Kurrachee 
a very important metropolis, and the Chicago of Asia. 
The great obstacle to the expansion of the Indian wheat 
trade is the less remunerative price which it commands in 
the market, owing to its dirty condition. The Indian 
farmer garners his wheat under the enlightened rule of the 
Queen Empress very much as he did in the warlike days of 
Barber. He threshes his wheat on the dry sod in front of 
the village hostel just as Gideon did in the time of the 
Judges, and this wheat is stored in earthen barns which are 
pulled to pieces when the native agent from Kurrachee or 
Bombay pays the village his annual visit. It is therefore 
not surprising that hundreds of tons of " pure dirt " are 
shipped to Europe at the exporter's expense, and that the 
London and Liverpool brokers still depreciate the wheat 
produce of British India. But all this will be changed in 
the course of a few years, and ere long India, the land of 
the silver rupee, must rank second, if not first, among the 
wheat-producing countries of the world. 

HIhe Irrigation ist. 

Irrigation Practices in Eastern Washington. 

In eastern Washington there are between 500,000 and 
1,000,000 acres of land which is being made tillable and 
fertile to the highest measure by irrigation. Large tracts 
are brought under cultivation by this method also in Idaho 
and Oregon. During the past four years many large com- 
panies have been organized, extending ditches hundreds of 
miles into the arid districts, and are successfully supplying 
water to growing crops, which increases the value of these 
lands more than twenty-fold. The Northwest Horticul- 
turist gives an account of operations in this new country 
which is interesting to compare with our own methods and 
policies. The products mostly grown on these lands to 
this time are the various orchard and root crops and alfalfa. 

Practical growers are united in the opinion that the lands 
should be well soaked in the fall, about the last of Novem- 
ber, then again early in spring, after which the harrow 
should be run over the ground to break the crust and to 
keep it from baking, when after a few days it will be ready 
either for the cultivator or plow. 

The methods of Irrigating orchards are very simple. It 
is only necessary to put the water where it will do the most 
good, and that is as near as possible to the extremities of 
the rootlets. The extent of the roots of a tree bears a ratio 
somewhat approaching that of the branches. Near the 
stem there are few of the root hairs or fine fibers by which 
nutriment is absorbed. In irrigating an orchard the most 
perfect method of applying the waters is to distribute it in 
a broad, circular channel around the tree, distant about six 
feet from the stem. Small distributing channels are made 
from the lateral ditches, which will best serve the purpose, 
on the soil irrigated, to bring the water in position to the 
tree and roots as described. Care must be taken not to 
apply too much water, as stagnant water is fatal to the life 
of all useful vegetation, and where water is applied too 
freely it will be necessary to underdrain. Persons begin- 
ning are very apt to make the mistake of applying too 
much water after once turned on. When the ground has 
been made damp and mellow for seeding, and crops have 
started, then water should only be applied when the ground 
needs it; and when the water is turned off, shallow cultiva- 
tion should follow shortly after to stop the loss of moisture 
by evaporation, except after the last application for root 

The penalty for excessive Irrigation in orchards is a crop 
of fruit of inferior quality, watery, soft and without flavor; 
the wood and leaf are pushed at the expense of the fruit. 
It is therefore necessary to act with extreme caution. Early 
fruiting trees require little or no irrigation, and the late 
ones are watered only after the fruit is set and needs to 
grow vigorously. As the ripening season approaches, the 
water is withdrawn unless the necessity is absolute. Dur- 
ing flowering no water is given at all, unless exceptional 
drouths occur, and then with moderation and at intervals. 
In irrigating fruit trees properly, the operator is obliged to 
exercise the greatest care in not going to extremes— on the 



January 13, 1894. 

one hand the evils of excess, and on the other hand the 
periodical and certain damages which this practice enables 
him to obviate or mitigate when intelligently applied. 

Having excellent slope and great depth of soil the lands 
under this ditch will hold much water, or good crops may 
be grown with even a moderate supply which Mr. H. K. 
Bicknell says has been demonstrated by his personal ex- 
perience through a number of years. After giving the 
ground a thorough wetting first in the fall, then in early 
spring, it is best to follow by harrowing and plowing, which 
on most of these slopes can be done a few days after stop- 
ping the water. The crops and young trees are then 
planted, and for fruit trees use no more water until the fruit 
is well set; apply about the same time for growing trees. 
Use no more tor early fruits, but the winter apples may be 
watered again in July. For potatoes wet the ground 
thoroughly before planting and keep the water off until the 
vines are about 15 inches high; meanwhile give constant 
shallow cultivation at intervals with harrow or cultivator. 
Apply the water again when the tubers are setting, then 
again at intervals when the ground needs it, but do not cul- 
tivate after the potatoes are in blossom. For alfalfa after 
the spring watering no further irrigation is needed until af- 
ter the first crop is matured and harvested, which is along 
in May, when the ground is again thoroughly soaked, the 
water taken off, and a second crop matured; following in 
like manner with the third crop. 

These general principles govern for other crops as they 
partake in the nature of any of those described. The gen- 
eral tendency of those now located on these lands where 
water was applied last year and previous to then, is to use 
water excessively and give too little cultivation. Less 
water and more constant use of harrow and cultivator when 
crops are growing will in most cases produce much better 

In constructing the head ditches it has been found most 
satisfactory to use board troughs made by using boards of 
suitable lengths, 1^x8 inches for bottom, and side pieces 
each of 1x8 inches nailed to the bottom. Large holes are 
then bored at suitable distances for the " leader?." Head 
ditches of above size will be sufficiently large to carry the 
water for ten acres, and can be made at a cost of three 
cents per foot. 


California Canned Goods. 
We are indebted to the Cutting Fruit Packing Company 
for the following review of the California canned goods 
trade in 1893: 

The condition of the market when the season opened 
was not especially favorable, owing to the large " carry 
over " that had accumulated during the packing seasons of 
1891 and 1892, not only at prominent points but in foreign 
markets as well. As jobbers, however, at all points were 
not presumed to carry as large stocks as usual, it was esti- 
mated and hoped that the surplus would be used up during 
the spring trade, and that the packers might count on pro 
ducing an average pack during the season, with fair re- 
turns. It was expected, too, that the World's Fair would 
somewhat increase demand, both on account of the loca- 
tion and domestic consumption, as well as to the attention 
drawn to the goods through an unusual number of 
strangers visiting the country. Under these prospective 
conditions canners made their usual engagements for cans 
and other supplies outside of green frnit, while for the lat- 
ter they made as many engagements as they were able dur- 
ing the spring months, considering the high values fixed 
by fruit-growers, who based their ideas largely on the 
prospective increased consumption, but without full regards 
to actual facts. 

The packing of early varieties in May and June was very 
heavy, particularly of cherries, of which there was doubt- 
less a larger pack made than ever before known. The 
final cataclysm, lasting from the middle of June to the 
present time, knocked all previous calculations to such an 
extent that the prices for raw material were fully 50 per 
cent less. This, however, fortunately, did not cause a cor- 
responding increase in pack, as sufficient funds could not 
be realized by any packers, even had there been any 
encouragement that they could sell their product, there be- 
ing quite a period during which absolutely no pecuniary 
accommodation whatever was furnished by banks or any 
other financial source. 

The pack of cherries was doubtless about 85 per cent of 
the previous years, while that of peaches doubtless reached 
50 per cent. Plums and pears had little attention given 
ihem, and it is fair to presume not over 25 per cent of the 
usual pack was made of these two varieties. Little atten- 
tion, as well, was paid to other varieties, and the total pack 
of all together was doubtless not exceeding 60 per cent of 
previous years — possibly 50 per cent would be nearer. 

The usual pack of peas was almost wholly neglected on 
account of there being a tremendous " carry over " from 
1892. The tomato pack for the year was quite up to the 
previous season, there being an absolute clean up of all 
stocks on hand by the first of July, both on this coast and 
throughout the East, so that there was a very heavy ad- 
vance up to the time the goods of new pack went on to the 
the market. 

The sale of fruits for the year has been very light and at 
prices corresponding with low values of all merchandise 
throughout the country, so that it is problematical if much 
net profit has been realized by any packers on the year's 

Touching the stocks on hand at present, nothing abso- 
lute can be ascertained, as each picker of course keeps his 
business to himself, and no statistics worthy of considera- 
tion can be reached. It is fair, howevtr, to presume, 
through the small and light demand ruling throughout the 
season, that the large " carry over " a year ago, together 
with the 60 per cent pack of the present season, leaves a 
large stock on hand that could not have been found at any 

previous similar date for many years past. If such is the 
fact, the prospects are far from being satisfactory, and it is 
a serious question how much encouragement there is for 
canners to continue business to any great extent the com- 
ing year. Certainly there is no strong advance in prices or 
values to be looked for, even though the stocks in jobbers' 
hands are, as is confidently asserted, much lighter than 
heretofore, as it has become almost a settled fact that job- 
bers will not hereafter carry large stocks, but will rather 
pursue a hand-to-mouth course and oblige packers to carry 
stocks from which they can draw. 

Meeting of the Connty Commissioners. 

The pressure upon our columns last week in setting 
forth the transactions of the Fruit Exchange Convention 
compelled postponement of an outline of the doings of an- 
other very important body, viz., the organization known as 
the County Horticultural Commissioners' Association of 
Northern California. H. P. Stabler, one of the most ex- 
tensive Sutter county fruit-growers, is president, and 
George M. Gray, of Chico, secretary. " This is not a 
close organization," explained Chairman Stabler at the 
meeting on Dec. 28th, " but simply a convention of horti- 
cultural commissioners." 

The commissioners present put in a full day, holding 
three sessions. They were as follows: From Alameda 
county, William Barry; Butte, George M. Gray and Eben 
Boalt; Yolo, Joseph Lamme and H. C. Howard; Tulare, 
N. W. Motheral; San Joaquin, W. H. Robinson; Nevada, 
Stephen Richards; Colusa, F. W. Willis; Sutter, R. C. 
Kelis and H. P. Stabler. Besides these there were Dr. N. 
H. Claflin of Riverside, ex commissioner of San Bernar- 
dino county, and D. M. Pyle of Bakersfield, ex-commis- 
sioner of Kern connty. 

Before the meeting reached the business for which it had 
come together, Secretary Lelong of the State Board called 
attention to the unsettled balance of $600 on the Young & 
Powers claim for drafting and lobbying through the Legis- 
lature the tree pest bill. 

Of the original amount of $1109 the commissioners from 
the principal fruit-growing counties had succeeded in 
liquidating as much as $500, and though one or two of 
them, like Mr. Robinson, bad had to pay the assessment 
made on their counties from their own pockets, it was felt 
that the best thing to do was to make a reapportionment 
by assessing the liberal counties once more, which was 
eventually done. It is expected that the fruit-growers 
generally will come to the rescue of the commissioners on 
the matter, since the bill was made a law for their particu- 
lar benefit. 

That disposed of, the commissioners settled down to a 
discussion of fruit-tree pests and remedies, Messrs. 
Motheral, Boalt, Kells, Barry, Stabler, Gray and others 
giving their experiences and observations. 

The habits and ravages of the pernicious scale, as it is 
called, the woolly aphis, and the peach root borer, an East- 
ern pest which now gives much trouble in this State, and 
various other insects, were dwelt upon at length; also the 
formation and effect of root-knot. The questions taken up 

"What insects or diseases have we to contend with and 
how shall we proceed? " 

" What plan shall we adopt in shipping trees from one 
county to another so as to have as little friction as possi- 
ble ? " 

"Shall we allow Eastern stock shipped here? If so, 
upon what conditions ? " 

At the request of Chairman Stabler, the State quarantine 
officer, Alexander Craw, gave his observations on pests, 
which, in substance, were: 

"The pernicious scale is rapidly becoming a thing of the 
past. It is almost extinct in the San Jose district. Resin 
wash and the usual wash of lime, salt and sulphur are very 
beneficial. The brown-necked scymnus (ladybird) is the 
most beneficial parasitic destroyer of the scale. I don't 
advise sparing the trees where ladybirds are numerous, but 
rather the protection of the parasites." 

Mr. Boalt interrupted to say that in the mountainous 
sections there was still plenty of scale. Mr. Craw con- 

" The woolly aphis is a more serious pest to fight, as it is 
mostly in the roots of trees and out of reach. It doesn't 
thrive upon resisting stocks, however, like the Northern 
Spy and an Australian variety of apple. It is a good idea 
to scatter wood ashes around the trunks of trees when dor- 
mant, and to spray the trees with a resin wash in the sum- 
mer time. The aphis breeds in both the roots and the 

Speaking of washes, he recommended a very good 
quality of whale-oil soap, if that were used, but said the 
resin wash was more penetrating. 

About the root knot there was much that was mysterious, 
according to Mr. Craw. It is found chiefly upon peach 
trees, and experiments by Secretary Lelong and himself 
had not proved it to be contagious. Even inoculation had 
been unsuccessful. He advised the rejection of infected 
trees only. 

On the question of shipping trees from one county to an- 
other, it was decided to have the most rigid inspection 
made, and a system of bale tags and certificates will be 
nsed to fortify fruit-growers against suspicious nursery 


Mr. Craw thought there was very little danger in fruit 
shipments, as the fruit was usually consumed and the pests 
destroyed in peeling. To dip or fumigate fruit might hurt 
its market value. If anything were done at all, citrus fruit 
should never be dipped; it might be fumigated with hydro- 
cyanic acid gas, but he felt very little apprehensiveness 
about the likelihood of red scale infection spreading from 
orange shipments. 

The Commissioners decided to exercise the utmost vigi- 
lance respecting the shipments of graftings, buds, pits and 
trees from the East. Some Pike county (Mo.) stock had 
been found very badly infected. A committee composed 
of Messrs. Motheral, Boalt, Howard, Kells and Craw was 

chosen to arrange with railroad station agents for the noti- 
fication of county horticultural commissioners whenever 
Eastern shipments arrived. 

The evening was spent in a general discussion of the 
different scales and their natural enemies, the ladybird 

Room for More Fruit. 

To the Editor.- — The tree-planting season is with us 
again and the question whether to plant or not to plant is 
being seriously considered by many who had planned to set 
out extensive orchards during the present season. A com- 
bination of causes resulting in low prices for fruit have com- 
bined to give a serious aspect to this question, and to 
arouse to activity the periodical bugaboo of overproduction. 
The extreme tightness of the money market during the past 
season, the inability of packers to secure from the banks 
the necessary advances to carry their usual volume of busi- 
ness, the consequent small local demand for fruit, a large 
eastern crop and a natural curtailment of that market, all 
combined to depress the fruit industry of California during 
the past season. Added to this is an uncertainty as to the 
future caused by the prospective tariff reduction. All these 
causes have combined to make the outlay of capital in new 
orchards a very serious one. 

Were this condition of depression the first one which 
California fruit-growers had experienced, the outlook would 
indeed be gloomy, bnt there have been numerous occa- 
sions when they have had to face a depressed market, 
when overproduction has been aired extensively, yet the 
area in orchards has steadily increased and the markets 
have as steadily widened, and despite the dull season, we 
do not appear to be nearer the dreaded epoch of overpro- 
duction to-day with our vast acreage of fruit, than we were 
ten years ago with the comparatively small area then under 
cultivation. A glance at the annual expenditures of the 
United States for imported fruits will indicate that there Is 
yet a vast unsupplied field in our own country which Cali- 
fornia should and, with proper encouragement, will fill. 
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1893, there were im- 
ported into the United States the following list of 
fruits, which California should supply and for which nearly 
$15,000,000 were sent away: 

Figs $ 548.99s 

Lemons 4.994 34 2 

Oranges 2,901,238 

Plums and prunes 1,162,318 

Raisins 1,266,342 

Currants 1, 185,537 

Preserved fruits 864,166 

Unclassified fruits 1,239,582 

Almonds 938,054 

Other nuts 51,94! 

Olive oil. 891,424 

Total $16,043,929 

It is evident from the above list that there is yet ample 
room for our California fruits in competition with the for- 
eign product, to say nothing of the large foreign demand 
for oar fruit products in China, Japan, Australia, South 
America and the islands. 

The present depressed market is largely the result of the 
financial flurry and will be of temporary dnratlon. While 
it is not probable that the Democratic Congress will take 
any action that will seriously injure so important an indus- 
try as fruit growing is to California, and in view of these 
facts and the history of the past, those who have contem- 
plated planting need not hesitate on account of prospec- 
tive overproduction, that tint's fatuus of the Californian, 
which has always existed in the distance. The probabili- 
ties are that there will always be a good demand at fair 
prices for good California fruit. 

Each year gives us a wider market for our fruits, im- 
provements are making in the means of preserving fresh 
fruits, improvements in drying and canning, more rapid 
and better means of transportation are given us, and all 
these keep pace with the increased output. The product 
of Calilornia is not now, nor ever has been equal to the 
consumption of our own land; it is not probable that it ever 
will be, for by the time our young orchards come into bear- 
ing the facilities for reaching the consumer will correspond- 
ingly increase, and the demand be very much enlarged. 
That there will come seasons of depression cannot be 
doubted; that many orchardists will lose money is equally 
true; bnt the man who plants intelligently, who watches the 
market closely, who supplies what that market requires, 
will make a success in the fruit business In the future as he 
has done in the past, and no other kind of man should en- 
gage in it. 


A very marked interest in olive growing has developed 
in the past two years, and the present season will see a 
larger plant of this fruit than has been known in any pre- 
ceding year. The olive presents many advantages to the 
fruit-grower. While fully appreciating good soil and care- 
ful attention, it will grow in locations where other trees 
would fail. It is easily propagated and requires compara- 
tively little skill or care in its cultivation, it will endure a 
greater degree of cold than trees of the citrus family, and 
has a much wider range in both latitude and altitude than 
most varieties of fruit. In addition, it gives its crops in a 
season when there is little other fruit to be attended to, 
and its product is not forced upon the market. The 
grower can hold his oil or his pickles for a market. These 
are a few of the advantages offered by the olive that may 
account for its present popularity, and, added to this, there 
is a feeling that olive growing has not been nor Is it likely 
to be overdone, as is evidenced by the statements of profits 
made by some of the leading growers of the State. 

There has been a steadily increasing demand for olive 
products in our own State and from the East, which gives 
promise for the consumption of all that can be produced 
for some years to come, and Mr. Cooper states that the 
demand for his oil was so large that he had to very largely 
increase the price, and even then the demand upon him 
was greater than he could supply. I. 

San Francisco. 

January 13, 185*4. 



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January 13, 1894. 

Growing Old. 

The fairest lilies droop at eventide, 
The sweetest roses fall from off the stem, 

The rarest things on earth cannot abide, 
And we are passing, too, away like them. 
We're growing old. 

We had our dreams, those rosy dreams of youth, 
They faded, and 'twas well. Their after prime 

Hath brought us fuller hopes, and yet, forsooth, 
We drop a tear now in this later time 
To think we're old. 

We smile at these poor fancies of the past — 
A saddened smile almost akin to pain. 

Those high desires, those purposes so vast. 
Ah, our poor hearts, they cannot come again ! 
We're growing old. 

Old ? Well, the heavens are old; this earth is, too; 

Old wine is best, maturest fruit most sweet; 
Much have we lost, more gained, although 'tis true 

We tread life's way with most uncertain feet. 
We're growing old. 

We move along and scatter as we pace 
Soft graces, tender hopes on every band. 

A t last, with gray streaked hair and hollow face, 
We step across the boundary of the land 
Where none is old. 

The Children's Room. 

How peaceful at night 

The sleeping children lie. 
Each gentle breath so light, 
Escaping like a sigh ! 
How tranquil seems the room, how fair 
To one who softly enters there ? 

Whose hands are those, unseen. 
That smooth each little bed ? 
Whose locks are those that lean 
Over each pillowed head ? 
Whose lips caress the boys and girls ? 
Whose fingers stroke the golden curls? 

Whose are the yearning eyes, 

And whose the trembling tear? 
Whose heart is this that cries, 
Beseeching God to hear? 
Whose but the mother's, in whose face 
Love shows its sweetest dwelling place ? 

Her hopes in beauty bloom, 

And heaven sends down its light, 
Which lingers in the room 
Where mother says "Good night."' 
Soft treading by the sleepers there, 
Her very presence seems a prayer. 

— Buffalo Commercial. 

Her Answer. 

" I'm going to be married," he softly said. 

She looked up in swift surprise; 
The color from out of her bright face fled, 

The light grew dim in her eyes. 

"You're going to be married?" she echoed low- 

Her voice had a steady tone — 
'' I hope you'll be happy wherever you go;" 

A cough bid a little moan. 

" I know that your bride will be good and true — 

You never could love any other." 
She steadily looked into his eyes, dark blue — 

" I tender you joy, my brother." 

" I'm going to be married — that is, I hope 

To be, though I hardly know. 
Dear Love, shall I longer pine and mope ? 

I tremble for fear of a ' no. ' " 

The color that out of her face had fled 

Came back with a deeper hue. 
"Why, isn't it funny," she shyly said, 

"' That I'm to be married, too." 

A Fairy Story. 

|MONG the mountains in Nor- 
way lived Hans. One day 
be lay on a sunny bank 
watching the fleecy clouds, 
swift messengers of thought, 
as they sped across the blue 
ether, and he saw them take on many strange 
shapes. Now a monstrous troll, as the 
mountain giants are called in Norseland, 
would stand out in bold relief, and again 
carious beasts and birds would present 
themselves to his eager eye. 

All at once he was afloat in folklore land, 
where he was to meet face to face beings of 
whom he had heard so much. He was 
bound to visit the castle of the Mountain 
King, the mightiest of trolls. The air was 
full of music, and he heard the birds singing 
about this king and his treasures. 

Hans now heard a whizzing in the air, and 
there appeared before him the biggest bird 
he had ever seen in his life. As it plunged 
down beside him, it almost seemed as 
though a huge load of hay had been dumped 
on the ground. 

If Hans would get on his back, the bird 
told him he would bear him to the Mountain 
King's castle, but the boy must hold fast to 
the feather at the nape of Bird Dan's neck 
lest he fall. This feather, you must know, 
was as big and as tall as a half grown spruce 

Hans did as be was bid, and away they 
went sailing through the air so fast that the 
wind whistled after them. Presently they 
reached some noble gralnfields, and here 

Bird Dan paused to fill his crop. It fright 
ened Hans to see bow much he could de 
vour. The boy himself sat down to partake 
of the modest lunch he carried with him, 
when he saw a man lying with his ear close 
to the ground. 

" What are you doing ? " asked Hans. 

" I am listening to the grass," was the 
reply. " My ears are so fine I can hear 
every blade as it grows. I need less sleep 
than a bird, and I can see a hundred miles 
by night as well as by day." 

" You'd be a useful man to have on my 
journey," said Hans. " Will you go along ? " 

" Yes, if Bird Dan will take me, and if 
you'll give me some of your lunch." 

"My lunch isn't much, but such as it is 
I'll gladly share it with you," said Hans. 

Bird Dan consented, and away they went 
with the new comrade. 

When next they paused, Hans saw a man 
walking about with his hand over his mouth. 

" What is the matter with you ?" cried 

" I'm the man that has swallowed seven 
summers and fifteen winters, and I keep my 
hand over my mouth lest they all escape at 
once and make utter confusion in the 


" You'd be a useful comrade," said Hans. 
" Will you join my party ?" 

The man was willing if he might have 
some lunch and if Bird Dan would consent. 
So it was quickly arranged for him to go. 

After Bird Dan had pursued his swift 
flight for a time with these three comrades 
on his back, Hans asked: 

" How far shall we have to go ?" 

" As far as the east lies from the west," 
was the reply. 

" How long will it take us ?" 

" As long as it takes the sun to make the 
same journey." 

At this moment the man whose eyes and 
ears were so sharp cried out: 

" I can see into the Mountain King's 
castle. There is one who has told him you 
are coming, Hans, and the king is ready for 
you " 

" I think I'm afraid," said Hans. 

" Don't fear," said the man with the seven 
summers and the fifteen winters. " I'll 
help you." 

" We're most there now," said Bird Dan. 
Sure enough, there flickered and flamed 
before them a hedge of fire, and beyond it a 
castle glowed like the noonday sun. 

"Now," cried Bird Dan, "our good 
friend with the many seasons may let out a 
piece of a winter." 

The man sent forth a chilling blast that 
quickly parted the flames and made Hans 

" Go boldly into the castle," now said 
Bird Dan to Hans, " and perhaps the 
Mountain King will not be so dangerous as 
you think. His body is bigger and stronger 
than yours, but you have more sense than 
he. Keep your wits about you, and if you 
need help call on your ready helpers." 

Hans made his way to the castle. He 
passed through room after room, but saw 
no one. At length he came to the great 
hall where the king sat at a table counting his 

" Hu-te-tu !" cried the king. " How dare 
you enter my castle? Don't you know I 
could grind you to powder with one blow of 
my hand !" 

" That I do," cried Hans in a flattering 
tone. " But I know you won't harm me for 
all that." 

"And why, pray?" thundered the Moun- 
tain King. 

" Because I'll make myself so useful to 
you," said Hans. 

" You useful to me !" sneered the Moun- 
tain King. 

" Try me," cried Hans. 
" Very well," said the Mountain King. 
"If you're man enough to sit in my 
smokehouse and tend to the furnace while 
300 cords of wood are burned in it, I shan't 
harm you." 

" I'll do it," said Hans, "if I may take a 
friend of mine along." 

"Take all your friends," was the reply, 
given with an air of assurance. 

' May I have a peep at your treasures if 
I come out alive ?" 
" Aye, truly, if you come out alive !" 
So Hans took the man who had swallowed 
so many winters and summers, and they 
entered the smokehouse about dusk. There 
was already a scorching fire in the furnace, 
and there was no escape, for the king had 
locked the door. 

" You will have to let loose six or seven 
winters," said Hans to his friend. 

The man did as he was asked, and as the 
night wore on the temperature became 
actually chilly. Now a few summers were 
let out, and the friends slept comfortably 
until dawn. 

When the king opened the door in the 
morning, the man of many seasons blew a 

cold blast right in his face, so that the royal 
nose was pinched with frost. 

"May I see your treasures now?" asked 

" First you must find my son, the child 
prince. He is lost, and I mourn for him 
night and day," declared the Mountain 


" I'll find him," said Hans. 

He now sought the man who could see 
and bear so far. 

" Help me find the Mountain King's son," 
cried Hans. 

The man listened and looked, and at last 
he said: 

" He Is on the mountain, 100 miles from 
here. I can both see him and hear him cry. 
Bird Dan must carry us to the spot." 

So they called on Bird Dan and soon re- 
stored the young troll prince to his father. 
Now Hans was told he might ask for his 

" Give me," said be, "the rusty sword 
that hangs on the wall." 

"That you cannot wield," replied the 
Mountain King. 

" Yes, I can," said Hans, " for I will drink 
of the water of life in the bottle on yonder 

So he got the sword and the refreshments. 

" Now," cried he, " for a lamp to light 
my path, and then I'm off to see the treas- 
ures in the cavern beneath the castle." 

" The lamp yon will find in the chamber 
of light," said the Mountain King, " but you 
will be powerless against the dragon that 
guards my treasures," 

" We shall see," said Hans, and finding 
the lamp he went down into the bowels of 
the earth, lighted by its bright glow. 

The dragon reared its hideous head at 
his approach, but with one blow of his 
sword he severed this from its body. Just 
as the Mountain King came to the door to 
find out what was going on, the sun burst in 
full glory from behind a cloud. 

Then troll and castle disappeared, and 
Hans was left alone with the treasures he 
had so faithfully earned. Bird Dan was 
quickly summoned, and he bore Hans, with 
the treasures and the ready helpers, to the 
place where they could be most useful. — Ex- 

Gems of Thought. 

By conversing with the mighty dead we 
imbibe sentiment with knowledge. — Hazlitt. 

One only "right" we have to assert in 
common with mankind — and that is as much 
In our hands as in theirs — is the right of hav- 
ing something to do. — Miss Murlock. 

The golden moments in the stream of life 
rush past us and we see nothing but sand; 
the angels come to visit us, and we only 
know them when they are gone. — George 

There is no greater work on earth than 
that of developing everything in man, of 
bringing it into harmony, of holding it back 
from wrong-doing, and pushing it forward to 
positive excellences. He builds a great 
thing who builds a pyramid, but be builds a 
greater thing who builds a character. — H. 
W. Beecher. 

The soul of a true philosopher, being con- 
vinced that it should not oppose its own 
liberty, disclaims as far as is possible the 
pleasures, lusts, fears and sorrows of the 
body, for it knows that when one has en- 
joyed many pleasures or given way to ex- 
treme grief or tlmorousness, or given himself 
to his desires, he not only is afflicted by the 
sensible evils known to all the world, such 
as the loss of health or estate, but is doomed 
to the last and greatest of evils — an evil that 
is so much the more dangerous and terrible 
that it is not obvious to our senses. — Plato. 

Private devotion is essential to the spirit- 
ual life; without it there is no life. But it 
cannot replace united prayer, for the two 
things have different aims. Solitary prayer 
s feeble in comparison with that which rises 
before the throne echoed by the heart of 
hundreds, and strengthened by the feeling 
that other aspirations are mingling with our 
own. And, whether it be the chanted litany 
or the more simply-read service or the an- 

them, producing one emotion at the same 
moment in many bosoms, the value and the 
power of public prayer seem chiefly to de- 
pend on this mysterious affection of our na- 
ture — sympathy. — F. W. Robertson. 

The Arab Steed. 

The origin of the best strain of Arabian 
blood has been related by some romancer. 
While Mohammed was fighting his way to 
greatness, he was once compelled to lead 
his corps of 20,000 cavalry for three days 
without a drop of water. At last, from a 
hilltop, they descried the silver track of a 
distant river. Mohammed ordered his 
trumpeter to blow the call to dismount and 
loose the horses. The poor brutes, starv- 
ing for water, at once sprang into a mad 
gallop toward the longed-for goal. No 
sooner loosened than came the alarm — 
false, as it happened — of a sudden ambush. 
" To horse ! " was blown and repeated by a 
hundred bugles. But the demand was too 
great; the parched throats were not to be 
refused; the stampede grew wilder and 
wilder as 20,000 steeds pushed desperately 
for the river banks. Of the frantic crowd, 
but five mares responded to the call. To 
these, duty was higher than suffering. They 
turned in their tracks, came bravely back, 
pleading in their eyes and anguish in their 
sunken flanks, and stood before the Prophet. 
Love for their master and a sense of obedi- 
ence had conquered their distress, but their 
bloodshot eyes told of a fearful torment — 
the more pathetic for their dumbness. The 
danger was over; the faithful mares were at 
once released; but Mohammed selected 
these five for his own use, and they were 
the dams of one of the great races of the 
desert. From them have sprung the best of 
Arabian steeds. It can, however, scarcely 
be claimed that the average horse of the 
Orient comes up to this ideal. He must 
have been bred from the 19,995- — From 
" Riders of Turkey," in Harper's Magazine. 

Popular Science. 

A bat can absorb and digest in one night 
three times the weight of its own body. 
Bats never have more than two little ones at 
a time. 

Refined crystallized sugar, whether made 
from the beet or the sugar cane, is almost 
pure saccharose, and is the same substance 
in both cases. Few articles of food are so 
generally free from adulteration as granu- 
lated — not powdered or coffee-crushed — 

Why do flocks of wild ducks and geese 
form a triangle when they have to fly long 
distances? It is because they know that in 
that form they can cleave the air most easily. 
The most courageous bird takes its position 
at the apex of the great triangle, and when 
it becomes weary of the heavy task another 
takes Its place. 

In South America among the mountains 
the evergreen oak begins to appear at about 
5500 feet, and is found up to the limit of the 
continuous forest, which is about 10,000 feet 
The valuable cinchona tree, from which 
Peruvian bark is obtained, has a range of 
elevation on the mountain slopes running 
from 4900 to 9500 feet. 

Water boils at different temperatures, ac- 
cording to the elevation above the sea level. 
In Baltimore, water boils practically at 212° 
F.; at Munich, In Germany, at zog%°; at 
the City of Mexico, in Mexico, at 200°; and 
in the Himalayas, at an elevation of 18 000 
feet above the level of the sea, at 180 . 
These differences are caused by the varying 
pressure of the atmosphere at these points. 
In Baltimore the whole weight of air is to 
be overcome. In Mexico, 7000 feet above 
the sea, there are 7000 feet less of atmos- 
phere to be resisted; consequently less heat 
is required, and boiling takes place at a 
lower temperature. 

The Intrinsic Cash Value of a Man. 

We have it on the authority of Thackeray 
that you have to wait until 40 years before 
you know the worth of a lass. The knowl- 
edge would not then appear to have much 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report. 




January 13, 1894, 



value; and it is fortunate that science now 
presents an exact means of determining the 
worth of a lad of any age. The last census 
officials, or some other infallible authority, 
have had his constituent ingredients weighed, 
appraised and filed away as a permanent 
standard of value in the archives of the Na- 
tional Museum at Washington — much as the 
Smithsonian Institution or other grave au- 
thority preserves the standard yard-stick or 
the standard quart. It is somewhat of a re- 
lief thus to find the value of an every day 
154-pound young man placed by the govern- 
ment as high as $18,300. We had not 
deemed they took so exalted a view of human 
nature at Washington. But they give us 
chapter and verse for the same, or rather 
weight and measure; for they have the body 
of such a man neatly decomposed and put 
up in jars or bottles on the shelf. — From 
" The Point of View," in Scribner's 
M agazine. 

Good Luck In Stones. 

There are, happily, very few girls in ex- 
istence who are entirely without a spice of 
sentiment In their disposition. 

A ring of beautiful design and workman- 
ship always proves an acceptable gift, and 
will remain a valued souvenir long after the 
first flush of youthful romance has left the 
heart, never to return. 

The girl born in January should wear a 
garnet, for that will win friends for her 
wherever she goes. 

The girl born in February must have an 
amethyst, because that will make her 
sincere, protect her from poison and from 
slanderous tongues. 

The girl born in March must have a blood- 
stone, because that will make her wise and 
give her patience and strength to bear 

The girl born in April must have a dia- 
mond, because that will keep her Innocent 
and pure, happy and generous. 

The girl born in May must have an 
emerald, for that will make her a happy and 
healthy wife. 

The girl born in June must have a topaz, 
for that will make her truthful and protect 
her from fairies and ghosts. 

The girl born in July must have a ruby, 
because they will bring her great love and 
keep her free from jealousy. 

The girl born in August must have a 
sardonyx, because that will make her a 
happy wife and mother. 

The girl born in September must have a 
sapphire, for then she will never quarrel 
with her sweetheart. 

The girl born in October must have a 
carbuncle, for that will make her love her 
home and family. 

The girl born in November must have an 
opal, for that will bring her luck in money 
matters and in love. 

The girl born in December must have a 
turquoise, for that will bring her friends, 
health, happiness and riches. 


The next best thing to owning something 
is to be willing to do without it. 

A scientist has discovered that women 
live longer than men because they talk 

As regards most men, it is less dangerous 
to injure them than to put them under an 

*' It was awfully clever of baby. He had 
never been told what flowers were, but the 
minute he saw them he said * Bwobs ! 1 " 
" But what does Bwobs mean ? " " Flowers, 
of course." 

Jenks — " I can't understand how ship- 
wrecked sailors ever starve to death." Fil- 
kins — " Why not ? " " Because I just came 
over from Liverpool and I never once felt 
the least desire to eat." 

Suitor — " And do you really think you 
could support us in the style to which I 
have been accustomed?" Her father— I 
really think so." Suitor — Then you may 
become my father-in-law." 

Inebriated Party — "Wish (hie) I knew 
shome way of coming home shober." Sober 
Friend — "That's easy enough. Make it a 
rule always to go home on a bicycle. No 
man ever went home drunk on his bicycle." 

Traveler (taking out a well filled cigar 
case) — " Pardon me, but have you a 
match?" Seedy Individual (suggestively) — 
"Yes, but I have nothing to smoke." Trav- 
eler — "Then you won't need the match. 

Hungry Higgins — Gee ! What's the mat- 
ter with your eyes ? " Dismal Dawson — It 
all comes from reading the funny things in 
the papers. I got the fool notion into my 
head that a woman don't know how to throw 
a brick," 

Fashion Notes. 

At present the women of Paris are wear- 
ing gowns of black wool satin, made very 
plain, the skirts being gored and finished 
with seven or nine rows of colored stitching, 
giving the effect of bordered goods, which is 
very charming. 

A very pretty gown is made of green hop- 
sack with a plain, full skirt, while the bodice 
is arranged with the plaited basques, which 
are so much worn, and prettily cut reveres 
of the fashionable black moire arranged very 

Among the new tailor-made gowns is a 
very effective one of chestnut-brown diagonal 
cloth, with the skirt made to button on the 
bodice, opening slightly at the waist in a 
point, showing a broad braid of the same 
color on which is a button at each side where 
the skirt fastens. The back is round at the 
waist and with two buttons for holding the 
skirt. Over the bodice is a wrap of three 
capes of the same material as the gown, 
lined with surah, with a band of braid on 
each cape. 

The favorite gowns for little children are 
the wool dresses of bright, warm plaids in 
soft art serges, and the newly revived cash- 
meres that come in every shade are daintily 
ornamented. These little gowns have 
borders just scalloped with silk embroidery 
and hems laid in with a fine vine of silk em- 

" The evening dress for little boys is the 
Eton suit with long trousers, short coat and 
broad round linen collar. Boys of ten years 
wear this suit. 

Younger boys wear dressy suits of black 
velvet with white waistcoat and shirt very 
much ruffled with lace. 

Some very stylish cloth coats this season 
are made double-breasted, with large buttons 
of smoked mother of pearl, and arranged 
with a turn-down collar of velvet. This is 
cheap, but effective. 

Another pretty coat is of brown beaver 
cloth, made tight-fitting and edged with wide 
black braid. It is made with a turn-down 
collar and wide reveres, and is fastened in a 
double-breasted shape with large black 

Curious Facts. 

Somebody who claims to know says that 
a child three years old is half the height it 
will ever be. 

An English officer, being hypnotized in 
South Africa, began to speak in Welsh, 
which he had known as a child, but forgotten 
for 20 years. 

The idea of an ancient tropical continent 
at the south pole, uniting South America, 
Madagascar and Australia, is arousing con- 
siderable interest and discussion in scien- 
tific circles. 

A break in the main water pipe in a street 
in Tombstone, Arizona, recently, was 
found to have been caused by the roots of a 
tree which had grown around the pipe and 
crushed it so that it burst. 

The rudder of the Cunard steamship 
Campania consists of a single plate of steel 
22 by 11 feet 6 inches and 1 > + ' inches thick. 
It was rolled at Krupp's German gun fac- 

A new pneumatic tire brought out in 
England, which is described as a really good 
thing, has a pad of prepared cotton wool 
covered with soft cloth, which is inserted 
between the cover and air chamber, render- 
ing it almost impossible to puncture it even 
with a sharp awl. The weight of this pad 
is 50 ounces, and the cost is trifling. 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

Sweet oil and putty powder, followed by 
soap and water, makes one of the best medi- 
cines for brightening brass or copper. 

Never rub your eyes nor allow your 
children to do so from their cradles. 

A restaurant-keeper says celery wants to 
lie in cold water an hour before it is chewed. 

A large, soft sponge, either dry or slightly 
dampened, makes a good duster. 

Silver, brilliantly polished and arranged 
on the finest of snowy damask, is the chief 
ornament of the smart dinner table of the 

A good remedy for chapped lips is made 
by mixing together two spoonfuls of clarified 
honey with a few drops of lavender water. 
Anoint the lips with the mixture frequently. 

The correct way to use doylies on the 
table is to place them under finger bowls 
and other simple dishes for which they are 
made. If no tablecloth is used, and the sur- 
face of the shining mahogany table is ex- 
posed, the doylies are placed under the 
plates in order that the table may not be 

X)ojviESTie €(eOjNOMY. 

Six Savory Soups. 

Cauliflower Soup. — Boil a medium-sized 
head of cauliflower in boiling salted water 
until quite tender, and set aside to cool. 
Mince fine a very small green onion and two 
small tender stalks of celery. Put these in 
a granite saucepan with a teaspoon of butter 
and let simmer on the back of the stove. 
When done, but not brown, add a dessert 
spoon of flour and stir until well mixed. 
Now cut off the blossom ends of the cauli- 
flower and set aside. Then rub the rest 
through a coarse strainer and add to the 
mixture on the stove. Salt and pepper to 
taste, after adding one pint of milk. Let 
boll slowly 20 minutes, and just before serv- 
ing add the blossoms of the cauliflower 
minced fine. 

Vegetable Soup. — Take three carrots, three 
stalks celery, two turnips, a tender cabbage 
leaf, a sprig of parsley, half a parsnip, and a 
small onion. Chop all pretty fine. Put 
these in a granite saucepan with a generous 
teaspoonful of butter and let them brown 
well, stirring constantly to prevent burning; 
then add three pints cold water and let sim- 
mer slowly two hours. 

Ojiaca (A Cuban Soup). — Take a ten-cent 
soup bone and one pound round steak cut in 
small pieces, and put on to boil with two 
quarts cold water. Add one pint of toma- 
toes, two onions, six chill peppers (for the 
American taste use mild ones), a tiny bit of 
sweet marjoram and a teaspoonful of Wor- 
cestershire sauce. Let boil very slowly four 
hours. The result will be a compromise be- 
tween a stew and a soup, but of delicious 
flavor and very strengthening. Salt to taste. 
The fiery Cubans even add a dash of red 

Clam Soup. — Fifty clams, one quart of 
milk, one pint of water, two tablespoons of 
butter. Drain off the liquor from the clams 
and put it over the fire with six whole all- 
spice, six whole peppers, three blades of 
mace, and salt to taste. Let boil ten min- 
utes and strain out the spices. Put in the 
clams and let boil half an hour, closely cov- 
ered. Then add the milk, scalded, In an- 
other vessel and a dessert spoon of ground 
barley rubbed into the butter. Let come to 
a boil and serve. 

Delicious Oyster Stew. — Pour one pint of 
cold water over a quart of oysters, stir well 
and drain the liquor into a buttered stewpan. 
Let it boil, skim and then add one-half a 
teacup of Highland evaporated cream, or 
one teacup of cream, and one of milk. Let 
come to a boil, put in the oysters and the 
moment the edges curl remove from the 
fire. Salt and pepper to taste. 

Bean Soup. — Soak over night in luke- 
warm water one quart of bayou beans, cr 
white, if preferred. Next morning cut in 
small pieces a pound of salt pork and fry in 
a granite saucepan until brown. Add the 
beans, with one gallon of water, and let boil 
slowly three hours, well covered. Then add 
six stalks of celery and two tomatoes. Salt 
and pepper to taste and let simmer one-hall 
an hour longer. Strain through a colander 
and serve. — Kate C. Hubbard, in Santa 
Cruz Surf. 

Potato Salad. — Cut ten medium-sized 
potatoes into thin slices or dice, according 
to taste. Put them into a salad bowl with 
one tablespoonful of chopped parsley and 
some slices of pickled cucumbers or capers. 
Put a heaping saltspoon of salt and an even 
saltspoon of pepper into a cup and add one 
tablespoonful of oil. Mix thoroughly and 
add two tablespoonfuls of oil, one of vinegar 
and four or five drops of onion juice. Pour 
this dressing over the potatoes, toss them 
over carefully and serve. The onion juice is 
obtained by peeling the onion, cutting it in 
half and squeezing it in a lemon-squeezer 
exactly as you would squeeze a lemon. A 
good-sized onion will give about a table- 
spoonful of juice. This is a much quicker 
and easier method than grating. 

Orange Marmalade. — The Riverside 
Press says Mrs. E. J. Davis furnishes an 
excellent receipt for making marmalade. It 
is known as the Cross & Blackwell recipe, 
and is as follows: Take same weight of 
oranges and sugar. Boil the oranges as 
they come from the tree until they can be 
pierced with a straw, then pour off the water 
and pour on cold water and peel them as 
hot as the oranges can be handled with a 
sharp knife; remove all the white from the 
inside of the rind and slice the peel in very 
thin shreds with a pair of scissors. Cut up 
the pulp, removing all shreds and seeds, and 
mix the whole together and boil fast for 20 
minutes and jar hot. 

Their MERITS are: 

They are made by the 
Benicia Agricultural Works 
With California Capital and Labor. 
There is just as good money 
There Is no better labor. 

Every year they 
Take Premiums 
Over Eastern Plows. 

They are better made 
Last longer and 
Cost no more than 
Any of their Competitors. 

Made to suit all Work, 
Garden, Orchard, Vineyard, 
Stubble, Breaking, Subsoil, &c 
Every Plow marked "Benicia" 
Which means "GUARANTEED " 
By the oldest Implement House 
On the Pacific Coast 





Sulky Attachments 
To fit all sizes. 

Steel Beams, 
Steel Axles. 

Absolutely Center Draft, 
And Strongest Beams made 
Are used on this Plow ; 
Hence draft very light. 

This is the best Plow 
Of its class ever sold. 
We Guarantee it. 





January 13, 1894. 


Random Thoughts. 

By A. P. Roachk, W. If. S. G. of California. 

Don't try to reach your distant goal by any kind of 

Pull off your coat and buckle down and win it 
square by pluck. 

The new A. W. will soon go out to many 
granges; no member who is not clear on the 
secretary's books up to and including Dec. 
31, 1893, is entitled to receive it. None but 
masters of subordinate granges can impart 
it to the members of their respective 
granges, except in the case of a deputy who 
organizes or reorganizes a grange. He may 
impart it, by direction of the proper 
authority, to the masters of granges he in- 
stitutes or revives. 

The following general deputies have been 
appointed for the year, and it is hoped none 
will refuse to act: I. C. Steele, E. W. 
Davis, J. V. Webster, G. P. Loucks, Daniel 
Flint, B. F. Walton, S. T. Coulter, Cyrus 
Jones, Wm. Johnston, B. F. Frisbie, W. L. 
Overhiser, George Steele, C. W. Norton, 
D. A. Ostrom, A. J. Woods, A. T. Dewey, 
J. D. Huffman, Delos Wood, O. N. Cadwell 
and J. A. Perry. 

District deputies will be appointed as 
soon as the names of those desired by the 
various districts are forwarded to the mas- 
ter's office. Send in the names of your 
choice patrons and let us get to work early. 

In accordance with a resolution passed by 
the last State Grange, the Legislative Com- 
mittee to serve during the next two vears 
shall be: Thomas McConnell, Wm. John- 
ston and J. D. Huffman. 

The worthy lecturer and secretary have 
set a splendid example in supporting the 
columns of the Rural Press with items of 
interest and Information. Let all the facile 
pfns of our able sisters and brothers come 
to the rescue and let us inaugurate a literary 
crusade that will arouse many a sleeping 
grange from its "Rip Van Winkle" slumber. 

A merchant attempting to do business 
without a commercial paper could not long 
hope to compete with his reading, hence 
better posted rivals. To a farmer, dealing 
with so vast a variety of natural and artificial 
causes, an agricultural paper becomes even 
more valuable than does the commercial to 
the merchant, yet two out of three farmers 
read only political papers, get their political 
provender all second-handed and partizan- 
ized, and read but little in the farm papers 
they do take because they cannot spare the 
time. Farmers, such things are short- 
sighted and unworthy of us; if we would 
make our business pay we must make a 
business of it, for the days of slim margins 
promise to linger long with us. 

This space is reserved for week after next 
for Hon. Past Master Steele (who never 
stole anything but the hearts of many 
patrons). As the senior past master he will 
christen the pages of the Rural for the new 
year with seed thoughts for patrons, after 
which it is proposed to no longer suffer the 
extreme modesty of our able patriarchs to 
hide their " lights under a bushel. 1 ' 

Bro. Holman, regretted much to miss 
your " Independent Standpoint," even for so 
good and grand a cause as you mention. 


From Pescadero. 

To the Editor: — From the long silence 
of Pescadero it might be inferred the grange 
was dead or declining. We are still trying 
to fulfill the obligations to which all mem- 
bers of our order have pledged themselves. 
We can count on having a good attendance 
at every meeting, of earnest workers, and 
most of them are heard from on every ques- 
tion brought before the house. At our last 
meeting, Jan. 6th, the officers for the ensuing 
year were installed by Worthy Past Master 
B. V. Weeks, assisted by Bro. Isa Steele. 

Bro. I. C. Steele, that grand old grange 
warhorse and champion of all that is good 
and noble, was the recipient of the master's 
jewel, which was placed upon his breast for 
the seventeenth time. Our grange, under 
the leadership of Worthy Master Steele, has 
been brought out of the Slough of Despond 
to its present high standard. Each officer, 
on being conducted to his seat, responded 
to the call of the worthy master in a neat 
and appropriate speech. 

" Does industry need protection ? " has 
been decided on for debate at our next meet- 
ing, and I expect we will hear from some of 
our grange orators. The question, no doubt, 
is a deep and complicated one, and requires 
much earnest thought; but, then, a woman 
is not supposed to understand the intricacies 

of these tariff questions, so will listen to 
those who are better posted on the subject. 

There have been sufficient rains here for 
all agricultural purposes. Grass has been 
growing nicely until the last few days, which 
have been quite cold with some frost and 
frozen ground, which has put a check on its 
growth. Farmers are plowing and preparing 
their ground for seeding. 

Dairying is the principal business carried 
on in this part of San Mateo county; but its 
capabilities are not confined to that particu- 
lar business alone. Fine apples, pears, 
plums, prunes and cherries are raised here, 
and all kinds of small fruits, such as black- 
berries, raspberries, strawberries, currants 
and gooseberries, can be produced in abun- 
dance with proper and skillful attention to 
their culture. Some of the products of our 
orchards, in all probability, will be seen in 
San Mateo county's exhibit at the Mid- 
winter Fair. I understand that some of the 
ladies of Pescadero intend placing on exhi- 
bition, at the fair, such articles as moss 
work, pebbies from Pebble Beach, paintings, 
etc. Emily A. Leighton, 

Pescadero, Jan. 7, 1894. 

From Yuba City. 

To the Editor : — Our Grange installed 
its officers on Saturday, the 6th, in ac- 
cordance with previous arrangements. Past 
Master of the State Grange, Daniel Flint 
of Sacramento, was the installing officer and 
performed his part like a veteran in the 
cause, assisted by Bro. B. F. Walton. The 
latter has been among us from his Eastern 
tour nearly two weeks, but has bounced 
around so lively that his nearest neighbors 
could no more than catch a glimpse of him 
as he dodged around the corners. But 
grange day brought him up standing and 
gave all an opportunity to give him a shake. 
It soon became apparent that circulating 
among the big stars of the order and the 
great cities East had no injurious effect on 
our brother. Time being limited, he deferred 
to a later time giving us a chapter of his 
experience while gone. 

Aside from the installation services, which 
were very impressive, the meeting was 
rendered interesting by remarks from Bros. 
Flint, Walton, Carpenter, Frisbie and others 
on the good of the order. Bro. Flint was 
particularly apt and happy in pointing out 
the good the order had done him and was 
capable of doing for others who place them- 
selves within the fold. The theme of Indi- 
vidual and corporate advancement was 
touched upon, and it was felt that the pres- 
ent spirit throughout the State of co- 
operation had its origin in the Grange, in 
which our community had taken a leading 

State Deputy B. F. Frisbie announced 
that installation of the other granges of the 
county would take place as follows : March 
Grange, at Pennington, January 13th; North 
Butte Grange, at Live Oak. January 20th; 
South Sutter Grange, at Pleasant Grove, 
January 27, 1894. 

Invitations to attend were read by the sec- 
retary, and Yuba City Grange will doubtless 
distribute itself over this jurisdiction. 

Two events have occurred with four mem- 
bers of our grange that deserve to be chron- 
icled. Two young brothers took unto them- 
selves two young and accomplished sisters 
in marriage, on the sole theory, I presume, 
that " it is not good for man to be alone," or 
words to that effect. Evidences of the com- 
ing co-operation were visible a long while 
back, and the happy day had been set, by 
the public, so long ago that all lost interest 
in it, when it came like a flash from a clear 
sky. First it was Enos. E. Grover and 
Nannie Guinn, and, second, Lawrence 
Schillig to Belle Evans Greely. It is said 
the ceremony makes man and woman one, 
but in this instance it is a comfort to know 
that our membership is not to be curtailed 
by the event. 

It should also have been mentioned at 
the proper time, which occurred months ago, 
that Bro. L. H. Woodworth, editor and 
manager of the Sutter County Farmer, 
heeded the above admonition about living 
alone, and took to himself one of Sutter's 
accomplished daughters as a life partner. 

Bro. Lon found his affinity without the 
gates of the grange. Our many attractive 
ladies are inclined to pronounce this an un- 
pardonable offense. But he is not alone. 
Another brother, Chas. W. Guptill, is a two 
months' old victim of woman's wiles without 
our circle. All cherish the hope that both 
brothers will lead their charming partners 
to our inner band. 

The writer was again selected to represent 
Yuba City Grange in the columns of the 
Rural for the present year. As he Is con- 
templating a trip East on Indefinite leave of 

absence, I hardly see how he is going to 
fulfill this duty. 

The unprecedented acreage that is to be 
of grain this year is about two-thirds seeded. 
It would all be in except for the late rains, 
which retard sowing if not plowing. The 
earlier sown is looking very fine and all are 
encouraged over'the favorable prospects for 
the year 1894. Fraternally. 

Jan. 9, 1894. George Ohleyer. 

Sari Jose Grange. 

To the Editor: — San Jose Grange is 
neither dead nor sleeping, but the regular 
grange correspondent has for some time been 
wrestling with Monsieur La Grippe, with 
at times a question of who would be the 
victor. But by the aid of a good doctor and 
an excellent nurse (my good wife), La Grippe 
was compelled to beat a retreat, and the 
correspondent allowed to resume his duties. 

Between the labors in the vineyard, the 
orchard and the farm, our meetings were 
poorly attended during the later summer 
and fall months, but now that the crops are 
secured, and mostly marketed, the vacant 
places in our hall are being filled, as at our 
last two meetings from sixty to eighty were 

Last week a class of ten were taken to the 
Master's office to receive the fourth and last 
degree a subordinate grange can confer. 

To day the following officers were in- 
stalled : R. P. McGUocy, Master ; G. W. 
Worthen, Overseer ; Mrs. Amos Adams, 
Lecturer ; W. Beauchamp, Steward ; D. 
Coats, Assistant Steward ; Mrs. M. Win- 
gate, Chaplain ; G. W. Tarleton, Treasurer; 
Mrs. J. M. Worthen, Secretary; W. Lister, 
Gate-Keeper ; Miss Jennie Saunders, Pom- 
ma ; Miss Ada Ross, Flora ; Mrs. N. J. 
Tarleton, Ceres ; Miss Ada Unglisb, Lady 
Assistant Steward ; Miss Nellie Jefferds, 
Organist ; and D. H. Blake, Trustee. 

It Is conceded by all, that we have elected 
the right men and the right women to the 
right places, and if San Jose Grange does 
not enjoy a boom the coming year it will not 
be for lack of zeal or efficiency on the pan 
of the newly installed officers. 

Last week our grange adopted a protest 
against changing the tariff on green or dried 
fruit, and a committee consisting of Pettit, 
Wheeler and Hersey were instructed to tele- 
graph it to our members in Congress. 

Notice was given that, at our next meet- 
ing, a resolution would be introduced favor- 
ing " tariff reform." 

An interesting feature of the meeting to- 
day was the able and instructive remarks by 
three visiting members from Illinois — Mrs. 
J. J. Brown and the Messrs. J. B. and R. S. 
Hanlen. The consensus of opioion ex- 
pressed was that the grange was purely an 
educational and social institution, and that 
for granges to succeed the elements of suc- 
cess must be in the members of the grange. 

Now, Mr. Editor, if it were only possible 
to rivet in the minds of each member of the 
order that to his or her individual effort de- 
pended in a measure the success or perhaps 
the life of their grange, and would always 
enter the grange hall with something to im- 
part that would interest or instruct the 
grange, less failures and less dormant 
granges would exist. 

When grangers become thoroughly im- 
bued with the idea that the grange as at 
present constituted is but an educational (I 
give this word the broadest definition) and 
social institution, and that permanent suc- 
cess can only be attained by individual ef- 
fort, for this effort Itself is one of the edu- 
cational features of the grange, or, as a 
brother in our grange to-day said: " One 
of the best ways to educate ourselves is to 
help educate others." And then, as soon as 
possible, we must unlearn and eradicate 
from our minds the belief that the State or 
National Grange will or can do anything to 
put life or vigor into subordinate granges. 
Success or failure lies within the walls of 
each grange. 

Our secretary informs us that San Jose 
Grange has contributed to the State Grange 
during the last year nearly $110. While we 
do not think this is more than some other 
granges paid, it is a goodly sum to pay to 
keep up an organization. 

And here let the writer express his indi- 
vidual opinion that, if the late State Grange 
failed to indicate in the slightest degree any 
object to attain — any course of action for 
granges in their organized capacity to pur- 
sue — it has at least given us one of the best, 
if not the very best, set of State Grange of- 
ficers we have ever had; and if they cannot, 
during their terms of office, build up the 
order in this State, it will not be a fault of 
theirs. Amos Adams. 

San Jose, Jan. 6, 1894. 

The Secretary's Column. 

Bennett Valley Grange installed their of- 
ficers January 6th, and a good time in gen- 
eral was had. A harvest feast was furnished 
by the sisters and all report having a good 
time. Bennett Valley Grange intends hold- 
ing one of its meetings during the month on 
an evening, at which time they will have 
literary exercises, and, after grange, a hop 
until 12 p. >i. 

Owing to business I was unable to visit 
Sebastopol Grangt and install their officers 
on Saturday, January 6th. Brother James 
Moran acted as installing officer, and they 
report having a good time and an excellent 
meeting. More enthusiasm was displayed 
than there has been for some time. I regret 
that I was unable to be with the good people 
of Sebastopol, but trust I may be able to 
promptly answer their calls in the future. 

I acknowledge receipt of quarterly re- 
ports from March, Stockton. New Hope, 
San Jose. Watsonville, Grass Valley, Wood- 
bridge, North Butte, San Antonio, Two 
Rock, Danville, Santa Rosa and Florin 
Granges, for the quarter ending December 
31, 1883, with the necessary cash accom- 

The sixth degree certificates were for- 
warded to all those who received that de- 
gree at the late session of the State Grange, 
held in Petaluma. Should any of those who 
received the degree at that time fail to re- 
ceive their certificate, please notify this 

We have received a communication from 
the office of the lecturer of the National 
Grange which will be immediately forwarded 
to all the subordinate granges in the State. 

At a meeting of Rosevllle Grange, held 
January 6, 1894, the resolutions adopted by 
Tulare Grange regarding the income tax 
were indorsed. 

Granges which have not sent In report of 
their election of officers will please do so at 
their earliest opportunity as I have a letter 
which will be forwarded them as soon as 
they report their elections which, no doubt, 
will be greatly appreciated by the newly- 
elected masters, and will no doubt greatly 
assist them in their labors during the coming 

All communications for California State 
Grange should be addressed to Don Mills, 
Santa Rosa. 

Grange Elections. 

American River, No. 172. — Master, L. 
G. Rodman; Overseer, S. M. Warnock; Lec- 
turer, Geo. Criswell ; Steward, H. L. War- 
nock; Assistant Steward, Geo. Fitzgerald ; 
Chaplain, Mrs. Hall; Treasurer, Miss Cicely 
Cornell ; Secretary, J. D. Cornell ; Gate 
Keeper, C. Halverson ; Ceres, Miss Ada 
Haywood; Pomona, Miss Mary McDonald ; 
Flora, Miss Zera Dunlap ; Lady Assistant 
Steward, Miss Mary Cornell ; Trustee, D. 
W. Taylor. Date of installation, Jan. 13, 

New Hope, No. 301.— Master, F. O. 
Housken ; Overseer, Mrs. P. A. Kise ; Lec- 
turer, Geo. H. Barber ; Steward, Miss Kate 
Housken; Assistant Steward, D. O. Jordan; 
Chaplain, Mrs. Carrie Carleton ; Treasurer, 
Mrs. Katrlna Housken ; Secretary, W. E. 
Journeay ; Gate Keeper, W. W. Fogg ; 
Ceres, Mrs. Rosa Jory ; Pomona, Miss Jes- 
sie Thornton ; Flora, Mrs. Josie Conner; 
Lady Assistant Steward, Mrs. Clara B. 

Waterloo, No. 295. — Master, C. B. 
Pearson; Overseer, R. J. Drullard; Lecturer, 
Carl Salback; Chaplain, T. J. Truscott; 
Steward, Oscar Sayles; Assistant Steward, 
Walter Anderson; Treasurer, James Brumby; 
Secretary, G. R. Drullard; Gate- Keeper, 
Willie Sayles; Pomona, Sister Ida Bunch; 
Ceres, Sister H. M. Jones; Flora, Sister 
Emily Fitzgerald; Lady Assistant Steward, 
Sister Minnie Howland. 

At a regular meeting of Woodbridge 
Grange held Jan 2, the following officers 
were duly installed: Master, J. P. Jefferson; 
Overseer, Mrs. Kate Thompson; Lecturer, 
Mrs. W. B. White; Steward, N. Vesper 
Williams; Assistant Steward, Otto Spenker; 
Chaplain, Miss Jessie Spenker; Treasurer, 
Ezra Fiske; Secretary, H. C. Shattuck; 
Gate-Keeper, H. M. Woods; Pomona, Mrs. 
Kate White; Flora, Mrs. J. Emde; Ceres, 
Mrs. J. P. Jefferson; Lady Assistant Stew- 
ard, Miss Cassie Ellis; Organist, Miss Etta 

From Watsonville. 

To THE Editor:— On January 6th, Wat- 
sonville Grange installed officers in due 
form. They had an all-day session and a 
bountiful harvest feast. There was a good 
attendance, and a large number of patrons 
are ready for the new word. The new 
master was cordially welcomed to the chair 
and the past master, E. Z. Roache, was wel- 

January 13, 1894. 



corned to the past master's ranks. There 
were several spirited speeches made, and 
gjood work for the coming year promised. 

S. M. R., Sec'y. 
Watsonville, Jan. 8, 1894. 

From Waterloo Grange. 

To the Editor: — Waterloo Grange 
is still holding its nwn, having jnst fin- 
ished initiating a class of three at our 
last meeting, on December 23d, and ot 
course we had a regular harvest feast, which 
was well attended, considering the stormy 
weather we are now having. 

The young people f thi grange (of which 
it is mostly composed) have been gradually 
coming to the front since its organization, 
and they are now filling all the offices, Ceres 

We have accepted an invitation from 
Stockton Grange to have our officers in- 
stalled by the State lecturer at thei: hall, on 
the first Saturday in January. G. R. D. 

Stockton, Dec. 26, 1893. 

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M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
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PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
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JERSEYS— The best A. J. C C Registered Prize 
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L. V. WIL.L.ITS, Watsonville, Cal., Blaok Perch 
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WM. NILES <5» CO., Los Angeles, Cal., Breeders of 
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Cal. Send for Illustrated & Descriptive Catalogue, free. 

R. Q. HEAD, Napa. Importer and Breeder of Land 
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R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. Breeder and Importer, 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


MONROE MILLER, Elisio, Ventura County, Cal., 
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H. J. PHILPOTT, Niles, Cal., Importer and breeder 
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Best Stock; also Dairy Strains of Jerseys and Holstelns. 
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P. H. MURPHY. Perkins, Sao. Co., Cal.— Breeder of 
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T. WAITE, Perkins, Cal., breeder of registered 
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TYLER BEA.UH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor 
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OHAS. A. 8TOWE, Stockton, Reglst'r'd Berkshlres 


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Direct Importers of 

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IM'jl 'German Coach, Percherona, 
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For the half year ending December 31, 1893, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of five and one-tenth 
(5 1*10) per cent per annum on term deposits, and four 
and one-quarter (4J) per cent per annum on ordinary 
deposits, payable ou and after Tuesday, January 2, 1894. 

GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 



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to all who mention this paper. 
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January 13, 1894. 

How Much More Fruit Should the 
East Take? 
Tor the season ending October 31, 1893, 
1955 carloads of fresh deciduous fruits were 
sent to Chicago over the lines of the South- 
ern Pacific Company. With Chicago's popu- 
lation of 1,099 850 this would give an allot- 
ment ratio of 563 inhabitants to each car- 
load. Applying this ratio to the 118 Eastern 
cities containing a population of over 25,000 
each, the following table as to distribution is 
produced : ' 


Mew York, N. Y 

Chicago, III 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Brooklyn, N. Y._ 

St Louis, Mo 

Boston, Mass 

Baltimore, Md 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Mew Orleans, La 

Pittsburg, Pa -•- 

Washington, D. C 

Detroit, Mich 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Newark, N. J 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Jersey City, N. J 

Louisville, Ky 

Omaha, Nebr 

Rochester, N. Y_ 

St. Paul, Minn 

y«nm»i city, Mo 

providence, R. I 

Denver, Colo 

Indianapolis. Ind 

Alleghany, Pa 

Albany, N. Y 

Columbus, Ohio 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Worcester, Mass 

Toledo, Ohio 

Richmond, Va 

Mew Haven, Conn 

Pa tenon, N. J 

Lowell, Mass 

Nashville, Tenn 

Scranton, Pa 

Fall River, Mass 

Cambridge, Mass 

Atlanta Ua._ 

Memphis, Tenn 

Wilmington, Del 

Dayton, Ohio 

Troy, N. Y 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Reading, Pa 

Camden, N. J._ 

Trenton, N. J 

Lynn, Mas-, 

Lincoln. Nebr_ 

Charleston, 8. C 

Hartford, Conn 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Svansvllle, Ind 

Dee Moines, Iowa 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Saginaw, Mich 

Salt Lake, Utah 

Lawrence, Mass.. 

Springfield, Mass 

Manchester, N. H 

Dllca. N. Y 

Hoboken, N. J 

Savannah, Qa 

Peoria, 111 

New Bedford, Mass 

Erie, Pa 

Somervllle, Mass 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Kansas City, Kan 

Dallas, Tex 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Wilkesbarre, Pa 

San Antonio. Tex.. 

Covington, Ky 

Portland, Me 

Holyoke. Mass 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Blnghampton, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va. 

Wheeling, W. Va 

Augusta, Ga_ 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Duluth, Minn 

Yonkers, N. Y_ 

Lancaster, Pa 

Springfield, Ohio 

Qulncy, 111 

Mobile, Ala 

Topeka, Kan 

Elmlra, N. Y 

Salem, Mass 

Long Uland City, N. Y... 

Altoona, Pa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Galveston, Tex 

Waterbury, Conn 

Chelsea, Mass 

Bay City, Mich 

Pawtucket, R. 1 

Akron, Ohio 

Houston. Tex 

Haverhill, Mass 

Broekton, Mass 

WlUlamsport, Pa 

Davenport, Iowa 

Canton, Ohio 

Birmingham, Ala 

Little Rock, Ark 

Auburn, N. Y 

Taunton, Mass 

Allentown, Pa 

La Crosse, Wis 

TotaL IS 439,828 28,863 8,821 


S S 

3 t» a 

806 343 
44 818 
48 64s 
87 673 
35 637 
33 22U 
30 887 
30 311 
28 646 






J os 












1 5 7 








4301 09 



363 ' 

2891 189 
388 . . 







That the frequent claim that California 
fruit is not well distributed at the East has 

a good basis, is shown by some studies by 
W. H. Mills of San Francisco. It is very 
pertinent to the present co-operative move- 
ment among growers, for the figures strik- 
ingly illustrate the possibilities of an organ- 
ized effort to place the shipment of fruits 
upon a different basis from that which it now 

A consideration of some of the features of 
the fruit business, which this table makes 
manifest, will be found of interest. It will 
be observed that the estimate of the number 
of carloads of fruit all the cities mentioned 
should handle is based upon the actual ship- 
ments to Chicago. 

Unfortunately, the actual shipments of 
fruit during the season of 1893 are only ob- 
tainable as to ten cities, but they will 
suffice for illustration. 

For instance, why should Chicago be a 
better market for fruit than Kansas City ? 
The only answer to this question is that 
Chicago is the central point of distribution 
for fruits. 

While this is true, it does not follow that 
such is the case because Chicaeo itself con- 
sumes all the fruit received or because it is 
absolutely necessary to ship fruit to that 
city in order to reach a proper market. 

Chicago has simply exploited the fruit 
business until it is looked upon as the great 
central market. It has the machinery, so to 
speak, to control the market, and has be- 
come the center of such because shippers 
know of no other. 

But, returning to the first proposition 
made as to why Chicago should be a better 
market than Kansas City, it is found upon 
examination of the table that, on the basis 
of actual shipments to Chicago, Kansas 
City should have handled 235 carloads of 
Iruit, whereas It only received 100. A still 
more striking illustration is given by the 
figures relative to Philadelphia. With a 
population only a few thousand less than 
Chicago, It only received 34 carloads of 
fruit, whereas, by the same comparison, it 
should have received i860. Comparisons 
of the other cities, for which the actual ship- 
ments are given, can be made by the reader 
at a glance. 

When there is but one great central mar- 
ket, as at present, what Is the natural result 
of a congested market — a state of affairs 
which is unavoidable at times and which 
cannot be foreseen? The prices are cut so 
far as the returns to the producers are con- 
cerned without being lowered proportion- 
ately to the consumer. That which reaches 
Chicago in a partially unsalable state must 
be disposed of there because it will not bear 
reshipment, and all that which is not in a 
condition for shipment to other points of 
distribution (after waiting until those points 
have been discovered) does not increase the 
consumption because it must be disposed of 
on the spot and only appeals to a limited 
number of consumers. 

Another feature of the matter is the fre- 
quent reshipment of fruit back over roads 
which it has just traversed in reaching 
Chicago. The consequent Increase in 
freights is apparent at a glance, and the com- 
mission man at Chicago gets his pay also, 
while both of these large items of expense 
could have been avoided had the frnit been 
shipped directly to the point at which it was 
finally disposed of. 

The difficulty in finding a market for 
fruits outside ot Chicago has always been 
that no concerted effort was made to estab- 
lish such. Measures must be taken to thor- 
oughly acquaint the public, which it Is ex- 
pected to serve, that shipments are to be 
made and when they are to be made, so 
that there can be no possible danger of 
delay in reaching the consumer. 

But the table which Mr. Mills has pre- 
pared will suggest many more ideas to the 
fruit men and others Interested than it is 
possible to enumerate in this article, and the 
figures are submitted for their consideration. 

cure Piles and ConstlDation, or money refunded. 60 
cents per box. Send stamp for circular and Free 
Sample to MARTIN RUDY, Lancaster, Pa. For sale 
by all first-class druggists. 

An Attractive Offer. 

Readers of the Pacific Rural Press need not 
be told of the high character and general value of 
the Cosmopolitan Magazine. It is a splendid 
monthly publication, a marvel of beauty and excel- 

We will send the Pacific Rural Press and the 
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United States or Canada for tweive monts for $3.50. 
This is an attractive and unusual offer and will not 
long continue. 



rate of interest on approved security in Farming Lands. 
A SCRULLEK, Room 11, 608 Montgomery St., San 
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These pumps are suitable (or irrigating purposes or 
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For price and other particulars, address 

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choice and cheap properties, 


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Mow that the interest in the culture ol the orange It 
extending so as to embrace nearly all parts o( the State, 
a book giving the results ot experience In parts of the 
State where the growth of the fruit has been longest pur- 
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' ' Orange Culture in California " was written by Those 
A. Garey of Los Angeles, after many years of practloa 
experience and observation in the growth of the fruit 
It 1b a well-printed hand-book of 227 pages, and treats of 
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The book la sent post-paid at the reduced price of 7! 
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Poultry &ad Stock Book 

successful Ponitry and Stook Raising on thePaclflc Coast 
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for w lcL California la Famous 



Large Octaro — 599 Pages, Filif lllustratea. 




Publishers Pacific Rubal Press, 
220 Market Street, Elevator, 12 Front Stree 


January 13, 1894. 



^eeil;, Wants, tic. 


years by the large number of trees sold by me that 
nursery stock grown on the river bottom of Sutter 
count} Is far suiiorior to any grown In the State. I am 
prepared to supp.y In large or small quantities: 

Bartlett Peart, Plums and Prunes 

On Myrabalan Plum Roots. 

Cherries, Peaches, Apricots, Apple, Almond 
Trees. Etc. 

Special Rates on Large Orders. 
Send (or Price List (or 1893-M. 

James T. Bogue, Marysville. Cal. 

Santa Rosa: 



TREES TRUE TO NAME —Warranted clean and 

raised without irrigation. 
PRICES till my surplus is sold. 
Price List mailed (ree. 

Address R. W. Bell, Santa Rosa, Oal. 



Grass, Clover, Vegetable and Flower Seeds 
Onion Sets. 



Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced Seed Catalogue (or 
1891 mailed free to all applicants. Address 


818 & «17 Ssmome St., San Franolaoo, Cal 
65 Front Street, Portland, Or. 
or 814 Commercial St., Seattle, Wash. 

San Ramon Valley Nursery. 

Snrplns Slock of 

ALMONDS, 8 Varieties. 
PEACHES, 4 Varieties. 
PRUNES, S Varieties. 

At very LOW PRICE8. 
other varieties of Fruit Trees. 

Also an assortment of 



Danville, Oal. 

Don't Lose 

L this year, and make up for lost time, i 
Ferry's Seed Annual for 1894 will/ 
give you many valuable bints i 
about what to raise and bow to j 
raiseit. It contains informa-. 
k tlon to be bad from no other^ 
k source. Free to all. 
D. M. Ferry & Co., 

Trees, Vines and 

FOR 1893 and 1894. 

tar Terms on Application. Ttl 
Adds, Bss, • • Xj. 33. BUTT, 
Penryn, Placer Co California 







GEO. C ROEDING, Manager. 



LODI, . San Joaquin Co., Cal, 


Royal Blenheim and French APRICOTS, 
■XL, Nonpariel, Ne Pius Ultra and 

Texas Prolific ALMONDS. 
In Variety, 

No. 1 Yearling Treea, also Jane Bud Trees 
at Bedrock Prices. 

For Particulars Address 

Lodi, San Joaquin County, Cal. 


Davisville, Oal. 

Write for Catalogue and Prices. 

Catalogues Mailed free. 


The DN"o-\7v Yellow Freestone Peach! 

RIPENS IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE ALEXANDER (White Cling), which is the earliest 
peach in market. 

Fruit is round, of medium size, VERT HIGHLY COLORED, flesh firm and sweet. 

Is no new, nntrled Tarlety 

Tree healthy, strong grower, and heavy bearer, never having missed a crop. 

A limited number of yearling trees for sale this season. Apply early before stock Is exhausted. 




:ED X863. 





SUXIDB. Kentucky Blue Grass, Clover, Vegetable, Flower and Tree Seeds. 


THOMAS MEHERIN, - - - 516 Battery Street, San Francisco. 

P. O. Box 2059. 

TIX HZ 33! 




Fruit, Nat and Shade Trees, Grape Vines, Etc., Citrus Fruits, Ornamental Shrubs, 
Flowering Plants, Roses, Palms, Bulbs, Seeds, Etc, 

Fruit and Nut Trees propagated from bearing orchards at Sausal Fruit Farm; Unirrigated, Clean and Healthy. 
Do not fall to correspond before making purchases. Satisfaction guaranteed. 





California Paper-Shell, Nonpariel, Ne Plus Ultra 

and I. X. L. 

A pamphlet on Almonds mailed free of oharge on application. A large supply of the GOLDEN PEACH and 
FRENCH PRUNE. All kinds of leading fruit trees for sale. No charges made tor baling trees. 
Address, PERCY XKT . TR.Z2A.T, 
Davlavllle Nurseries Concord, California 


BUDDED ORANGE TREES, of the leading varieties, one and two-year buds; also a small lot of 
choice budded and seedling LEMON TREKS. Sweet Seedling Oranges, 1 to 4 years old. Shade and 
Ornamental Plants. Prices to suit the times. 


For prices and terms, address 


Correspondence Solicited. 


In Variety for Nurserymen, 
Dealers and Planters. 

Will also contract now to propagate Rooted 
OIlTe Cuttings for persona who wish to 
plant them In nursery spring of 1894. 


Sixteen pages, mailed free. 





Missions and Nevadillos. 


Two-Year-Old, 4 to 6 feet High. 

Extra inducements offered to intending buyers both 
as regards choice trees and very low prices. Order at 
once or open correspondence with me. 

J. E. PACKARD, Pomona, Cal 



Nursery Stock. 

Send and get book on Olive Culture. 


Pomona, Oal. 


Twelve years experience has taught me how to 
PROPERLY root the olive. No artificial heat used. 

Montecito P. 0„ Santa Barbara, Cal. 


Apply for Catalogue. 
. F. LOOP St SON, - - Pomona. Cal. 

Pepper's Nurseries. 


For Sale at Low Rates, a General Assort- 
ment of Hardy Deciduous Fruit Trees. 

I do not buy trees to sell; what Is offered is grown in 
my own grounds and free from scale bugs. No scale 
bugs of any kind to be found in the Nursery. No agents 
employed. Order direct from the nursery and procure 
your trees true to label. Order early, as earlv planting 
is the most successful with deciduous trees. Prions fur- 
nished on application. 

Address W. H. PEPPER Petaloma. Cal. 


Fine for Canning, Drying and Shipping. 

They run 3 and * to the pound. The Largest and Finest 
fruit of the Aprioot variety. 


N. B SMITH, Ventura, Ventura Co., Cal. 

By Prof. Edward 
" Wickson. 

CfUlfolp fRIJiT?: 

A practical, explicit and comprehensive book embodying 
the experience and methods of hundreds of successful 

Eowers, and constituting a trustworthy guide by which the 
experienced may successfully produce the fruits for whioh 
California is famous. 600 pages. Fully Illustrated. Price $3 
Postpaid. Send for olroular. DEWEY PUBLISHING CO 
Publishers 220 Market Street, San Frauclsco, Oal 



January 13, 1894. 





Authorised Capital ai.ooa.oou 

Capital paid up and Reurte r»d SOO,**0 
I»l rldendi paid to Stockholder* .... 7»0,0«< 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I. 0. 8TEELK Vlce-Prraiidtmt 

ALBERT MOXTPELLIER Oashltr and Manager 


Genera] Bunking. Deposits received, Gold and Silver. 

Bills of Exchange bought and sold. 

Loana od wheat and country produce a specialty. 

January 1, 1893. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 

The valves and work- 
ing parts of the Fulton 
Pump can be removed, 
repaired and replaced 
without taking the pump 
out of the well. 

Pumps fitted up for all 
depths of wells, ready to 
put in. 

Send for illustrated 
circulars and price list to 

A T. Ames, 


5l:.nufin-tur«'r of I'uuii** and 



_ MAOt BV 



Makes Three Complete 

Brass Machines. 

■indorsed by the Lead- 
ing Entomologist of 
the United States. 

Satisfaction guaianteed or 
money refunded. 

A valuable illustrated book 
on onr insect pests given to 
each purchaser. 

We will put this pump in 
competition with any other 
pump made, costing $16 or 
less. Address 

2715 Mission St., 8. F. 
Only General Agent of the 
Pacific Coast. 

C. H. EVANS & CO., 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS.) 

• 110 and US Beale Street, 8. F. 
Steam Pumps Steam Engines 
And All Kinds ol MACHINERY. 






S> 9 Geary St. .5 







All kludicaestpcr than else- 
where. Before jou bay, 
■.etui stamp for catfUojae U 


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Ours always the best — We lead others follow — Our 
Double Empire Barrel Pump has brass cylinder, plunger 
and rod. brass valve seat, and brass spout. Our 


is made of heavy sheet copper, concaved to fit the back, 
with metal valves, and furnished with the latest im- 
proved Vermorel Nozzle. The very best Knapsack 
Sprayer on the market. Our Little Gem pail pump is 
all brass with metal valves, heavy hose and the im- 
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transportation rates. Catalogue free. 









— uas— 

One pound to 5 gallons of water. 

Thousands of Grchardists testlfv to its 
value, using it In preference to all other 
preparations. Where the Red Seal is ap- 
plied it kills the Insects and at the same 
time forms a coating through which 
others cannot penetrate. WheH used in 
the above proportions, It is a 


Put up in SIFTING-TOP CANS, so that 
any quantity may he used and the bal- 
ance preserved uninjured. 


I 8 4 Callforntagt., San Francisco. 



The Bed Seal Lye Is Indispensable. 

USED AS DIRECTED It will take the 
place, and at 76% leas cost, of all other 
alkaline preparations, soaps, etc., now on 
the market ONE CAN will make lo to 
IS lbs. of Hard Soap, or 200 l»>s 
of Soft Soap. See directions In can 

It cleans floors, kills roaches and bugs 
of all kinds, cleans milk vessels, tin or 
wood; keeps farming implements bright 
and free from rust; is a perfect disinfect- 
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clothes; and can be put to a thousand 
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P. C. TOMSON & CO., 

Manufacturers, Philadelphia, P». 




First Prizes at the World's Columbian Exposition, 1893. 

PARAFFINE PAINT CO., - . 116 Battery Street, 


E. G. JUDAH, Agent, - - 221 South Broadway, 


onsrirsr 25 years 




80 me reasons why yon should keep H. H. H. LlilmeBti 

1st — Because It Is the best for Man or Beast. 

Id— Because It is the Cheapest One bottle mixed with double Its quantity ol oil Is then as strong as most 

3d— Because you don't have to wait for It. Ton can buy It anywhere, 

H H. MOORE & SONS, Druggists, 




Complete and Special Fertilizers 


Fruit, Grain. Sugar Beets, Vegetables, Etc. 



For olrculars and other information address 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 

800 & 311 SANSOME STREET, 
San Franoteco. 

L The Best Poultry Paper 

Write for SAMPLE COPY ; Sent Free. 

6 "T"f opened up a new field 
1 L and cultivated it thor- 
oughly." 8b *av» ">« Fanciers' Journal. 

" f arm-poultry is cov- 
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— 77ius the Philadelphia Farm Journal writes vs. 

It I* worth gl .00. It Teaches How to 

Mnl, i- Money with 
A Few Hons. 

Mm on Trial 
Bta .Months foi 





<*>ne department " Annwera fn('orrnapond<*ntfl." 

Is worth ten times the subscription price to anyone; 
explains many things apt to trouble even old breed- 
ers. Send for Index to first 3 Vols, free; Judfte your- 
self. If as much Instructive mattercan be bought any 
where, for many times the price. Remit cash or 
stamps. ThlsBpeclaloffergood for only three months. 
1. 8. JOHNSON «t 00b t n Custom House St.. Boston, Maw. 




Cancer, Tumor, Catarrh, Piles, Fistula, 
Eczema and all Skin and Womb 

| AVER of the nose, eye, lip, ear, neck, breast, stomach 
or womb; in fact, all diseased Internal and external 
organs or tisanes, euoeesefully treated, without the 
knife or burning caustic platters, bnt with soothing, 
balmy magnetic oils. Beware of Imitations as there 
are those who hope to profit by advertising an oil cure 
for these dlt eases. We are the originators of this sys- 
tem, all others are frauds. 

Correspond enoe solicited. Consultation free. Testi- 
monials furnished. Address 


Carcoer Institute, 
Cor. McAllister and Lark in Ste., San Francisco, Cal. 


1428 Market bt., San Francleco. 

i AVER, Tumors or Malignant Qrowtbs removed 
without knife or oauetic A GUARANTEED CURE a 
specialty. Call or send for circular. Over 300 cancers 
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Bookkeeping, Penmanship, Shorthand, Typewriting, 
English Branches, eto. Graduates aided In getting po- 
sitions. Rend for circulars. T. A. ROBINSON. Pres. 




A dollar a weak for Bixty weeks, buys a lot 25x126 feet 
east of Chicago Heights, the great manufacturing su- 
burb of Chicago. Sixteen factories, streets paved, stone 
sidewalk, beautiful shade trees, schools, churches, ete. 
No doubt these lots will treble In value wltbln one year. 

No such bargain was ever offered In Chicago Real Es- 
tate. 1 hese lots are now on the Belt Line where facto- 
ries are now is successful operation, employing over 
60,000 people. Business t ansacted for non-residents. 

Address, DeForrest Land Co., Unity Building, Chicago. 

January 13, 1894 



Market Review. 

Wednesday Morning, Jan. io, 1894. 
Wheat prices are a little better the pist few days, 
though there is no special activity in the market. 
The demand for shipping purposes is very light, 
and whatever improvement there may be in the 
situation is to be attributed largely to speculative 
operations in the Call Board. Good to choice ship- 
ping Wheat is quotable in the sample market at 
$i.o5@i.r>6tf per ctl, with slightly upward ten- 
dency. For milling purposes, buyers have to pay 
$i.07& per ctl. In the Call Board, spot 
Wheat sold at $1.13 per ctl, season's storage paid. 

There is no large array of offerings on 'Change, 
while an absence of selling pressure is noted. These 
circumstances tend to keep the market steady and 
eive good tone to values. Trade, however, is slow, 
and a period of activity is very desirable. We 
quote: Fe^-d, 73«@7S $ ctl for fair l ° K ood 
quality, 765ic for choice bright; brewing, 82H to 
92 'Ac per ctl. 

Dried Fruits. 

Business is rather light, but dealers look for a 
better inquiry in the near future. Apples are scarce 
and prices rr« against buyers. Stocks of Prunes 
are liberal. We quote as Mlows: Apples, 4'A @ 
cc » lb for quartered, e@S^c for shoed. and 
8@8Kc for evaporated; Pears, 5©6c fi lb for 
bleached halves, and 4 @SC for quarters; bleached 
Peaches, S@7c: sun-dried peaches, 4 @5c; Apricots, 
Moorparks, u>4@i2j<c; do Royals. m@ii^c for 
bleach and6@7Kc for sun-dried; Prunes, 4K® 
4^c lb for the four sizes and 3@4C for ungraded; 
Plumi. 4^@S<=for pitted and i'A to 2c for 1,11. 
pitted; Figs, 3 to 4 c for pressed and to 2^ r tor 
unpressed; Wtrt= Nectarines, 5 to 6c; Red Nec- 
tarines 4 to 5c ^ lb. . 

RAISINS— Prices are weak, supplies still being 
lame We quote: London Layers, $1 to $1.25; 
loose Muscatels, in boxes, 7.=? to $1; clusters. 
$1 so «o $1.75; loose Musca'els, in sacks, 2^ to 
35ic t$ tt> for 3 cr"wn; 2 to a%c for zcrown: dried 
Grapes, iH t0 2cf lb. 

General Produce Market. 

OATS— Now that the new year is fairlv entered, 
dealers anticipate a more liberal movement than has 
prevailed for the past month or so. Stocks are 
moderately liberal and tolerably well concentrated, 
so that good handling of the market may be ex- 
pected. The situation generally inclines rather in 
favor of sellers, especially for stock that is of first- 
class quality. We quote as follows: Milling, 
$1 i2M@i-2o; Surprise, $1.20 @t. 3 o; fancy feed, 
U i7^@i.2o: good to choice, $ 15; poor 
fo fair. 9 oc@$. 05; Black. 8 S c@$i.22*; Gray, 

$I.02«@I.I2^ # Ctl.. 

CORN -The demand is light and slow, but hold- 
ers are not forcing trade, and quotations are there- 
fore kept in steadv position. Quotable at 8o@ 
85c # ctl. for large Yellow, 90@9Sc for small Yellow, 
and 9 o@ 9 2^c for White. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $ 

I? ton. , . .. 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote feed at $20 to &21 
per ton; fine kinds for the table, in large and small 
packages. 2K@3^ c P er pound. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $37.50 per ton 
from the mill. 

SEEDS— We quote. Mustard, brown, $3(0)3.25; 
Yellow, $3 50@4; Canary, imported. $4@4.2=;; 
do. California. — ; Hemp, 3^c $ lb; Race, iK 
f<?2tf ; Timothy, 6%c per lb; Alfalfa, 8^@9C per 
lb; Flax. $2 25@2 50 oer ctl. 

CHOPPED FEED— Quotable at $i7.50@i8.5o 
per ton. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $i8®2i p°rton. 

MILLSTUFFS— We quote: Rye Flour, 3 &c; 
Rye Meal, 3c; G-ahira Flour, 3c; Oatmeal, 4 !ic; 
OU Groats^ 5c; Cracked Wheat, 3^c; Buckwheat 
Flour, 5®,5^c; Pearl Barley, 4@4^c per lb; 
Normal Nutriment, $3 per case of 1 doz»n cans; 
Breakfast Delight, $3.25 per case of 2 dozen pack- 

BRAN— Quotable at $i6@i7 per ton. 

HAY — The market is fairly well supplied with 
all descriptions. Wire-bound hay sells at 
$i@2 per ton less than rope-bound hay. Follow- 
ing are wholesale city prices for rope-bound Hay: 
Wheat, $10 to $13 50; Wheat ?nd Oat, $io@i2 50; 
Wild Oat, $io@i2; Alfalfa, $8@to; Barley, $9@n; 
Compressed, $u@t2.5o; Stock, $8@io # ton. 
Wool Trade In 1893. 

The annual circular of George Abbott gives the 
production of wool in California in 1893 as 33,169.- 
375 pounds, against 35,802,930 pounds in 1892. 
Last year's productirn was the smallest since 1888. 
The receipts at Sin Francisco were as follows: Cali- 
fornia spring, 19,668,250 pounds; fall. 7,885,125 
pounds; from Oregon. 4,184,000 pounds; Nevada 
and Territoiies, about 1,000,000 pounds; foreign, 
149,000 pounds; shipped from interior, 3,942,000 
pounds spring, and 796,000 pounds fall. The 
shortage in receipts occurs in fall wool and is largely 
to be accounted for by growers (chiefly in the lower 
portion of the State) not shearing their flocks on ac- 
count of not being able to get advances from the 
commercial bouses, owing to the tightness in the 
money market; also, the low prices ruling deterred 
many from shearing. The exports were 22,008,334 
pounds, valued at $2,500,000. of which 21,242,156 
pounds went by rail and 766,178 pounds by sea. 
The stock on hand December 31, 1893, was 5,000,- 
000 pounds. 

Auction Sale of Oranges. 

The system of disposing of fru't by auction was 
inaugurated in this city January 8th. Those who 
are directly interested seemed much pleased with 
the working of their plan, customers appeared to be 
satisfied, and brokers who came in to watch the ex- 
periment obtained some new ideas. 

The auction rooms are at 104 Washing- 
ton street, convenient to the wharf and 
near the center of the fruit-commission 
business. The rooms are large and well 
lighted and the building new. W. W. Jones acted 
as auctioneer. There was a crowd on the floor 
when the sale opened at 1 :30, and the bidding be- 
gan at once and was lively to the end. Only one 

carload was disposed of, this consisting of the first 
of an extensive shipment of oranges from Riverside. 
The prices realized were about such as had ruled. 
Fancy navels brought $2.o2ji ; choice, $1.75 to $2; 
fancy seedlings, $1.35; choice, $1.15 to $1.25. 

STRAW — Quotable at 45@5Sc $ bale. 

HOPS — No business worth mention. Prices 
ea«v. Quotable at i6@i8J£c $ lb. 

RYE — Quotable at $i@t.02'A $ ctl. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at $r..25@$t. 4 o $ ctl. 

GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $16.500117.50 
per ton. 

POTATOES— Market quiet, with liberal supplies, 
and prices favoring buyers. We quote : New Pota- 
toes, 2@3c per lb: Sweats, 75<~@$i.25 per ctl; Gar- 
net Chiles, 55@6sc; Early Rose, 45@55c; River 
Burbanks, 35@47Mc; River Red, 40@ 4 5c; Salinas 
Burbanks. 70@8sc $ ctl. 

ONIONS — Choice stock sells readily at full 
figures. Quotable at 900®$!. 20 $ ctl. 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $i.50@i.6s; 
Blackeye, $i.6o@i.75; Niles, $i.5o@i 60 $ ctl. 

BEANS — Trade is not brisk. First-class offer- 
ings, however, are firmly held. We quote: Bayos. 
$2@2. 15; Butter. $i.75@i. 9 "> for small and $2@ 
225 for large; Pink, $1.30®!.. 70; Red, $1.75® 
2.10; Lima, $; Pea, $2@2.2o; Small 
White $2(S>,2 10; Large White, $ $ ctl. 

VEGEf ABLES— Very little doing in this line, 
as the market presents no stock of attractive char- 
acter. We quote as follows: Asparagus, io@2oc ^ 
lb.; Mushrooms, 8@25c $ ft).; Rhubarb 6@8c 
$ lb.; Green Peas, 2@4c; String Beans, 8 @ roc; 
Marrowfat Squash, $7@8 $ ton; Green Peppers, 
6@8c tb, ; Tomatoes, 25@75C $ box; Turnips, 
75c $ ctl; Beets, 75c@$r sack; Parsnips, $1.25 
# ctl; Carrots, 4 o®5oc; Cibbage, 5o@ssc; Gar'ic, 
3@4C $ lb; Cauliflower, 6o@7oc $ dozen; Dry 
Penpe'S, c,@?r- if lb; Dry Okra, 15c per lb. 

FRESH FRUIT— Nothing of interest in the 
market. Apples are the leading feature, being in 
large offering, with but moderate demand. We 
quote prices as follows: Apples, 7Sc@$i.25 $ box 
for good to choice, and 25(8650 for common to 
fair; Lady Apples, 3o@6oc $ box; Persimmons, 
40@6ocr>erbox; Cranberries, Eastern, $8@ 9 per bbl. 

GRAPES— A"> not worth quoting any longer. 

CITRUS FRUIT — A new feature was introduced 
this week, in the shape of auction sales. The first 
offering occurred on Monday, being well attended 
and resulting as good as exnected. The catalogue 
comprised 1000 boxes of Oranges, which were dis- 
posed of in parcels to suit buyers. It is the inten- 
tion to hold three sales each week. We quote: Fair 
to choice Navel Orangps, $1.25(5)2.25 per box; Seed- 
lings, 75c@S1.35; Vacaville Oranges, small boxes, 
5o@65c; Mandarin Oranges, 65c@$i $ box; 
Mexican Oranges, $1.75(3)2 25 per box; Mexi- 
can Limes, S6@7 per box; Lemons, Sicily, $4@5; 
California Lemons, $i@2 for common and 
$2.25(0)3 for good to choice; Bananas, $1.50 
©2.50 per bunch; Hawaiian Pineapples, $2.50 
@3: Mexican Pineapples, $3@ 4 per dozen. 

NUTS — Peanuts are less plentiful and prices are 
firmer. We quote as follows: Chestnuts, 8@ioc 
$tb; Walnuts. 6H®7Ac for hard «h<»H. 8@8^c for 
soft shell and — @— c for paper shell; Chile Walnuts, 
8©qc; California Almonds, n@i2c for soft shell, 
5@6c for hard shell and t2^(a>i3&cfor paper shell; 
Peanuts. 3^@5c; Hickory Nuts, 5@6c; Filberts, 
to@io^c; Pecan, 8@qc for rough and nc for pol 
ished; Brazil Nuts, ic@n l Ac; Cocoanuts, $4@5 $ 

HONEY— We quote: Comb, n@i2c # lb for 
bright, and g@io'A for dark to light amber; light 
amber, extracted, 4K@5c; dark, 4%@4*Ac; water 
whitp extracted, 5@5^c $ lb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 22@23c $ lb. 

BUTTER— Receipts continue free and prices 
shape favorably for consumers. We quote as fol- 
lows: Creamery, 26(0)27 fancy dairy. 23(0)250; 
good to choice, 2i@22^c; common grades, 17(0)200 
$ lb; pickled roll. i9@2"c; firkin, i7@i 9 c; East- 
ern ladle-packed, I7@i8c $ lb. 

CHEESE — The market is not heavily supplied 
with a strictly choice article, and prices for such 
product show firm tone. For defective stock the 
market is slow at low figures. We quote as follows: 
Choice to fancy new, nK@i2j£c; fair to good, 
9®to^c; Eastern, ordinary to fine, ii@I4C Xb. 

EGGS— Prices for ranch Eggs have weakened of 
late, in consequence of some little pressure to real- 
ize, while buyers purchased less freely. Store Eggs 
now arriving are mostly of good quality, and the 
ordinary run of ranch Eggs are in consequence dif- 
ficult to place at materially belter prices. Eastern 
shipments have about stopped for the time being, 
but there are moderate quantities still here, largely 
common cold storage stock, and these are offering 
at lower figures than have been ruling. We quote: 
California ranch, 25@26c; store lots, 22@24c; East- 
ern Eggs, i8@2ic $ dozen. 

POULTRY— The demand for Turkeys is very 
light, neither live nor dressed being wanted. 
Broilers are in moderate supply only and quotations 
are a little stronger. The market generally rules 
easy, though there is no surplus of consequence. 
We quote: Live Turkeys — Gobblers, I2@I3C $ 
lb; Hens. I2@i3c; dressed Turkeys, I5@i7c; 
Roosters, $4(^4.50 for old and $5(2)5.50 for young; 
Fryers, $4@5; Broilers, $4(034.50; Hens, $5@6; 
Ducks, $5@6; Geese, $1.50(832 $ pair; Pigeons, 
$t@t.c;o # rloz 

PROVISIONS— We quote as follows: Eastern 
hams, i2@i2Mc lb; California hams, n@t2c; 
Bicon, Eastern, extra light, I554@i7c; medium, 
m@iiKc; do, light, 12c; do, light, clear, 13® 
@i3'Ac; light, medium, boneless, 12'Ac; Pork, ex- 
tra prime, S13@13.50; do. prime mess, $i4@is; do, 
mess. $2i@22; do, clear, $20@20. 50; do, extra clear, 
$21 $ bbl; Pigs' Feet, $12 50^ bbl; Beef, mcs, 
bblp, $7.50(^8; do, extra mess, bbls, $8.5o@9; do, 
family, $9. 50@io; ex'ra do, Sn@t1.50 J? bbl; do, 
smoked, io(d>io'Ac; Eastern lard, tierces, 7K@8#c; 
do prime steam, 10c; Eastern pure, 10-tb pails, nc; 
5-lb pails iiKc; 3 lb, n 'Ac; California, io-lb tins, 
ic-'Ac; do, 5-lb, 11c; do, kpgs, ii#@i2c; do, 20-tb 
buckets. 11c; compound, 8c for tierces and 8}4c 
for hf bbls. 

WOOL.— No demand. To-morrow a meeting of 
growers and dealers will be held in this city, when 
it is expected measures will be taken to protest 
against the passage of Ihe Wilson tariff bill, so far 
as it relates to the schedule on wools and woolens. 
We quote spring : 

California, year's fleece, 7@9C; do 6 to 8 months, 
7@8c; do Foothill, xo@nc; do Northern. 12® 13c; 
do extra Humboldt and Mendocino, n@i3c; Ne- 

vada, choice and light, I2@i4c; do heavy, 8@toc; 
Oregon. Eastern, choice, io@i2c; do Eastern, poor, 
7®gc; do Valley, I2@i5c. We quote fall: Free 
Mountain, 6@7c; Northern defective, 5@7c; 
Southern and San Joaquin, 3@5C 

HIDES AND SKINS— The circular of W. E. 
Summer & Co. says: "The Hides and Leather 
market for the past season haa been depressed at 
low prices — lower than ever before known. There 
is a general expectation that the present year will 
show an improvement both in values and the vol- 
ume of business. This belief will have some effect 
on trade, pnd already there appears to be more 
activity in Leather. We cannot expect to see any 
material advance in values for the present, but we 
hope to see the Hide and Leather business placed 
on a more substantial basis, with firmer quotations 
and gradually increasing prices. Dry Hides are 
active, as shipments are sold on arrival in the East. 
Wet salted Hides are doing fairly well, the heavy 
and medium steers being prelerred.'' Quotable as 
follows : 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers, 57 Ibsup, ^tb. 5 @ c 4 @ — c 

Medium Steers, 48 to 56 lbs. 4 @ — c 3^® c 

Light, 42 to 47 Tbs 3 @3^c 2}£@3— c 

Cows, over 50 lbs 3 @3%c a}4@ — c 

Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs.... 3 @ — c 2#@ c 

Stags 2H@ — c 2 (<t>, — c 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs 4 @ — c 3 @ — c 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs 5 @ c 4 @ c 

Calf Skins, 5 to 10 lbs 6 @ — c 7 @ — c 

Dry Hides, usual selection. 7c; Dry Kips, 
7c; Calf Skins do, 7c; Cull Hides, Kip and 
Calf, 4c; Pelts, Shearling, io@20ceacb; do, short, 
2 5@35 c p ach; do, medium. 40@5oceach; do, long 
wool, 50@75c each; Deer Skins, summer. 25c: do, 
good medium, 15c; do, winter, 5c per lb; Goat Skins, 
25@4oc apiece for prime to perfect, io@2oc for 
damaged, and 5@ioc each for Kids. 

TALLOW— We quote: Refined. 5@5#c; ren- 
dered. 4^c; country Tallow, 4@4^c; Grease, 
3@3& c P er lb - 

San Francisco Meat Market. 

B=ef is steady, while Mutton and Lamb are both 
higher. Following are the rates for whole carcasses 
from slaughterers to dealers : 

BEEF — First quality, 5^@6c; second quality, 
4%@5c: third quality, 3J£@4c $ lb. 

CALVES— Quotable at4^@sc lor large, and 6® 
7c Iff lb for =mall. 

MUTTON— Quotable at 6@7C # tb. 

LAMB - Quotable at 7@8c $ lb. 

PORK— Live Hogs, on foot, grain fed, heavy and 
medium. 4%c; small Hogs, 5c; stock Hogs, 
4 l A@4%c; dressed Hogs, 7@7X'c#lb. 

Seedg for 1894. 

Everybody interested in field, garden and flower 
seeds of any description that are absolutely pure 
and fresh should not fail before purchasing, to send 
for the new illustrited catalogue of the Kansas Seed 
House, F. Birteldes & Co., Proprietors, Lawrence, 
Kan. This "Old Reliable" seed house is one of the 
very best in the country and deservedly merits the 
patronaoe of all who desire first-class seeds at 
reasonable pr ces. 

The Farmer and the Squirrel. 

The ground squirrel is a cunning little beast, 
with an appetite only equalled by his remarkable 
propensity to increase his kind. With sagacity and 
industrious habits, acquired by heredity and neces- 
sity, he has managed to build up a reputation that 
has made him a terror and an outlaw. While the 
farmer everywhere knows him, and is more or less 
familiar with his thievish and destructive character- 
istics, it is probable that comparatively few fully 
realize the immense amount of loss that he is capable 
of causing a district or State in the aggregate, say 
for one year, much less for a series of years. 

It is with the view of conveying some approxi- 
mate notion of the squirrel's great capacity as a 
destructive agent, while gratifying his inordinate 
appetite, that the following facts and figures are 
submitted : 

Some practical and observant farmers have said 
that every squirrel killed was as good as one sack of 
wheat or its equivalent saved. Whether this be so 
or not, it is safe and extremely conservative to say 
that one squirrel or gopher will eat his own weight 
each month, and probably destroy as much more. 
Allowing bis weight to average one and three- 
quarters pounds, he will eat and destroy about 40 
pounds a year. Now, to give the agricultural dis- 
tricts of California the benefit of 100,000 of these 
pests actively at work through the greater part of 
the year, the figures for the aggregate consumption 
will be found to show up 4 000,000 pounds, a very 
respectable amount. While 2000 tons of food 
products lost each year is no small item for pro- 
ducers to consider, this estimate is so modest that 
those who have given the subject attention will be 
quite likely to multiply it several times. 

These disagreeable facts constantly staring the 
produce's in the face, it is not at all strange that 
many efforts should have been made to exterminate 
the evil as far as possible. While most attempts in 
this direction have proved failures, it is only fair to 
say that one plan has proved a notable success. 
This preparation is known far and wide as "Wake- 
lee's Squirrel and Gopher Exterminator." It was 
the result of scientific and patient study and a full 
appreciation of the importance of the subject with 
which it bad to deal, and as it has now been on the 
market for over 15 years, events havs proven its 
complete success and fully justify the immense and 
yearly increasing sales. 

It is estimated that in the 15 years past, more 
than 10,000 tons of squirrels and gophers have been 
destroyed by its use alone. Let the curious in fig. 
ures go into this fact, and by the light of the above 
hints find out the amount of food it would have re- 
quired to have made those tons of varmint contented. 
This preparation is put up in one-pound and five- 
pound cans, will keep any length of time and is not 
at all expensive. Directions accompany each can. 

Worthless imitations of this valuable preparation 
are so numerous that the farmer should be extremely 
careful to obtain the genuine Wakelee Exterminator 

Friend of Mamma (to little girl) — " Lottie, 
if you drink so much tea you will be an old 
maid." Lottie— "Oh, I don't believe that 
at all, Mr. Harold. Mamma drinks tea 
and she has been married twice." 


Any one of the following six collections will be sent free by mail lor 81. Plants all distinctly labeled. 

Vegetable Seed*. 

2D p'ok'ts, fine asaortm't 
flower Seed*. 

5 pkt^ Orna'tl Foliage. 
5 pkts numbing Plants. 
5 pkta Annual'. 
5 pkts Perennials. 
2 pkts Tlie -nials 

3 pkts Ornam't'l Grasses 2 Roses. 



3 Chrysanthemums. 

3 Oarnatlons. 

3 Rose*. 

2 Geraniums. 

1 Heliotrope. 


2 Pelargoniums. 

2 Chrysanthemums. 

2 Cannas. 

1 Tuborose. 

1 Artillery Plant. 


3 Sincle Geraniums. 

2 Rcent^d Geraniums, 

2 Double Geraniums. 

3 Fu'-hsias. 
X Begonia. 

1 Heliotrope. 

1 French Carna. 
1 Tea Rose. 
1 Carnation. 
1 Pelargonium. 
1 Fuchsia. 
1 Begonia, Bex. 
1 Rose Geranium. 
1 Lemon Verbena. 
1 White Lily. 

Selection of varieties in collections must In all cases be left to us. Substitution made if necessary. 


Seed Farm and Nurseries, (SHERWOOD HALL NURSERY CO.) 427-0 Sansome St., 


Write for beautifully illustrated catalogue containing instructions for cultivating. Sent free. 




Also Fine Stock of Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Palms, Roses and Carnations. 


Correspondence Solicited. 



FOR SALE— 50,000 Trees on Myrobolan Stock. 

Imported from one of the first French nurseries. Scions from an orchard near Saratoga. Fruit raised In thla 
celebrated district has taken for us sU first-class awards, INCLUDING HIGHEST AWARD, COLUMBIAN 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., 316 California St., San Francisco, Oal. 

Arfentu for Saratoga Packing Company. 

Or to HERBERT BROS., 24 North Firnt 8t Isam JOSE. 

HARRY P0STLEIHWA1TE, IS Fountain St. J *" ' lvoa ' 



January 13, 1894. 

^Agricultural J£otes. 



As an instance of the value of orange and 
lemon groves, the Register cites the sale of An- 
tone Christensen's orange grove at Thermalito 
as worthv of comment. He owned 20 acres, of 
which eight acres were planted to oranges and 
lemons. He sold the tract for $8000, or $400 an 
acre. As similar land not planted can be 
"bought in the vicinitv for $100 per acre, this 
would make $6800 for eight acres of oranges 
and lemons, or $850 an acre for trees five and 
six years old. The varieties are mostly Navels 
Mediterranean Sweets and Majolicas. The 
lemons are the Villa Franca. 

Oroville Register: It goes without argument 
that California farms are too big. This is seen 
when we compare the number of out farms 
with those of other States. In 1890 we had 
52,849 farms, which is an increase of 16,960 over 
the number we had in 1880. The rate of in 
crease was 47 per cent. We all know how big 
our State is, and know too that farms ought to 
haye increased here more than in almost any 
other State. The facts are, however, against us, 
for in the decade named the increase in the 
farms of Alabama was 21,908; of Arkansas. 30,- 
327; of Georgia, 32,445; of Iowa, 16,552; of Kan- 
sas, 28,056; of Louisiana, 21,002; of Michigan, 
18 336; of Minnesota. 24,465; of Mississippi, 42,- 
546; of Missouri, 22,304; of Nebraska, 50,221; of 
Texas, 54,009, and of Dakota, 60,334. We must 
cut up the lands and have more owners ere we 
see California increase as rapidly as we all de- 
sire to see her increase. 

Oroville Register: A prominent fruit-grower 
said to us this week: " The idea that all fruit 
trees must be inspected and a certificate given 
is, in my opinion, all nonsense. I don't think 
that the leading fruit-growers of the county 
wish to be bothered with this thing. I am sat- 
isfied that they will take care of their orchards, 
and if they do not, then the men who let their 
fruit trees become diseased will have to have 
them treated or else destroyed. There is too 
much supervision, and I don't think men who 
have been employed know as much as they 
ought to about fruit pests. They wish to make 
it appear that all our fruit trees are diseased, 
and that a hundred different kinds of bugs are 
ready to devour them. I am satisfied that if 
one plants a good tree on good soil and gives it 
the right kind of cultivation, that there will be 
no danger but what the tree will grow and do 

Oroville Register : All the old locusts, China 
trees, pines and other useless trees in town 
ought to be cut down and destroyed. They 
serve to cumber the ground, they are neither 
useful nor ornamental, and they are an eye- 
sore to all who desire to see the better trees 
planted on sidewalks and in yards. Cut down 
and burn up for firewood every sycamore, 
cypress, pine and China tree in the town and 
replace them with lemon, olive, orange or other 
serviceable trees. 

Oroville Mercury. The new olive mill con- 
structed by E. W. Fogg at his Thermalito olive 
grove is running steadily, crushing great quan- 
tities of olives and converting the same into oil. 
Besides the large crop from his own grove, Mr. 
Fogg received a consignment of 2000 pounds of 
olives from Sutter county, shipped by G. W. 
Harney, who purchased the same from differ- 
ent growers. He expects to ship in about 10,- 
000 pounds more to be converted into oil. The 
capacity of the mill is about 1500 pounds daily, 
and the shipment of olives here is worthy of 
special note, and shows that we are just enter- 
ing upon a very important industry. 


Grimes letter: The grain on the tule lands 
looks exceedingly well. A good crop is as- 
sured. A great many of our farmers are very 
busy plowing and seeding. 


Eureka Watchman: Next to producing milk 
for the creamery, raising hogs for the packer 
offers the quickest, surest and most steady re- 
turn of any farm output in Humboldt to-day. 
Those who have good barley or grain lands, 
and are not favorably located to reach the 
creamery, will find there is ready money and 
profit in hogs. 


Bakersfield California.™.: What sort of flour 
or meal could be made from Egyptian corn? 
Has anybody tried it here ? When that grain 
was first introduced into southern California 18 
years ago a little of it was ground and it was 
said to make cakes which equaled buckwheat, 
and to have made a very palatable food. Why 
not try it here ? 

Los Angeles. 

Pomona Progress: The barley and alfalfa 
growers say they could not have had weather 
more favorable to their industries than that of 
the past few weeks. 


Gonzales Tribune: Silvio Franscioni, who 
farms on the Somavia ranch across the river, 
was making wine last week, and the refuse 
which remained in the bottom of the tank was 
given to the hogs. They became so frenzied 
from intoxication that they broke through the 
corral and ran helter-skelter in all directions as 
if possessed by the evil one. 


Anaheim Gazette: There ought to be from 
650 to 700 carloads of oranges in Orange county, 
but so far the various associations have been 
able to locate only about 415. Of these Placen- 
tia heads the list with 120 carloads, Orange has 
100 cars, Tustin 60, Anaheim is credited with 
~nly 45, Brookhurst 40 and Villa Park 50. Ana- 

heim ought to have 100 cars, and the commit 
tee in search of the fruit should make another 
canvass and see whether they cannot better 
their return. Now that orders are coming in at 
a lively rate into the bead of the association at 
Riverside for fruit at satisfactory prices, it is 
important that every carload of our fruit should 
be represented in order for us to get the full pro 
rata of shipments. 


The Placer Argus reports that during last 
year the Auburn Co-operative Fruit Company 
shipped an aggregate of 30,888 packages of 
fruit weighing 770,446 pounds, at an average 
price of 52 cents per package, or a little over 
two cents per pound. Eighty-eight different 
shippers patronized the house. The director- 
ate for 1894 is as follows: E. O. Smith, W. H. 
Curtis, T. P. Dickson, George Cadman and 
C. A. Young, all officers last year. The 
stockholders seem well pleased with the em- 
ployes of the company the past season, and 
propose to take hold of fruit-raising with re- 
newed courage and hope the coming year. 

San Diego. 

The San Jacinto Register says: "There's 
considerable talk by several of our farmers 
about planting three or four hundred acres to 
sugar beets this season as a test. We under- 
stand that the Southern California Railway 
Company (Santa Fe system) have made our 
farmers a special rate to the factory at Chino. 
The Santa Ana farmers make on an average 
$30 to $50 per acre net on their crop of beets 
each year." 

Santa Barbara. 

Santa Maria Timer. Dairying is about the 
most economical industry carried on in our 
midst. It is a paying business when properly 
conducted. Nothing is wasted and the land is 
continually being enriched. It has been scien- 
tifically demonstrated that constant and con- 
tinued dairying will eventually exhaust the 
butter-producing qualities of the soil, but in 
this locality the highest point in production has 
not yet been reached. Then will come culti- 
vated meadows, then mulching, etc., and the 
decline of dairying is a great way off. 

Santa Cruz. 

Watsonville Pajaronian: Several of the last 
shipments of Bellefleur apples made to Eastern 
points reached their destination in bad condi- 
tion. The shipments were made late in the 
season and the apples were badlv mellowed 
when they got East. The Bellefleur decays 
rapidly, and should be shipped before Decem- 
ber to distant points in order to secure its 
arrival in good condition. The shipments of 
later varieties have been going through in 
first-class condition. 


The Millville Times says Dr. McFadyn, whose 
farm is near Millville, will set out 5500 Mission 
olive, 3000 peach and 2500 prune trees planted 
in between. A large canal to draw its waters 
from Cow creek will shortly irrigate the farm. 

Anderson Valley News: Several carloads of 
splendid mountain apples have been shipped 
from here recently to the East. They came 
from Manton, Tehama county. H. P. Stice 
has been attending to collecting the fruit. 


Sonoma Republican: Dr. J. M. Parsons has 
bought the old Habashaw ranch adjoining bis 
homestead in Knight's Valley township. This 
ranch is an ancient landmark claimed and oc- 
cupied before California was a State. It is situ 
ated high up on the western spur of St. Helena 
mountain. He proposes to plant it to apples 
and olives. 

Sonoma Index-Tribune: On New Year's day 
ripe strawberries, lemons and oranges were 
picked from vines and trees on the residence 
grounds of the editor of this paper in this place. 
The orange and lemon trees were planted four 
years ago. A number of the former are over 
seven feet high and all bore fruit this season. 
The trees, which are of the Washington Navel 
variety, have never been protected from frost, 
but have taken their chances with other fruit 
trees in the open air. Out of 14 trees planted 
four years ago, every one are alive and in a 
flourishing condition. 

Sonoma Tribune: The summary of the work 
of the must factory for the season is as follows: 
Total output of must, 1564 barrels of 50 gallons 
each; consumption of grapes, 3,000 tons; manu- 
facture of brandy, 10,500 gallons. The gauging 
at the must factory will be finished this week 
and then the concern will close down until 
spring when the production of jellies will be re- 
sumed. There would have been a heavier con- 
sumption of grapes during the initial season's 
run, had it not been for the many stops made 
to repair and regulate the new machinery. 
Next year the concern will be prepared to man- 
ufacture fully 50 per cent more must than it did 
this year consequently it will consume no less 
than 4500 tons. 

At a meeting of the Horticultural Society 
last week, says the Petaluma Courier, Alex. 
Craw, State Quarantine Officer, said, among 
other things : " The pernicious scale is rapidly 
becoming a thing of the past. It is almost ex- 
tinct in the San Jose districts. Resin wash and 
the usual wash of lime, salt and sulphur are 
very beneficial. The brown-necked scymnus 
(ladybird) is the most beneficial parasitic de- 
stroyer of the scale. I don't advise spraying 
the trees when ladybirds are numerous, but 
rather the protection of the parasites." Mr. 
Craw said that his experiments and those of 
Mr. Lelong have not shown the disease known 
as "black knot" to be contagious, although 
many persons regard it as a very dangerous 
enemy to nearly all deciduous trees. It is gen- 
erally found on peach roots. Mr. Craw said he 
thought the disease was so bad that all nursery 
stock affected with it should be destroyed. He 

pointed out the distinction between the slight 
swelling that often exists on nursery stock, 
in consequence of imperfect grafting, and the 
enlargement known as " root knot." He 
thought that commissioners were justified in 
quarantining such nursery stock as is actually 
affected by root knot, believing such trees 
should not be planted. 

Petaluma Courier: John Burnbam of Yulupa 
valley, a well-known wine-maker, declares bis 
intention of giviDg up the wine business and 
turning his attention to fruits and poultry. 


J. E. Felton's raisin-drier at Grangeville was 
destroyed by fire recently. It contained 2000 
trays of clusters, and the loss is about $700 
upon which there was no insurance. 

Tulare Citizen: There has been considerable 
talk about a meat-packing house in Tulare of 
late, but the enterprising company of Burnett 
& Mowry have already got there. They have 
employed an experienced band from the East, 
and have now on hand a nice quantity of 
home-cured bacon, hams and shoulders. They 
say that with the process they employ they 
are satisfied they can make the curing of meats 
a success here. 


Woodland Mail: Heavy white frosts have 
been a feature of the recent weather. No dam- 
age to flowers has been reported, and the fruit 
men say that the "nip" has been of great 
benefit to them. The " oldest inhabitant " de- 
clares that it has been years and years since the 
mercury in Woodland thermometers has sunk 
so low, and reports from many points in Cali- 
fornia, including San Francisco, are of similar 

Horticultural Commissioner Howard in- 
formed a Democrat representative that the San 
Jose scale, which has infected the fruit trees of 
Yolo county to a limited extent, is rapidly dis- 
appearing. He says that he has lately dis- 
covered an insect, the name of which he could 
not at the time recall, which is a deadly enemy 
to the scale. He advises fruit-growers to ex- 
amine their fruit trees before spraying them, 
and, if the insect is discovered, to let the trees 
alone. The insect will do the work more ef- 
fectually than it can Be done by spraying. 

The Grangers' Bank, 

Twentieth Annual Meeting of Its 
Stock-holders— Statement of Re- 
sources—Resolutions of Re- 
spect for the late J. W. 

The twentieth annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the Grangers' Rink of California was held on 
January 9th, about 9000 shares of the capital stock 
being represented. A dividend of 6 per cent was 
declared amounting to $57,354' due and payable im- 
mediately, and the remainder of the earnings car- 
ried to credit of Reserve Fund. 

The following Board of Directors was elected for 
the ensuing year, consisting of A. D Logan, Uriah 
Wood, J. H. Gardiner, Dr. W. L. Dickenson, Se- 
neca Ewer, D. N. Hershey, H. M. LaRue; Thos. 
McConnell, H. J. Lewelling, G. S. Berry, L C. 

A. D. Logan was re-elected president, L C. Steele 
vice-president, A. Montpellier cashier and manager, 
and K. McMullen secretary. 

The capital stock of the bank is now paid up in 
full, $1,000,000, and the bank has paid to its stock- 
holders $832,000 in dividends. 

The condition of the bank at the close of business 
hours December 30, 1893, was as follows: 


Loans and discounts $2,063,741.40 

Real estate and grain warehouses 178,665.90 

Office Furniture and safes 5,000.00 

Cash on hand 123,785.22 

Total resources $ 2 ,37L i9 2 - 5 2 


Capital paid up $1,000,000.00 

Reserve Fund 72.272.31 

Dividend No. 19 57.354 °o 

Due depositors 4 8 6i54 2 a 5 

Due banks and bankers (on time) 755 ° 2 3 9* 

Total liabilities $2. 371 .192. 52 


The following preamble and resolutions were pre- 
sented by Amos Adams and ordered published by a 
vote of stockholders of the bank: 

Whereas, On this the 20th annual meeting of 
the stockholders of the Grangers' Bank, it seems ap- 
propriate to turn back the pages of time and look 
for a moment at the early struggles that led up to 
the incorporation of the Grangers' Bank and the 
success it has attained. 

It will be recollected by most of those now pres- 
ent that in the years 1873 and 1874 the grain-growers 
of California were confronted with one of the most 
gigantic monopolies that ever existed on the Pacific 

It was charged that Friedlander, who was popu- 
larly known as the "Grain King," had made a cor- 
ner on grain bags and had run them up to 16 and 
17 cents; had control of most of the tonnage in and 
to come into port; had locked up the money in 
many banks by leaving the money in their vaults as 
security, and paying two, three or four months' in- 
terest thereon; had manipulated the price of wheat 
to what was then thought to be starvation prices, 

and the farmers looked in vain for relief outside of 
some permanent organization or institution formed 
by and for their own benefit. 

Local meetings of fawners had been held through- 
out the State, but with unsatisfactory results. 
Finally a mass meeting was held in San Francisco, 
early in the year 1874, and, after great deliberation, 
and not without some misgivings, the convention 
resolved to organize a corporation, to be known as 
the " Grangers' Bank," with the avowed purpose of 
" making loans on produce, merchandise and real 
estate: to buy and sell exchange; to make collec- 
tions, and to do a general discount and deposit 
business, and such other business as may properly 
belong to a banking company." 

With this end in view money came pouring in in 
small and large rivulets, but mostly in small rivulets. 

Just imagine, Mr. President, with what commend- 
able pride the sides of the vault bulged out when 
the munificent sum of $25,000 was placed therein — 
the doors of the bank thrown wide open, with an in- 
vitation to the public to come in and do a general 
banking business. 

Directors had been chosen from among the ablest 
men of the convention, who discharged their duties 
faithfully and well, but to-day only one of the first 
Board of Directors is now in that position— most of 
the others have passed over the silent river to the 
great beyond. 

They in turn have been succeeded by abler men — 
men more familiar with banking business and better 
skilled in the financial problems of the day, and now 
the Grangers' Bank has a Board of Directors that 
would do credit to any bank id the country. 

The first Board of Directors soon learned that to 
incorporate for banking purposes was not all that 
was necessary to be done to conduct a banking 
business successfully; they must also have a compe- 
tent business manager, who must be honest, quali- 
fied, and, as far as possible, have the elements of 
success within himself. 

And now, looking back over the period of twenty 
years, with the same man opening the doors of the 
vault in the morning and closing them at night with 
the regularity of clockwork, we think the Directors 
chose wisely and well when they installed Mr. Albert 
Montpellier as cashier and manager. Mr. Mont- 
pellier has filled this responsible position with abil- 
ity, fidelity and trustworthiness that has earned for 
the Grangers' Bink a reputation throughout the 
State for fair dealing second to no other bank; 

Resolved. That the thanks of the stockholders of 
the Grangers' Bank be and the same are hereby 
tendered to Mr. Montpellier for his able, efficient 
and successful management; that to his business 
tact and talent in guiding the bank through the 
shoals and quicksands of the recent and greatest 
financial crisis of our State, he deserves our warmest 

Resolved, That the thanks of the stockholders are 
especially tendered to the Directors of the bank for 
the cautious and conservative course heretofore pur- 
sued. Without knowing it as a fact, the stock- 
holders affirm it as their opinion that the responsible 
duties of the manager have been lessened and that 
success has been more readily attained by the accu- 
mulated knowledge focused and advice imparted at 
the Directors' bi-monthly meetings. Coming as the 
Directors do from different localities of the State, 
they are able to give the manager reliable and valu- 
able information, not only on the bank's business, 
but also of the condition of the crops and the crop 
outlook, on which the business of the bank so 
largely depends. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the stockholders are 
also tendered to Mr. McMullen, Mr. Fair and 
Mr. Wittland for the promptness and ability with 
which they have discharged the duties devolving on 


The following in respect to J. W. Mitchell were 
moved by I. C. Steele, seconded by Seneca Ewer 
and adopted by unanimous vote: 

Whereas, Another honored membjr of the 
Board of Directors of the Grangers' Bink has passed 
on to the higher life, leaving a record for business 
ability and integrity alike creditable to him and to 
the bank; and 

Whereas, We learned to respect his manly quali- 
ties and to prize bis genial ways and reliable friend- 
ship by long association with him; therefore 

Resolved, That while we submissively bow to the 
inevitable in the taking away of our associate and 
friend, John W. Mitchell, we miss him and cherish 
his memory among the pleasant and sacred recollec- 
tions of the past. 

Resolved, That the sudden removal of such a man 
from our board leaves a vacancy and shadow that 
will be deeply realized by all members of the board 
and its friends, and will prove a grievous loss to this 
State and the public. 

Resolved, That this preamble and these resolu- 
tions be spread upon the minutes of this board and 
a copy sent to the Rural Press and the relatives 
of our departed friend. 




This College Instructs in Short html, Type-Writing, Book 
keeping, Telegraphy. Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
(or full six months. We have sixteen teachers and give 
Individual ir~'.ruction to all our pupils. Our school baa 
Its gradual tevery part of the state. CT 8KND FOR 
CIRCULAt. E. P HEALD, Pres. C. 8. HALKY, 8eo. 



And ail th« Would K»>n* **»• CURB is SURm. 

January 13, 1894. 



The Harvest Moon. 

The time of moonrise on any day is on 
the average about 51 minutes later than it 
was on the preceeding day. This retarda- 
tion is, however, by no means constant in 
amount, being at times very much less than 
the average and at times very much greater. 
A very marked diminution in the time of 
retardation occurs about the time of the full 
moon which falls in September, says the 
Popular Science News. 

This moon is called the harvest moon. 
The same phenomenon in a less degree oc- 
curs at the time of the following full moon, 
which is known as the hunter's moon. The 
time of retardation during the harvest moon 
is less than half an hour in our latitudes, 
instead of its average value of nearly an 
hour, and for several successive nights the 
moon seems to rise at nearly the same 

Briefly stated, the cause of the phenomena 
is this : At the time of the rising of the 
harvest moon the apparent path of the moon 
among the stars is much less inclined to 
the horizon than it is at other times, and the 
ordinary day's motion of the moon along 
this path makes an unusually small change 
of position of the moon with reference to its 
distance from the horizon. 

A more detailed explanation may make 
the matter a little more easily understood. 
In addition to the ordinary apparent daily 
motion which the moon has in common with 
all other heavenly bodies, it has another 
motion by which it completes the circuit of 
the heavens relatively to the sun once a 
month, and the direction of this motion is 
generally not parallel with the direction of 
the diurnal motion, it being generally north- 
ward or southward as well as eastward. 

Any one may see this motion by an hour's 
watching of the relative positions of the 
moon and a star near it. The diurnal motion 
ii always on a line at right angles to a line 
drawn from the body of the celestial pole, 
the point in the heavens approximately indi- 
cated by the pole star. It is always per- 
fectly uniform about the pole as a center, 
and it is this which we take as our ordinary 
measurement of time. 

Now, consider the position of the moon 
and the sun at the time of full moon. The 
moon rises just as the sun sets. On the 
next evening at sunset the moon will still 
be below the horizon, because it has moved 
westward among the stars relatively to the 
sun, and it will not rise until the diurnal 
motion of the heavens brings it above the 
horizon. If the moon's motion were uniform 
and always along the line of ordinary 
diurnal motion, this retardation of the time 
of rising would always be the same, and 
would, as stated at the outset, be 51 minutes 
per day. 

But at the time of harvest moon the di- 
rection of motion of the moon among the 
stars is considerably northward as well as 
eastward, and at the time of moonrise this 
line makes a comparatively small angle with 
the horizon, very much less than it does at 
other times of full moon during the year. 
Therelore, at sunset on the day after the 
full, the moon having moved along a line 
which is inclined to the horizon at a much 
smaller angle than usual, its distance below 
the horizon will be less than the average, 
and hence a smaller amount of diurral 
motion will bring it into view— that is, the 
retardation of time of rising is less than it 
Is at other times. This condition continues 
for several days. 

Several other things, notably the inclina- 
tion of the moon's orbit to that of the earth, 
and the varying rate of motion in the orbit 
due to variation of distance from the earth, 
tend to change the amount of daily retarda- 
tion, but they do not depend upon the time 
of the year, and they sometimes intensify 
and sometimes diminish the peculiar phe- 
nomena of the harvest moon. Latitude has 
a strong effect, and in Northern Europe the 
phenomenon is a much more noticeable one 
than it is the United States. In fact, if one 
goes far enough north, the harvest moon 
may rise even earlier on any night than it 
did on the night preceding. 

$100 Reward, $100. 

The reader ol this paper will be pleased to learn 
that there 1b at least one dreaded disease that science 
has been able to cure in all its stages, and that is 
Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the only positive 
cure known to the medical fraternity. Catarr being 
a constitutional disease, requires a constitutional 
treatment. Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally, 
acting directly on the blood and mucous surfaces of 
the system, thereby destroying the foundation of the 
disease, and giving the patient strength by building 
up the constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers, that they offer One Hundred Dollars 
for any case that it fails to cure. Send for list of 
testimonials. Address 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 

4W Sold by Druggists, 76c. 

List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer 
Patent Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 

I'OK TUB WEEK ENDINlt DISC. 26, 1893. 

511,323. — Shavino Mdo— J. M. Blasi. S. F. 
511,398 — Car Lamp— E. Boesch, S F. 
611,410.— Stamp cancellkr— J. F. Cowdery, S. F. 
611,592 — Kbyhole Guard— O. J. Davidson, Kiogsburg, 

5U,f.18.— Gas Bdrnkr— B. F. Field, Los Angeles, Cal. 
611,605.— Bridqs—G. w. Frederick, Los Angeles, Cal. 
611,426.— Pump Engine— L. Holben, Sacramento, Cal. 
511,699 — Horse Collar— L. Ingels, Seattle, Wash. 
611 534. — BunoNER — Latham & Williams, Alhambra, Cal. 
511,349. — Plane -H. Merz, Pollasky, Cal 
511,-147.— Elevator— W. B. Morris, Seattle, Wash. 
611,741 — Cabinet — Mary A. Owen, Portland, Or. 
611,372. — Preserving Piles— K. Sudden, Ventura, Cal. 
511,481. -Buttoner— F. E. William*, Alhambra, Cal. 
611 482.— Bdtton Fastener— F. E. Williams, Alhambra, 

Note.— Copies of U. S. arid Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co. in the shortest time possible (by mail for 
telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents obtained, 
and general patent business for Pacifio Coast inventors 
transacted with perfect security, at reasonable rates, and in 
the shortest possible time. 


We have made arrangements with Dr. B. 
J. Kendall Co., publishers of " A Treatise 
on the Horse and his Diseases," which will 
enable all our subscribers to obtain a copy 
of that valuable work free by sending their 
address (enclosing a two-cent stamp for 
mailing same) to Dr. B. J. Kendall 
Co., Enosburgh Falls, Vt. This book- 
is now recognized as standard authority 
upon all diseases of the horse, as its 
phenomenal sale attests, over four million 
copies having been sold in the past ten 
years, a sale never before reached by any 
publication in the same period of time. 
We feel confident that our patrons will 
appreciate the work, and be glad to avail 
themselves of this opportunity of obtaining 
a valuable book. 

It is necessary that you mention this 
paper in sending for the Treatise." This 
offer will remain open for only a short time. 

—The Siskiyou Mill & Lumber Co., says 
the Dunsmuir News, has the biggest sugar- 
pine board ever cut in the county, which 
i hey are about to ship to the Midwinter 
Fair for exhibition. The board is about i£ 
inches thick, 54. inches wide and 16 feet long. 
There is not a knot or flaw of any kind in it. 
It was cut by a band-saw and is pure No. 1 
sugar pine. 

j>eed$, Mapts, ttc. 


"Gold Dust Cling," says H. E. Van Deman, 
ex-TJ. S. Pomologist, "is ayellow cling of medium 
size, round and regular in shape, and very tin . 
in flesh The color is very attractive, being dark 
yellow with a very red cheek. It bears heavily 
and carries to market with very little damage. 
ComiDg as it does before the main peach crop is 
gathered, it is about the first yellow cling of any 
special value and therefore finds a ready sale. 
Each year it gains in favor, but as it is a variety 
but recently originated the public know little of 
It. It is a very profitable variety." Price $1 each, 
$5 per half dozen. For sale by SACRAMENTO 
HIGH-GRADE Fruit Trees. Walnut Grove,8ac- 
rameato County, California. Our Specialties- 
Genuine Tragedy Prunes, Olyman and Japan 
Plums on true Myrobolan whole root seedlings — 
we use no pleoe root* nor cuttings; price 15 cents 
each; Sacramento River Bartletts and Peaches- 
price 10 cents each. Large qua- tities at lower 
rates. We guarantee our trees tkoe to 



On Gold Dust Clings, 834% off on Plums 
and Prunes, and 2b% off on Pears and 
Peaches. In order to find out who reads 
the above advertisement we offer this 
discount tor the next thirty dtys. 


Grown on high rolling flr land without irrigation or 
manure. 860 OOO Prunes— French, Italian, Silver 
and Golden. Peaches — E. Crawford, Alexander, Ams- 
den, Foster, Muir, Malta, and 20 other kinds, including 
Burly Charlotte the greatest peach that Nature has 
yet invented. (Write to us about it.) flams — Bur- 
bank, Satsumas, Ogon, Clyman, Tragedy, Boton, Colum- 
bia, and a dozen others. Clark's Karly Straw- 
berry. If you want the above In quantity, we will give 
you the finest trees grown, healthy, true to name and at 
unprecedentedly low prices. Address PILKINUTON 
& CO., Portland, Or., or Dr. J. H. Pllltington, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 


One year old, for sale at prices to suit the times. 




On California Peach Root, for sale. 

No- 1— 6 to 8 ft., $25 OO per lOOO 

No. 2—4 to 6 ft 20 00 per lOOO 

No. 3-3 to 4 ft 10 OO per lOOO 

First olass stock. Free from insect pest. Samples 
sent on application. Address 

N. B. HARVEY, Milwaukee , Oregon. 

A practical, explicit and comprehensive book embodying 
the experience and methods of hundreds of successful 
growers, and constituting a trustworthy guide by which the 
inexperienced may successfully produce the fruits for which 
California is famous. 600 pages. Fully illustrated. Price $3 
Postpaid. Send for circular. DEWEY PUBLISHING OO. 
Publishers. 220 Market Street, San Francisco, Oal. 



90,000 First-Class Fruit Trees 






220 Market St., San Francisco. 

Incorporated 1884. 500 Acres. 

Niles, Alameda Co., California. 





SPECIALTIES: OLIVES-38 sorts, French, Italian and Spanish. 

ROSES— 360 sorts, all the leading kinds, new and old. 
CLEMATIS— 25 Varieties. 


JOHN ROOK, Manager. 


VAN GELDER & WYLIE, Proprietors. 


Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 

Our Stock is Free From all Insect Pests and for Health and 
Strength of Root Growth Cannot be Excelled. 

Write lor Prices on Wholesale or Retail Orders. Address 

CENTRAL NURSERY COMPANY, - ,- Acampo, California. 


Known as Clarke's Early, is coming to be acknowledged as a world heater. Took a medal at World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition. They are bi-sexual; large; flrm-fleshed; prolific and uniform in size. They can be 
picked while they are white and will bear shipping to New York and come out a beautiful scarlet or crim- 
son, looking as though made of wax, dotted with golden seeds and painted and varnished by an artist. 
Their flavor is superb. They originated in Oregon. The first crates that came to Portland this year were a 
fortnight later than last year. It was latter part of May and best Calilornia berries were selling at two 
boxes for a quarter. The Clarkes brought at once 30 cents per box by the crate of 24 boxes. They sold all 
over Puget Bound, and at Spokane, Helena, Butte. Salt Lake, Denver, Omaha and Chicago at highest prices, 
standing a 2000-mile trip without apparent deterioration. We challenge the world to produce their equal 
lor excellence of flavor combined with shipping quality. Any amount of references. Price per doz., $1.00, 
sent by mail; by express, large, vigorous plants at buyer's charge, $5 per 100, $20 per 1000. Address 


Ever for 

EttablUhtu fS50 

Is Different from Others. 

It Is Intended to aid the planter in selecting the Seeds 
best adapted for his needs and conditions and in getting 
m tbem the best possible results. It is not, therefore, highly 
colored in either sense ; and we have taken great care that 
nothing worthless be put In, or nothing worthy be left out. We 
Inviteatrlal ofourSeeds. We know them because we grow tbem. 
Every planter of Vegetables or Flowers ought to know about our 
three warrants; our cash discounts; and our gift of agricultural 
papers to purchasers of our Seeds. All of these are explained in 
he Catalogue, a copy of which can be yours for the asking. 
J. J. H. CRECORY & SON, Marblehead, Mas*. 

= TTT R • 





Tain Is the Standard Work on the Raisin Industry In California. It has been 
approved by Prof. HUgard, Prof. Wlokaon, Mr. Ohas. A. Wetmore and a multitude of 
Practical Raisin Growers. 

Sold only by the DBWBT PUBLISHING OO. or Its Agents at lhe uniform price of 
$3 OO, postage prepaid. Orders should be addressed: 




January 13, 1894. 






Are Made in all Sizes and Styles to Suit any Locality, and for Design, Workmanship and Utility are 


The No. 8 Vineyard Plow. 

'J he No. 20 Pull Chilled Plow. 





Before purchasing', call on our nearest Agent and inspect them or 
send for Catalogue to 







An Excellent Apricot for Canning and 
Drying. Fine Shipper, as the Following Tes- 
timonials will Show. It is a Regular Bearer, 
Bequlres but Little Thinning and Runs Three 
and Four to the Pound. A Most Luscious 
Flavor. Small Pit. Ripens Just at the Close 
of the Royal. Growers Intending to Plant 
Apricots Should Obtain 'I his Most Excellent 

To quote the Pacific Rural Prut of August 6th: 

"The MAMMOTH Is extra Urge, exceeding, we be- 
lieve, even the Moorpark. It le of very symmetrical 
form, high c Icr, and »eem9 to ripen fu'ly and evenly, 
wnicl is, of course, a very Important point. It is ve.y 
rich an i ] Icy when fully ripe, and It has exce- tinnally 
g iod Keep Jig and chipping qualities. No d >ubt all apri- 
cot growers will desire to try tbis promising variety. If 
It dees everywhere as It does In Veutura, It will be a 
great acquisition to the apricot list." 

NIAGARA FALLS, August 3, 1893. 
N. B. Smith, Dbar Sir: — The " 'cuts" arrived In 
Chicago in (list r.te condition on tne 27th, six days after 
they were nhipp d, and they were beauties. Some of 
them kept In nood condition until August 1st and 2d. 
Thev are the best keepers I ever saw and I shall try them 
at Yuma. Yours truly, H. W. BLAISDEL. 

Mr. Blalsdel has Large Interests at Yuma. 

Six Days in a Hot Express Car, and Kept 

Six Days Thereafter, Is a Pretty Good Test 

of Their Shipping and Keeping Qualities. 




Kansas Seed House. 

Our Specialties! Onion Seed and Sets: Alfalfa, 
Kaffir and Jerusalem Corn; Tree Seeds for nurseries 
and timber claims. Have also a limited supply of 
Laythyms Sllvestiis 'Flat Pea the new Forage plant. 
New Catalogue mailed free on application. 

F. W. BARTELDES & CO., Lawrence, Kan. 

Send for Price Lists 

And all Articles used 
by Hunters and 





This Solid 14 K Go d 
Htg. Case> 
Watrh Waltham or 
Klglu Movt., 3* . 

In It K Fil'ei Caw, 
O, F,$ 7: Htg., 818. 

Lidles' O. V. Sdvcr 
8*isn Watch. $5. 

•J mm tie in e 
Watrhes, \\ altharu 
or Klgtn Movt. In 
Solid 14 K Gold Htg 
Case, $tr<: 14 K Filled 
Htg. < a«e, *5u; In K 
Filled Htg. Oa«e, IU; 
Heavy Nickel Htg 
Case, 87.50; 2 oz Ci In 
Silver Htg. Case, M2; 
3oz. Coin silver Htg 
Cane, 813.5' ; 4oi. ' on 
"NS» j" , >Pj2j&& r ' Bll». Ht/. Case. 815 SO 

T£2j2tS2£=y P. N. Rarllelt 

IWovl.-InHiilltl 14 K 
Gold Htg. Case, 8'i; 
14 K Filled Htg. Case. $25: 4 or. Coin Silver Hig. Case, »20. 
"Appleton, Tracy ft Co. Movt., 810 ex'ra." "Crescent Street 
Movt.. $15 e*tra," All Watches stem wind and set UK 
tilled cares guaranteed for 21 years. FINE WATfH 
REPAIRING. Diamonds, Wa'ches and Fine Jewelry ?cnt 
O, O. D. with privilege of examination, r>n receipt of 81 to 
guarantee charges, or sent express or postpaid if cash acconi- 
panies the order. Correspondence solicited. Particular 
attentlou paid to mall orders. When you visit the Mid 
winter Exposition call and inspect my stoclr. AGENTS 
WANTED. J«HI> II. nKIHtlOM). M.nufsr-nt 
ing Jeweler. Wntches and Diamonds, Boom 113. 
Plielan Bulldlnr. Nan Franelaro. 



Hayward's famous Paste and Lianid 
Dips received the Highest Award at the 
World's Colombian Exposition, alio the 
Prize Medal at the California State Fair. 
Dips irom all over the world were ex 
hibited at Chicago and practical sheep 
men pronounced Hayward's the beit and 
most effective medicine for the cure of scab 
and general benefit to wool. 


ad Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast, 

Office— Pifth and Townsend Streets, 
San Francisco. 


I have some 15,000 Lisbon and Rureka Lemon trees, 
budded from my own bearing orchard, for sale cheap. 
NATHAN W. BLANCH A HD, Santa Paula, Cal. 

Vol. XLVII. No. 3. 



Office, 220 Market Street. 

The Greatest Building at the Midwinter Fair. 

The Midwinter Fair ia the greatest sensation in the pub- 
lic mind of California at this time. It is progressing to- 
ward completion as rapidly as sou'-westers and downpours 
will permit, and in spite of these drawbacks the develop- 
ment of the enterprise is surprisingly fast. The management 
has declared that the great opening shall take place on 
Saturday, January 27th and the Governor has declared a 

public holiday on that date. By that time the heavy 
weather of the winter should be over and subsequent rains, 
though generous as producing interests require, may not 
be troublesome. 

To keep our readers informed of the chief features of 
the display we introduce on this page a view of the main 
entrance to the largest building on the grounds — that de- 
voted to manufactures and liberal arts. It is of Moorish 
design, 450 feet long and 250 feet wide, its height being 

55 feet, and it has an annex 75 feet in width, nearly the 
whole length of the structure. It has all the picturesque- 
ness that is so readily obtainable in this style of architec- 
ture, and with the collonade which surrounds it, and its 
towers, will introduce the various forms so popular in the 
mission buildings. Roof gardens will be found in the log- 
gias of the towers. The roof will be covered with curled 
metal tiles, and a skylight, and the building will be 
lighted from the top as well as from the sides. 



January 20, 1894. 


Office, 220 Market St.: Elevator, 12 Front St., San Francisco., Oal. 

Annual Bub<oription Rate Three Dollars a »oar. While this notice 
appear*, ail «ub«cribers paying $3 In advance will receive 15 months (one rear 
ana U waeki) oredlt For *I In advance, 10 months. For $1 in advance, five 
m »nth«. Trial siibecrlptloni) tor twelve week*, paid In advance, each 50 oenta. 


I Week. 1 Month. 3 MoimAj. I Year. 

P,r Line (agate) 1.26 ••M $ l.M $4.00 

H .If Inch (1 square 1.00 S.M 6.50 S2.00 

Inch I- 80 5 -°° l3l0 ° 

Large advert Isumruts at favorable rates. Special or reading notices, legal 
advertisements, noUcee appearing In eltraordlnary type. 'n particular part* 
of the paper, at special rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

Registered at 8. F. Post Office as second-class mall matter. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Am subscriber sending an inquiry oa auy subject to the Rural Press, with 
a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the columns of the paper 
or by personal letter. The auswer wiU be given as promptly aa prac ticable. 


J. F. HALLUBAN General Manager 

K. J. WICKSON Hpeclal Contributor 

San Francisco, January 20, 1894. 


EDITORIALS.— The Greatest Building at the Midwinter Fair, 41. The 
Week- A Question of Cows; The < itric Acid Industry; Grange Con- 
vention at the Midwinter Fair; Miscellaneous, 42. From an Inde- 
pendent Standpoint, 43, .... 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Midwinter Fair— The Grand Entrance of the Man- 
ufactures and Liberal Arts Building, 41. 

CORRESPONDENCE. — Farm Wages, 48. Mr. John T. Doyle on the 
Hawaiian Question, 43. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— California Fruit Union, 44. What Pearls Are 
Made of and Where They Are Found; Hypnotism in Disease; Some 
Interesting Dates; Gaseous Theory of the Earth; Dust Over Buried 
Cities; Miscellaneous, 57. Fruit Exchange Meeting; Southern Cali- 
fornia Farmers' Institute; Miscellaneous, 44. Agricultural Di- 
rectors, 48. Discovery of the Telescope, 51. Uses of Cotton 
Seed Oil; How to Catch Mice: How to Tell a Person'sAge, 63. 

HORTICULTURE — Thoughts About the Japau Plums; Old Apple Or- 
chards; New Rules for Handling Oranges; Fruit Tree Inspection, 45. 
Orchard Notes, 46. 

FRUIT MARKETING. — A County Plan of Organization for Fruit- 
Selling; Co-operative Shipping from Sutter County, 46. Call for a 
Convention in Fresno Couuty, 47. 

THE DAIRY — a angel Wurzels; Sterilizition of Milk for Children; 
Use of Separators by Small Dairymen, 47. 

FLORIST AND GARDENER. — Plant Collecting in California, 47. The 
Rose • eaeou of 1893; Caunas in California, 48. 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER. — Road Legislation in the United 
States, 48. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— The Wool-Growers' Convention, 49. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. — California's Praise; Secretary Morton 
in Reply; From Two Rock; From Stockton; Tulare Grange; Merced 
Grange, 64. 

MARKET REPORTS.— The Local Produce Market, 37. 




Nursery Stock— Pacific Nursery 59 

Corn Planter— Eclipse Corn Planter Co , Kufleld, N. H 67 

Nursery Stock— 0. M. 8ilvai Son, Lincoln, Cal 69 

Nursery Stock— E. Gill, Oakland, Cal _ 59 

Shire Stallions— J. I Parsons, Santa Rosa, Cal 57 

Harrows— Deere Implement Co 60 

Tule Tree Protector— B. F. Oilman 68 

Seeds -A. R. Ames, Madison, Wis 67 

Ducks and Chickens— J. W. Forgues, Santa Cruz, Cal 53 

Hinges— Stanley Works, New Britain, Conn 54 

Roses— Good & Ruse Co., Springfield, Ohio 61 

Almonds— J. Coppin, Loomis, Cal 69 

Money to Loan— U. H. Dwlnelle 57 

See Advertising Columns. 

A Question of Cows. 

The Week. 

The rain is assuming resolute and persistent demeanor. 
For wide reach and weight of downfall, it has assumed 
most respectable proportions already; and as we write on 
Wednesday, we seem to be but in the midst of it. This 
last rain comes too soon for some interior farmers, espe- 
cially in the Sacramento valley, who have been waiting 
for a chance to get in some seed; and in parts already 
soaked to bedrock, this last donation seems like a little 
overproduction on the part of the weather-makers. 
Though this may cause inconvenience and delay, it should 
not be forgotten that it is about time the arid regions of 
the west and south San Joaquin had a flush year, and 
they always secure it at the cost of a surplus to the better 
watered parts of the interior. It will do the State lots of 
good to have an exceptionally productive year as an offset 
to short grass which seems to rule in all public affairs. 
These considerations may bring comfort even while the 
horses are eating their heads off in the stalls and enforced 
idleness invites depression. When one stops to think of 
it, there is nothing more industrially dangerous than a 
California winter which is all sunshine, and we are for- 
tunately very far from that this year. 

The Nevada hay-growers cannot spare much more hay 
for this State. The Reno Journal says that about one-half 
the hay crop of I he Truckee Meadows has been fed or 
baled and shipped out of the country, and that about one- 
fifth of the total crop remains unsold. A number of the 
largest producers feed all or nearly all their hay to their 
own stock and have none for sale. The shipments to Cali- 
fornia average about 250 tons a month, and there are over 
5000 head of cattle and 20,000 sheep now being fed on hay 
in this vicinity. Besides this there are about 2000 dairy 
cows being fed, so that hay disappears rapidly, and there 
will not be much, if any, surplus in the spring. This may 
be important to our readers who may be holding hay for 
late sales. 

It is wonderful how close they are pursuing their tests of 
cows at the experiment stations which are largely run by 
cow power. It is only a few years since it was held that 
if a dairyman would only use the scales and keep a record 
of the milk yield of each of his cows for a year he would 
hod that some of the animals he supposed were the best 
would really be unprofitable to keep. This advice was 
followed by some of our more progressive dairymen, and 
(hey were indeed surprised at how small an aggregate 
yearly weight of milk wa9 given them. We remember one 
of our dairy friends started out with the scales, deter- 
mined that any cow which did not give him 5000 pounds 
of milk a year would have to go to the butcher. He was 
forced to lower his standard after awhile, because he found 
out that at the dead line he fixed he was running a meat 
ranch and not a dairy ranch at all. However, the experi- 
ment did lots of good, because it sent away a part of the 
herd which was wretchedly poor as milkers. 

More recently dairymen have found out that gross 
weight of milk is not a good criterion of a cow's dairy 
value, and the Babcock test, which enables the dairyman 
easily to determine the actual butter contents of the milk, 
must be used in connection with the weight of the milk 
to determine the actual producing value of each cow. 
Progressive dairymen now are content with nothing short 
of this accurate knowledge of what a cow is doing with 
her time and fodder. 

The next point made in testing cows consisted in ascer- 
taining the value of the food consumed by the cow, and 
this deducted from the value of the butter in her milk 
gives her net dairy value. This seems to cover all the 
points in question and tells the dairymen at what cost 
he produces a certain value of butter fat. This inquiry 
has been pursued for some time at several of the Eastern 
experiment stations, and the results are well illustrated 
by a bulletin from the. Pennsylvania station which we 
have in hand at this moment. That there is a wide 
difference in the net profit returned by two animals pro- 
ducing practically the same quantity of butter per year is 
clearly shown in the table giving the records of the year. 
For example, the records show that last year 

Marguerite produced 6,512 lbs. milk and 296 lbs. butter. 

Ramona produced 5,459 lbs. milk and 279 lbs. butter. 

By the customary standard of comparison, Marguerite 
would have been regarded as the superior animal, barring 
difference in breeding, etc., and would have commanded 
the higher price. Referring to the table showing the 
daily net profit returned by these animals, we find a re- 
markable difference not indicated or suggested by the but- 
ter and milk records, for Ramona's feed cost far less than 
Marguerite's, consequently Ramona yielded the greater 
net profit every day; and so great was this difference in 
Ramona's favor that, assuming that they remain fresh for 
300 days and taking the average net profit per day, we 
have a yearly profit for 

Marguerite of. $31.50 

Ramona of.. 61,50 

On this basis, at the end of six years, which, for this 
case, we assume to be the productive life of a cow, and dis- 
regarding the offspring, they would have made a total net 
return for 

Marguerite of. $189.00 

Ramona of 369.00 

This means that Marguerite would have yielded ten per 
cent compound interest on a purchase price of $106, while 
Ramona would have paid the same dividend on a purchase 
price of $208. 

But these two cows, withal their great difference, were 
both good cows if compared with another named Bianca — 
a cow which also gave 5556 pounds of milk and 242 
pounds of butter, but consumed so much food in doing it 
that her annual net profit was only $14.70. 

Of course these are extreme cases, but they all came in 
a herd of ten cows taken for the experiment, and may oc- 
cur in any other ten cows. When the dairyman studies 
these things over carefully it ought to make him shiver to 
think how unprofitable some of his animals may be, and 
he ought not to delay long in finding out which the poor 
ones are. 

Grange Convention at the Midwinter Fair. 

The Executive Committee of the State Grange had 
an interview with the managers of the Midwinter Fair 
on Wednesday and secured the Exposition hall for a 
Grange Convention on the 13th or 14th of April next. It 
is hoped to secure the presence of the lecturer of the 
National Grange, and to make the occasion an attractive 
and notable one. The different subordinate granges of 
the State will be called upon to contribute toward the 
general entertainment during the Convention. 

The Citric Acid Industry. 

There is constant inquiry as to the feasibility of utiliz- 
ing our waste lemon product for the manufacture of citric 
acid. The output of citric acid is known to be an impor- 
tant matter to the citrus fruit region of the Mediterranean. 
Could it not be a satisfactory source of income to Califor- 
nia ? This question, though it has been asked for years, 
has never been satisfactorily answered because there are 
certain things about the answer which can only be demon- 
strated by the enlistment of capital, the output of a prod- 
uct and the marketing of it. Hitherto the inquirers 
have either been unable or indisposed to proceed to 
investment. This winter, however, the interest seems to 
have been aroused again, and frequent appeals have been 
addressed to Prof. Hilgard for information concerning 
European methods and appliances. Such information has 
been given, and perhaps we shall hear of practical pro- 
cedure in the line of manufacturing. 

There is one thing which should be brought to the 
attention of those who are figuring on this proposition, 
and that is a caution given in the latest published volume 
of the consular reports of the Depatment of State at 
Washington. Wallace S. Jones, U. S. Consul at Rome, 
writes of a new process of making citric acid without the 
use of citrus fruits. Of course, due allowance must be 
made for roseate flush, which 1b apt to color announce- 
ments of new processes, but the following is the statement 
of Consul Jones, as published by the State Depart- 

" Dr. Carl Wehmer, a Hanoverian botanist, is said to 
have recently discovered that sugar solutions exposed to 
the action of certain microscopic fungi, the spores of which 
float in the atmosphere, become transformed into citric 
acid precisely identical with that extracted from the 

" The first experiments made to prepare artificially in 
this way citric acid are said to have given excellent 
results, 11 kilograms of sugar producing 6 kilograms of 
crystallized citric acid. 

" The new process has already been patented in several 
countries, including Italy; and, at the factory of Thann, 
the distinguished chemist Scheuren-Kestner is now carry- 
ing on experiments with a view to applying the process on 
a large scale. Everything tends to show that this new 
process will assume great development, and will make it 
possible to supply the trade with citric acid at a much 
lower cost than that actually ruling, and will in all proba- 
bility supersede in a few years the present method of pro- 
ducing lemon juice and citrate of lime." 

It is plainly hinted that the Italian industry of produc- 
ing lime juice for calico-printing and crystallized citric 
acid is placed in jeopardy by this new process. It seems 
that this juice-product in Messina alone reaches a value 
of nearly three-quarters of a million a year. We cannot 
see that this business will necessarily be routed, for it has 
not been shown that all the uses of the natural juice can 
be met by the microbe-made citric acid. Still, it will be 
well enough to have these statements in mind when con- 
templating investment in citric-acid lines in this country. 

Thx northern citrus fair will be in all its glory at the 
Midwinter Fair next week. The fine building that has 
been erected by several counties of the central and upper 
portions of the State will be the first of the exposition 
structures to be thrown open to the public with its ex- 
hibits in completed arrangement. These will comprise a 
citrus fair in the fullness of ornamental design and golden 
material which the name implies. On January 20th the 
opening exercises will be held Captain. T. B. Hall of 
Sacramento will preside at the exercises and deliver the 
opening address. Director-General de Young will speak 
for the exposition management, and Senator De Long of 
Marin county will represent the State Board of Horticul- 
ture. The oration will be delivered by Colonel John P. 
Irish, the well-known citric orator whose phrases have the 
sweetness of the orange and the sharpness of the lemon 
symmetrically compounded. The display (not the ora- 
tion) will doubtless be maintained until after the general 
opening of the Fair. 

It seems there is a decrease in the amount of visible 
wheat, which is encouraging to those who will use this 
rain to roll up an old-fashioned California surplus. The 
Liverpool Corn Trade Newt, in a recent issue, estimates 
the quantity of wheat and flour afloat for Europe on Dec. 
1, 1893, as 4,680,000 quarters, and stocks at same date in 
importing countries as 6,000,000 quarters, making together 
10,680,000 quarters; of which there would be required 3,- 
730,000 quarters to cover above deficiency, and thus reduc- 
ing the quantity afloat and in store to 6,950,000 quarters 
on Feb. 28. The reduction in stocks afloat and in store in 
three months is estimated at 29,840,000 bushels. 

January 20, 1894. 



From an Independent Standpoint. 

The Wilson tariff bill is now in full career in the House 
of Representatives, and all other public interests — even 
the everlasting Hawaiian matter — are subordinated by it. 
Last week was devoted to set speeches; and though all the 
bigger guns took a shot at the measure, nothing new or 
notable was said on either side. The speech which has at- 
tracted most attention was by Bourke Cochran of New 
York, the bright oratorical star of Tammany Hall, but it 
was chiefly sound and fury, and left no impression save 
that Mr. Cochran had made a " great effort." He ran 
over in admirable style the familiar arguments for tariff 
reform, but said nothing that has not been said with equal 
clearness a hundred times before. It was the same with 
Mr. Reed on the Protection side. He spoke with great 
force; but he said nothing not already familiar to every- 
body. The fact that these commonplace speeches are be- 
ing lauded to the skies by the partisan press is significant 
as illustrating the poverty of both parties in debating 
talent on the floor of the House. In fact, among the 
whole three hundred and more members of the House 
there is not one man of the first-class; that is to say, not 
one who has as yet shown first-class abilities. The situa- 
tion is suggestive of a tendency in our political life not 
pleasant to contemplate. 

The general impression is that the bill will go through 
the House without much trouble. The party whip has 
been cracked over the backs of the Democratic members, 
and they have been notified that any failure to support 
Mr. Wilson will mvolve political and social ostracism. 
One Democratic member from New York rose in his seat 
on Monday and offered an amendment demanded by his 
district, but he was crushed so promptly and thoroughly 
that no other Democrat is expected to be guilty of similar 
impertinence. There, will, of course, be a swarm of 
amendments from the Republican side, but the reins of 
parliamentary dicipline are well in hand and nothing will 
be allowed to break in upon the plan arranged by the 
managers for roll-call on the 29th inst., when every mem- 
ber on the majority side will be expected to vote aye. 
There are many who, like our California represen- 
tatives, are under positive obligations to vote against 
the bill; but no excuses will be heard, and whoever fails 
to toe the mark will be made to feel how serious a thing it 
is to vote contrary to the wishes of the party leaders. 

The general judgment is that all, or nearly all, the 
Democrats will vote for the bill, and that it will be sent 
to the Senate on the 29th inst. — one week from next 
Monday. And here the real fight will be. The rules of 
the Senate allow any member to speak as often and as long 
as he pleases; and since there is abundant debating ability 
on the Protection side, it will probably be an all-winter, 
if not, indeed, an all-summer contest. In consideration 
of the interests involved, of the consequences to be dreaded, 
of the temper of the country as illustrated in the late elec- 
tions, and of the able and determined objection to be met 
in the Senate, wfl still hold to the judgment formerly ex- 
pressed, that the measure will fail. We believe that the 
time has not yet come when an Administration can force 
through Congress a measure hazardous, if hot fatal, to 
public interests, at a time of public distress, in the face 
of such protests as were uttered last November in Ohio 
and elsewhere, and in open defiance of the plain dictates 
of common business sense. 

The Senators who are to make the fight for Protection 
will not be left to fight alone. California will send a man 
to help in the interest of her vineyards, another in the in- 
terest of her wool industries, another in the interest of 
her orchard industries; and so it will be with every State 
and every great interest dependent for its prosperity on 
the maintenance of the Protective principle. It will 
largely be a lobby fight in which the weight of public 
opinion will be pitted against the weight of a determined 
and desperate Administration working with the prodigious 
advantage of a party majority. It is a situation which 
should put every man on the floor of the Senate upon his 
mettle, and if it does not, incidentally, yield a product of 
eloquence and wisdom, it will be because these qualities 
are not to be found in the Senate of the United States. 
There seems, however, good ground for expectation in these 
respects when it is considered that the reform scheme will 
be supported by such men as Voorhees, Vest, Hill, Gorman, 
Morgan, Gray, Vilas, Palmer, Brice and Mills; and that it 
will be opposed by Dolph, Sherman, Hoar, Wolcott, Frye, 
Chandler, Lodge, Hawley, Allison and others. If there is 
not a Webster or a Blaine on either side, there are a sufficient 
number of men with definite convictions, with wide knowl- 
edge and with excellent skill in debate. As we have 
pointed out before, the Protectionists are much superior 
in the points of debating skill and parliamentary experi- 
ence; but the stubborn fact remains that the other fellows 
have the most votes. 

The financial tribulation among the railroads of 
the country, to which we made reference last week, 
grows more serious. There are rumors that another 
transcontinental line and at least one other promi- 
nent Eastern road are about to be given into the 
custody of the courts, at the request of their bond-holders. 
Already a very large proportion of the railroad mileage of 
the country is in this fix; and it has not escaped the notice 
of those who argue for nationalization of railroads that the 
courts contrive to manage them very easily. Experiences 
of this kind are useful in showing that the public, in its 
organized capacity, is quite as able as the railroad com- 
panies to secure the service of good administrative talent; 
and that the business can be carried on without serious 

It is clear that very rapid progress is being made toward 
the nationalization project. Five years ago a man who 
suggested it was called a fool and a crank. Three years 
ago the idea was gravely combatted as a thing in violation 
of vested rights. Now, in the case of all not personally 
interested, the vested-rights theory is abandoned, and ob- 
jections are limited to suspected difficulties in the way of 
practical administration, and the fear that it would dan- 
gerously swell the roll of Government employes. The ex- 
perience through which we are now going affords the best 
possible proof — that of actual demonstration — that the 
public is entirely capable of managing railroad property; 
and there is, it seems to us, small reason to fear that the 
railroads of the country, under public ownership, would be 
the Hource of greater political corruption than they are 
now, under private ownership. 

An interesting fact in the present situation is that those 
who most strenuously oppose the nationalization idea are 
— by forcing the roads into the hands of the courts — doing 
most to bring it about. 

Mr. Doyle, whose letter will be found in another column, 
misconceives the attitude of the Rural toward the Ha- 
waiian question. Our criticism of Mr. Cleveland in that 
connection has been based upon his assumption of powers 
pertaining, as we hold, not to the executive, but to the 
legislative branch of the Government. We claim that he 
had no right to send a " personal representative " to in- 
vestigate the revolution, but that he should have stated 
officially his view of the matter, leaving the policy and 
the method of investigation to Congress. We claim fur- 
ther that his attempt to reseat the ex-queen, besides being 
whimsical and absurd in itself, was another assumption of 
authority. We have condemned Mr. Cleveland's course, 
not only because it has seemed to us foolish and wrong 
and done in the spirit of arrogance, but because it is based 
upon a false and dangerous construction of our funda- 
mental law. 

As to Mr. Cleveland's theory about the revolution, we 
hold that as yet noihing is proven; though, as we have 
said before, it looks as if the American minister (Stevens) 
had a good deal more to do with it than he would have 
the country believe. From the beginning we have de- 
clared that the United States should be extremely cau- 
tious, and that in no event should it make advantage out 
of any wrong act of its minister; and that it should not, 
under any circumstances, take the Islands unto itself with- 
out the free consent of those elements of its population 
capable of political judgment. 

All this, of course, is quite apart from the main ques- 
tion as to whether or not the United States should annex 
the Islands if they were offered us upon terms leaving the 
determination purely and simply a matter of political 
judgment. In consideration of race differences between 
the Island population and ourselves, of the permanent en- 
largement of our naval establishment which their posses- 
sion would impose upon us, and of the difficulties of their 
administration in harmony with American political ideas, 
we are disposed to the opinion that annexation upon such 
terms as the Provisional Government proposes would not 
be a wise policy On the other hand, it seems to us 
self evident that, whether wise or otherwise, the an- 
nexation proj ect is, for various reasons, certain to succeed 
in the end; and that it would be waste of words, therefore, 
to go to much trouble in the way of protesting against it. 

Mr. Cleveland's course and its failure is a notable 
illustration of the mischief of trying to do right in 
questionable ways. If, when he came into office, the 
President had withdrawn the annexation treaty from the 
Senate by a message stating his suspicions as to the revo- 
lution; if he had read to Congress and to the country a 
lesson in honorable dealing between nations, and then left 
the whole matter to be determined in the natural way — if 
he had done these simple acts in right spirit, he would 
unquestionably have had the support of all reasonable 
people and would, in the end, have compelled a settlement 
upon fair terms; and in so doing he would have made a long 
step in the way of moral progress in international deal 

ings. But he took the course of arrogant assumption, un- 
dertook to ignore Congress and bull the matter through 
on the lines of his private theories; and, in the way of re- 
sult, he finds his purposes prejudiced and hopeless and 
himself discredited. 

Since our last writing the only development in the 
Hawaiian matter is the publication of President Dole's re- 
ply to Minister Willis' invitation to step down and out. It 
is a dignified and positive refusal to surrender, ac- 
companied by a long defense of the course of the Provis- 
ional Government, with a statement that it relies only 
upon its own might for support; that it resents all foreign 
interference, and that it will hold the fort until a change 
of Administration in the United States shall afford the op- 
portunity which it seeks for annexation. This, says 
President Dole, himself and his fellow-citizens of Hawaii 
will patiently wait for. 

Mr. John T. Doyle on the Hawaiian Question. 

To the Editor:— I have been so accustomed to look for a sensible 
and impartial treatment of public questions in your column entitled 
and written " From an Independent Standpoint," that your attitude 
on the Hawaiian business quite surprises me. As your journal must 
exercise a considerable influence on the opinion of those who read 
it, I trust to your well-known courtesy for space to present some 
considerations on the other side. 

Doubtless the islands are a desirable possession, but that does not 
dispose of the question of their annexation; they are inhabited by a 
population of about 90,000, of whom some 40,000 are of the native 
race, 13,000 Chinese, 9000 Portuguese, 2000 Americans, 1200 English, 
French and Germans, and the rest of all the varied nationalities scat- 
over the Pacific islands. Now, suppose the islands annexed, what 
sort of a government, having any claim to be republican, can we give 
them ? Assume that the 3200 English, German, French and Ameri- 
cans can properly be made voters, surely no one would propose to 
confer the suffrage on the enormous mass of Chinese, Portuguese, 
Kanakas and mongrels which compose the mass of the population. 
Besides the Chinese and Portuguese are held, unless I am misin- 
formed, to labor contracts which constitute a modified sort of slavery 
wholly at variance with the spirit of our laws. Obviously there can 
be no republican government in a community so composed, and the 
United States has no room for communities with any other sort 
of government. 

These considerations are wholly independent of the question of how 
President Dole and his associates came by the property they propose 
to transfer to us, which after all is not wholly unimportant. On this 
head it is to be observed that the United States, over half a century 
ago, formally acknowledged the independence and nationality of the 
Islanders, and by its influence led other nations to do the same. 
They were not at the time and never have become a really civilized 
people, but we undertook to elevate tbera to that rank and to treat 
them as such. They were admitted into the family of nations with us 
as their sponsors. That fact constituted an acknowledgement and 
recognition of the government of the native chiefs and a pledge that 
we would not regard them thenceforth as liable to seizure or coloniza- 
tion, either by European governments or by ourselves, for coloniza- 
tion by white men means, of course, the overthrow of the native 
government — the domination of the stronger race and the gradual ex- 
tinction of the native people. This is the history of Anglo-Saxon 
colonization passim, and against this our recognition of the native 
monarchs was a pledge. Yet here a handlul of white men on one of 
the islands— emigrants and the progeny of emigrants from our own 
country— by collusion with the American Minister and under the pro- 
tection of American bayonets, proclaim the overthrow of the native 
government and the installation of a provisional one in its place, to 
last only until terms 0/ annexation to Ike United States can be agreed 
en. To accept such a transfer would be a gross breach of public 
faith on our part, and as indecent an act as history records. All that 
is said by Minister Stevens and his defenders about the immoralities 
of the late queen, and that the revolution is favored by the best people 
in the islands, is from the purpose. The United States has never ac- 
cepted the mission of reforming the morals of kings, queens or people 
in foreign lands, and the assertions of Minister Stevens and his de- 
fenders of profligacy on the part of Queen Liliuokalani are a clear 
confession of conscious wrong on his own part. 

I knew a private case many years ago bearing considerable resem- 
blance to this Stevens-Dole transaction. A family in Canada was 
left in straitened circumstances by the death of the father who had 
been carrying on with very moderate success a manufacturing busi- 
ness. His eldest son took up the business, and struggled to keep the 
family together and their beads above water. He was a stern man, 
and at times reproached his younger brother — a spirited lad of 16 — 
that he contributed nothing to the support of the family; that he ate 
and drank and wore clothes, but earned nothing. The youngster 
was stung by these reproaches, and, under this impulse, happening 
to see an opportunity of stealing a considerable sum of money with- 
out risk of detection, yielded to the temptation, put the bank notes in 
bis pocket unobserved, and landed from the steamboat on which the 
larceny was committed before the custodian of the funds discovered 
his loss. His absence from home had been brief and unnoticed. He 
offered the stolen money to his brother with the air ot Cassius when 
he says, " I that denied thee gold will give my heart." "You say 
I contribute nothing to the support of the family and live on your 
earnings; there is money — more money than you have earned since 
father's death. Take it all; I give it to you." The brother of course 
demanded whence the treasure came and how he had obtained it, 
but the youth declined to answer questions. " What difference does 
it make to you? It is good money and / got it for you and give it to 
you freely. What more do you wantf" The brother, however, took 
the old-fashioned view of the case, then in vogue, and insisted on a 
confession of the facts and a restoration of the money to the bank 
that owned it. In view, however, that the larceny had been com- 
mitted with the intent to benefit him, and that the offender was his 
brother, be strained a point in his favor and saw bim safely over the 
river and into the State of New York. Except that the one is a ques- 
tion of a public, and the other of private, right, I see no difference 
between the two cases. The President, following the instincts of an 
honest mind, seems to have felt inclined to treat the case before him 
exactly in the same way as the Canadian did. There is no evidence 
that he contemplated the use of force to restore the old Queen with- 
out the mandate of Congress, and Judge Gresham in his letter to the 
President, which was the first paper given to the public on the sub- 
ject, puts the case interrogatively. "Does not justice require us to 

4 + 


January 20, 1894. 

restore things to the condition in which they were before the U. S. 
troops were landed?" He comes to the State Department fresh from 
the bench and naturally leans toward the application to public affairs 
of the strict rules of justice enforced by courts of equity in such cases. 

It is hardly probable that Congress will pass any measure for the 
restoration of the former government; and parhaps it is not called 
on to. The rules of strict justice applicable to private transactions 
are not always equally so to public affairs, for considerations ol the 
public welf <re are to be taken into account and frequently override all 
private rights. Louis Pbillippe in 1830 accepted the position of 
Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom at the request of his cousin, 
Charles X, and to preserve the crown for his grandson, the Duke of 
Bordeaux. He was guilty of a base perfidy when he allowed himself 
to be made ' ' King of the French." Yet had he afterward been ever 
so desirous to repair that wrong, it can hardly be claimed that he 
would have been justified in endeavoring to set the Duke of Bordeaux 
on the throne, much less that it was his duty to do so. The case of 
Napoleon III after he had been raised to the Empire by his coup 
d'etat of December, 1851, and the plebiscite that followed it is similar. 
The danger to public interests in such cases becomes a controlling 
consideration, and hence the maxim is applied, " Fitri nan debuit; 
factum valet," It was wrong to do it; but, being done, it will have 
to stand. 

I imagine President Dole and his confreres will have the Hawaiian 
difficulty severely left on their hands and be permitted to work out 
their own form of government and details of administration as well 
as they can. Tbey may play at President and Cabinet to their heart's 
content and make such rules for the game as suit themselves, only one 
thing I am sure of— the United .States will not under the present or 
any future administration permit, viz. : They must not undertake to 
sell their stolen sovereignty to any foreign nation. If they do, it is 
to be hoped that any President in cffice, be he Democrat or Repub- 
lican, will feel no hesitation in shaking them out of their holes and 
putting a summary end to their private theatricals. Yours, etc., 

Menlo Park, Jan. 4, 1894. John T. Doyle. 

California Fruit Union. 

Annual Meeting— Report of Shipments— The New 

At the annual meeting of the California Fruit Union, 
held Wednesday of this week in the rooms of the State 
Board of Horticulture, there was a large attendance of rep 
resentative fruit-growers. J. X. Anderson presided. 

The annual report for 1S93 was read, as follows: 


Mr. President and Members of the California Fruit 
Union: — You have been called together to hold the ninth 
annual meeting of stockholders of the California Fruit 

It will devolve upon you to elect a board of nine trustees, 
who will have the management of the affairs of the Union 
during the coming season, to take such steps as may be 
deemed best by them and for the interest of its stock- 

The retiring board are not able to make as good a re- 
port of results on shipments as last year financially, but 
believe we have done as well as possible, and also that its 
supporters and shippers have less to complain of than 
those who have shipped through other organizations. 
Those of the regular shippers with the Union who have 
not received fairly good money are few, considering all the 
adverse circumstances under which the fruit-growers of 
California were placed this year. And one of the worst of 
these is one that we seldom hear mentioned, and that is, 
that the season was a very late one; in fact fully a month 
on much of our early fruit, and my experience always has 
been that a late season means little money, while an early 
season means generally good money. Added to this there 
was a large crop of domestic fruit in the East, ripening at 
about the same time as our own, and last bat not least, the 
financial situation, not only in our own country but all over 
the world, was such that purchases were restricted, whether 
for canning, preserving or from the fruit stand; and when 
we take all this into consideration, it is almost a wonder 
that we have done as well as we have for the season. We 
have received as payment for stock the sum of $15,578, and 
have paid back to stockholders in rebates and dividends 
more than 5105,000, and have afforded many small ship- 
pers the opportunity of shipping and paying freight at car- 
load rates, which would never have been done had not the 
California Fruit Union been in existence; and the trustees 
can look back with much gratification at the good results 
that have been accomplished by this work. There are 
many local organizations that have been formed on a sound 
and safe basis, that have resulted in much good to the 
growers in their respective localities, in giving them better 
facilities for shipping, and educating them in regard to 
picking, packing, etc., which are essential and often ex- 
pensive experiments. Our books for the season just past 
show that Union agents have received 2404 carloads, of 
which number 1579 have been shipped in refrigerators con- 
taining 12 tons or more each, 779 ventilated cars by freight, 
leaving only about 46 that were shipped by passenger 
train. These figures do not include a large number shipped 
by members of the Union to points where we have no 
agents, and of which we have kept no record, but which 
added to the others would make about 3000 cars of ten 
tons each. 

The number of stockholders has been increased by eight 
new subscribers, there being now issued and fully paid up 
14,610 shares. The number of shippers increased from 
544 last year to 895 for 1893. The shipments were made 
from some 42 different shipping points, and compare with 
previous years as per list below : 


189S. 1892. 1891. 1890. 1889. 1888. 

Vacavtlle _ 847 820 278 254 171 168 

Loom Is. 19 6 22 6 

Newcastle 141 142 83 138 38 33 

Ban Francisco 2 

Ban Jose. 874 266 804 290 20T. 97 

Winters 125 119 102 109 28 96 

Sacramento _.. 406 314 294 196 278 346 

Santa Barbara. - 





Egger's Switch 

Ix>6 Palmos 1 

Marysvllle 88 

Mullen s Switch 

nhico 20 

Shellville 10 

SuiMin 46 

Fresno 30 

Davisville 23 

Martinez 20 

Fowler 18 

Tulare 41 

San Lorenzo 80 

Florin 73 

Colfax 35 

Malaga 7 

Natoma 68 

Elk Grove 

Bakersfield 59 

Sonoma 30 

Wrights 80 . 

Haywards 27 


Manlove's Switch 

Pleasanton 7 



Penryn 83 



Santa Kosa 


Concord 15 

Hem me 4 

Armona 102 

Biggs 86 


Hookston. 7 

Grid'ey IS 


Hollister 2 

Selma 5 

Han ford 6 

Yuba City 



Soqnel 1 

Kl Verano 6 

Folsom S 

San L^andro 7 

Walnut Creek 13 

Totals 2,404 

















1,387 1,373 




Chicago 1,040 

Omaha 124 

New York 408 

Boston 116 

Minneapolis 160 

Denver 67 

Cleveland 29 

St. Paul 227 

Kansas City 88 



Philadelphia 37 

St. Louis 66 

Pittsburg 15 

New Orleans 63 

Milwaukee 19 

Louisville 10 

Totals 2,404 



The duplicate accounts of sales received so far cover 
1,745,090 packages of fruit sold for $2,046,404 95, out of 
which was deducted $972,284 43 for freight and refrigerator 
service, $155,213 69 for cartage and commission, a total of 
$1,127,498.13, leaving $918,90682 as net money received 
by the shippers. These figures of freight do not include 
all the money paid by shippers, for on much of this fruit 
there had already been paid local charges, either before or 
after being loaded, and before reaching common points of 
shipment; hence from the net money must be taken charges 
for local freight, boxing, packing, paper and loading, ex- 
penses which will reduce the net money considerably, and 
show that the railroads and refrigerator companies have 
made a much larger profit than the shipper, and be good 
and convincing evidence to them that they should assist us 
in getting a more reliable and cheaper service. 

The average gross sale per package in 1893 was $1. 17, 
against $1 54 in 1892. The average gross charges in 1893 
were 65 cents, against 68 cents in 1892. The reduction is 
due to the large amount of cherries shipped in 1893, and 
which only weigh ten pounds or a little more per box. The 
average freight per package was 55 7 cents, against 56 cents 
in 1892. In making these figures we have called each 
package a unit, whether a ten-pound cherry box, a peach 
box, or double crate of grapes, or box of pears. The cherry 
shipments have been very heavy, and, while some paid 
well, many of them made bad results, and in those cases 
most of them can be traced to poor service by the trans- 
portation companies. In many cases where passenger ser- 
vice was charged and paid for, we received even slow 
freight service. 

The shipment of apricots was quite heavy from the early 
sections, but results generally poor. Pears, peaches and 
plums have been shipped in large quantities, and, except 
where too long in transit, have generally arrived In fair to 
good condition, and sold for fairly good money, except in a 
few Instances when markets were badly glutted with do- 
mestic and other California fruit. 

We have a large amount of late pears unsold; and while 
the apple crop is short, the pears are reported as moving 

Grape shipments have been very heavy this year, far in 
excess of any previous year. During the early part of the 
season, prices realized were very good, while the last ship- 
ments made generally poor results, as they met heavy com- 
petition from domestic grapes East, and Eastern growers 
even tried the experiment of shipping three cars (that I 
know of) to the Pacific coast, which resulted like some of 
ours to the East, in a balance on the wrong side of the 
ledger. I cannot give you anything definite in regard to 
the service which transportation companies will give us for 
another year, but I hear there is an effort being made to 
give us a schedule train to carry ventilated fruit cars 
through on a quick and reliable time, which all fruit men 
should unite in trying to secure. 

Out of the rebates sent the Union, we have paid all ex- 
penses, such as telegraphing, telephoning, salaries, sta- 
tionery and general expenses, and a stock dividend of six 
per cent was declared on full paid stock, and a sum of $200 
was placed to the credit of the reserved fund; also a rebate 
of one-half of one per cent was declared to members of the 
Union on gross sales of their shioments. 

The financial condition of the Union is clearly shown by 
the annual balance sheet made up to January 16th, and 
shows as follows: 



Profit and Loss $12,449 81 Stock Account 

Office Expense 1,746 06;5f5,» te S^*~2 

_ , i . ' „ „. Dividend No. 5 

Telegraph Account 2 . 368 81 Rebate No. is 

Telephone Account 443 15 Eastern Agents 21 

Traveling Expense Acc't.. 895 61 Reserved Fund..... 

T .„„ Freight and I oading 

laxes 16 75 Dividend No. 3 

Nat. Bank D.O.Mills & Co. 11,085 28| Dividend No. 6 

Salary Account 6,166 00 1 ^end 5° •* 

™„ i Dividend No. 1 

Office Fixtures 800 . 5 K , ,,„,,. No. 4 

Cash on hand 2,271 24 Dividend Htt"al!IL..,lT. 

573 00 
169 90 
218 85 
41 80 
306 19 
160 32 
189 66 
40 88 
868 94 
108 SO 
35 68 
6 08 
38 46 

$38,286 96^ 838,286 96 

And in closing our report, we would ask the fruit-growers 
in the different localities to form local organizations, which 
are beneficial in more ways than one, co-operate with the 
California Fruit Union and work with it as the best means 
of disposing of certainly a portion of your product, as the 
essence of the whole subject is Concentration and Control, 
which prevents some markets being overstocked, while 
others have not as much as could be sold at a profit. 


The following directors were unanimously elected for the 
ensuing year: L. W. Buck, Vacaville; H. Meeks, San 
Lorenzo; W. Treat, San Francisco; R. C. Kells, Yuba Citv; 
J. C. Boggs, Newcastle; W. B. Parker, Vacaville; J. Z. 
Anderson, San Jose; A. Block, Santa Clara; and D. Reese, 

The resolutions of the Los Angeles Convention, calling 
for a reduction in rail rates on fruit to the East, were 

President Anderson, Secretary Buck and A. T. Hatch 
were appointed a committee to confer with the railroad 
officials with reference to securing cheaper, better and 
more reliable service for the coming season. 

Under the head of " the good of the order," a long dis- 
cussion ensued over the so-called closed auction rooms at 
Chicago. Mr. Hatch stood out as the one prominent fruit- 
grower who opposed the Adams-Lewis house, while 
Messrs. Anderson, Buck, McKevitt, Block and others 
testified that, after thorough examination of its methods, 
they were convinced it was better than commission men 
or the open auction house. The meeting learned much of 
the details of the auction business, which information was 
listened to with marked interest. 

The following communication was received from Bi M. 
Lelong, Secretary of the State Board of Horticulture : 

" I have just received a communication from Senator 
Stephen M. White, in which he says: 

I think it would be a good idea to forward a number of boxes of 
selected raisins to this city, so that when the bill comes up in the 
Senate I may have something to show the members of the committee, 
The same suggestion will apply to prunes, regarding which a reduc- 
tion is also threatened. Of course I will do my best to help you out. 

" I hope that you will be able to send Senator White 
several boxes of prunes, which will aid him and the other 
members in inducing the committee to retain the present 
tariff on prunes. The raisins have already been sent." 

At a meeting of the new board of directors the officers of 
last year were re-elected. 

Fruit Exchange Meeting. 

The directors of the newly organized State Fruit Ex- 
change held their first meeting in this city on Tuesday and 
Wednesday of this week. Those present were: Philo 
Hersey, Santa Clara; E. A. Wheeler, Santa Clara; Dr. 
W. J. Dobbins, Vacaville; C C. Thompson, Pasadena; 
B. F. Walton, Yuba; B. F. Allen, Chico; D. T. Fowler, 
Fresno; E. W. Maslin, Placer; John Marklev, San Fran- 
cisco; F. N. Woods, San Francisco; and E. F. Adams, 
secretary. o 

Much discussion prevailed, but the following articles 
were finally adopted as representing the objects for which 
the exchange is founded. 

To receive, store and market for account of its owners all fruit and 
other food products intrusted to the corporation for that purpose on 
such terms as the by-laws shall prescribe; to promote the interests of 
the producers of fruit and other food products of California, especially 
by collecting and disseminating information and statistics bearing on 
the preparation and marketing of said products; establishing uni- 
formity in methods of manipulating, grading and packing, and ex- 
tending and developing markets; to borrow money, loan and make 
advances of the same upon products in possession or under the con- 
trol of the corporation, and to promote the formation of local co- 
operative associations affiliating with this corporation and to assist in 
establishing their credit; to purchase and sell all supplies used in 
raising, preparing and marketing said fruit and food products; to 
lease, purchase or otherwise obtain real or personal property neces- 
sary for the transaction of the business of the corporation, and to sell 
or exchange the same. 

The name of the association was selected as the " Cali- 
fornia Fruit Exchange." The capital stock will be $ioo,- 
ooo, divided into 20,000 shares of $5 each. 

No positive action was taken in the matter of officers. 
Col. Hersey and Mr. Walton were in turn urged to take 
the presidency, but neither saw his way clear to give to the 
work the time and effort essential to it. There will be an- 
other meeting on the 30th Inst., when it is expected to fill 
the offices and put the Exchange fairly upon its feet. 

Southern California Farmers' Institute. 

The Southern California Farmers' Institute was in ses- 
sion last week at Whittter, Los Angeles county. The elec- 
tion of officers for the ensuing year resulted in the election 
of the following : C. C. Thompson of Pasadena, president ; 
I. H. Cammack of Whlttier, vice-president ; Mr. Krucke- 
berg, secretary and treasurer. 

Sierra Madre was chosen as the next place of meeting. 
Messrs. Chapman, Andrews and Crisp were selected as a 
committee of arrangements and programme. Papers were 
read at the session on fruit shipping and packing by H. W. 
Holabird of Claremont ; " Profitable Onion and Asparagus 
Gardens," by Mr. Murdock of Westminster; " Laws of 
Competition and Trade," by Lionel A. Sheldon of Pasa- 
dena ; and "Experimental Station Work," by J . W. Mills. 
The session closed with a ride In carriages through Whit- 
tier and East Whittier, and the inspection of the Whittier 
State School. 

January 20, 1894. 




Thoughts About the Japan Plums. 

So much interest is taken in the growth of recently Intro- 
duced varieties of plums from Japan, and In the cross- 
bred seedlings produced by Mr. Luther Burbank, of Santa 
Rosa, that reflections upon them from a broad porno- 
logical point of view will be entertaining reading to our 
growers. These varieties are also attracting much atten- 
tion at the East, and are proving to be valuable there. At 
a recent horticultural meeting in Iowa, a paper was read 
by Dr. A. B. Dennis, of Cedar Rapids, from which we 
shall publish leading extracts, as follows : 

No fruit of recent introduction is meeting the expecta- 
tions of (ruit-growers throughout the entire country as well 
as these oriental plums. Their high quality, size of fruit, 
smallness of pit, earliness in bearing, great productiveness, 
handsome color, freedom from insect pests, loDg keeping 
and shipping qualities are just the points to recommend 
them as fit companions for our finest natives, and I predict 
that the cross bred seedlings of these orientals and our 
natives will in the near future make Iowa one of the best 
plum States east of the Rocky Mountain region; but this 
will not be done without hard labor and expensive biolog 
ical work — by the combination of the life forces of these 
two hardy fruits they must come through the realm of cross- 
fertilization. We are standing face to face with a new and 
more scientific pomology than the most profound student 
can fully realize. We have taken but few steps in the 
direction of permanent success in the higher development 
of plum culture in our State. We must become practical 
students of the conditions that surround us, and use our 
native fruits as a basic structure to build on, and gain by 
practical demonstrations a knowledge how to combine 
the life forces of our native plants with those of foreign 
blood that possess all those inherent qualities that ours 
lack, and are so closely allied that links can be found to 
make a complete chain and fill the gap that now exists 
between our native fruits and foreign introductions. 

These Japanese plums on my ground have been a sur- 
prise to me so far, especially their power to endure a low 
temperature, having stood 26" below zero without a tinge 
of frost and remain healthy to the terminal bud. The 
past season the Burbank and Ogon bore a heavy crop lor 
such young trees, and the same trees that bore so heavily 
this year are extremely full of fruit buds for the coming 
crop next year. This indicates great productiveness, and 
these plums bid fair to be heavy annual bearers. Just why 
these fruits from their far-off island home in the Pacific 
ocean, with a mild and genial climate, should have such 
powers of endurance in our cold continental climate, 1000 
miles from the ocean influence that they have been sur- 
rounded with, has been a great puzzle to me. By watching 
them side by side with our hardy natives In the past four 
years and witnessing their splendid behavior, I have been 
forced to the conclusion that there was a close relationship 
between our natives and those Japanese introductions, and 
that in the preglacial climate they had a common origin in 
North America in the region of Greenland and Alaska, 
when that section of the globe was blessed with a climate 
more temperate even than ours; or it may be possible that 
in the great prehistoric past, geological convulsions de- 
stroyed their former continental home in the Pacific ocean, 
which at that time may have been connected with North 
America in the far Northwest. Their habits and growth 
are so much more in harmony with our natives than those 
from Europe that I am quite sure at one time ancient 
America and Japan were closely related, and either the an- 
cient Japan climate was more in harmony with our present 
diversified climate or these plums and our natives had a 
common origin in North America. Such hardy chicasas 
as Golden Beauty, Honey Drop, Chas. Downing, Col. 
Wilder and Wild Goose, also of the Miner group like 
Miner, Hamner and Rockfort, are connecting links that 
chain our native plums to some of these oriental sorts like 
Satsuma, Burbank, Yellow Japan, Ogon, etc. Points of 
similarity noted are early shedding of leaves and maturity 
of wood early in the fall like our natives; multiple of leaf 
bud like native sorts named above; also color and rough 
ness of bark and fibrous condition of the inside skin of 
fruit. There are doubtless many more points of resem 
blance that will reveal themselves as we more closely study 
and compare them with our natives. However, we must 
not expect too close a resemblance, for they have been 
separated for thousands of years, and the conditions which 
have surrounded them were so radically different that it 
has almost blotted out their connection. When we realize 
that these orientals became separated from our natives and 
were surrounded with a genial climate, and show the it. flu 
ence of a high civilization for unknown ages, while our 
natives had to struggle against a relentless warfare of ele- 
ments in climate, savage beasts, wild and destructive races 
and tribes of mankind, and left entirely to natute's law, 
" the survival of the fittest," in the great struggle for exis- 
tence, the only wonder is, it seems to me, that, under such 
different conditions and treatment for ages, we can find 
trace of their origin and relationship. I have expressed 
my views to some of our pomologists and will give brief 
extracts from a few of their letters bearing on the subject 
P. J. Berckmans of Augusta, Ga., says: " Your Ideas of 
a connecting link of the flora of Japan with that of the 
North American continent coincides with what my dear old 
friend, the late Prof. Asa Gray, once told me — that he 
found a wonderful similarity between some of the fruits of 
the United States and their congeners from Japan, which 
made the study of the latter so very interesting to him 
You modestly term yours a wild idea. Permit me to say it 
is far from such, and really in your letter you but substan 
tiate facts." 

Prof. Bailey of Cornell University, New York, says: " I 
am much interested in your letter upon the Japanese plums 

The fruits of Japan and the United States are really very 
closely related. The two countries were once connected at 
the northwest, and the flora of both originated far north, 
and was driven southward by changes in external condi- 
conditions." Prof. G. Goodale of Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., says: "You will find in the article 'Se- 
quoia ' in Dr. Asa Gray's ' Darwinia 1 an account of his 
views in regard to the relation existing between the vegeta- 
tion of Japan and parts of the United States. It is very 
interesting to know that you have independently, by your 
tudy of plums, arrived at the same conclusions as to many 
points." W. A. Taylor, assistant pomologist U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, says: "In regard to the Japan 
fruits of which you write, I am glad to receive your report 
concerning them. Your conclusion that they must have 
been native In a more severe climate than that of Japan is 
no doubt a correct one." Prof. G. S. Sargent, who has de- 
voted much time to the investigation of Japan trees, and 
who spent the summer in Japan this year, states that he 
finds no wild representative of the species to which the 
cultivated Japanese plums belong. J. L. Normand of 
Marksville, La., writes: " I find that the Japanese plums 
have a wide geographical adaptation in the United States, 
most of them will succeed from the Great Lakes to the 
Gulf coast, and as to their relationship with our native 
sorts, the more I study them the more I find that 
they sprung from the same race of plums." The flora 
of Japan and the United States has a close resemblance in 
many of our wild plants. Prof. C. C. Georgeson says that 
'the common wild fox grapes of this country, Vitis Lu- 
brasca, grows wild in Japan." These plants are silent wit- 
nesses which unmistakably prove that this continent was 
once connected by land with Asia. The American Indian 
with his high cheek bones and Mongolian features is strong 
evidence that he is of Asiatic origin. Here we have better 
proof than the ancient legend of the " lost Atlantis " that 
North America was once connected by land with Asia. In 
closing, permit me to say, if my conclusions on the affinity 
of these fine Japanese plums and our native plums are true, 
opens up a new era in plum culture; for here we have 
introduced a fine fruit that doubtless is related to some of 
our hardy chicasas and other natives. In their large size 
and fine qualities lies condensed improvement brought 
about by the scientific combination of life's forces of these 
oriental plums, so really to the Japanese horticulturists we 
owe much, for we at once can avail ourselves of these won- 
derful fruits it has taken perhaps thousands of years for 
them to develop, while our natives were left for nature to 
Improve them under the law of " the survival of the fittest." 
By crossbreeding our natives with these fine orientals, we 
gain these long ages of improvenent made by the Japanese 
horticulturists. Already much has been done by J. L. Nor- 
mand, Marksville, La., who has produced hundreds of new 
seedlings, which are crossed with our natives, and many of 
them are said to be fine. I look forward for great results 
on my grounds with these crossbred seedlings. There is 
yet a wide realm lying between the American and Japan 
flora, a field almost entirely unexplored. 

pound of Paris green to 200 gallons of water. Another 
remedy found efficacious is to trap the worm as it descends 
from the tree by means of burlap sacks around the trunk, 
destroying chrysalis as they are found in the sacks. 

"The pernicious scale is very abundant, and fastens It- 
self upon the fruit, trunk and leaves of nearly all deciduous 
fruits. The scale of the female is gray, and of the male 
black. It is very common in the mountain districts. The 
winter remedy given is to spray with 40 pounds of un- 
slacked lime, 20 pounds of sulphur and 15 pounds of salt. 
Take 10 pounds of the lime, 20 of sulphur and 20 gallons 
of water and boil till the sulphur is dissolved. Next, place 
in a cask 30 pounds of lime, pouring over it enough hot 
water to thoroughly slack it, and, while it is boiling, add 
the 15 pounds of salt. Then add to the lime and sulphur 
and cook for half an hour longer, when the necessary water 
to make 60 gallons should be added. 

" The woolly aphis is especially injurious to the apple 
trees and appears on the trunks and branches of the trees. 
It also at times attacks the roots. When on the branches, 
the best remedy is to brush with kerosene emulsion or rosin 
solution or spray. When in the roots, dress liberally with 
wood ashes or gas lime, so that it will not come in contact 
with the trees. 

" The above are the three principal parasites and the best 
remedies to be applied. To be forewarned is to be fore- 
armed, and growers must, for their own good and the good 
of others, clean up their orchards. The inspectors, now 
out, will insist upon this. For their benefit alone is this 
article published. By taking ordinary precautions, they 
may save themselves much loss and put on the market 
only clean, healthy fruit." 

Old Apple Orchards 

In Butte County They Will Have to Be Cleaned Up. 

Mr. Eben Boalt, the very active and vigilant Horticul- 
tural Commissioner of Butte county, informs the Oroville 
Mercury that the Commission will soon take measures to 
inspect and compel the apple orchardists, large and small, 
in the mountains to clean up their trees and prevent the 
placing on the market of infected fruit. 

It might as well be plainly stated that there are but few 
apple orchards in this county, says the Mercury, that are 
not affected with insect pests or scale of some kind. The 
mountain districts of this county grow fine apples — in fact, 
as good fruit as can be produced anywhere — but many of 
the orchards have become infected. This has not happened 
through anything, in the majority of cases, but ignorance. 
But the markets all over the State have become alarmed at 
the prevalence of disease in the orchards, and are taking 
active measures to stamp it out. To that end all importa- 
tions of apples into the valley markets are now being rapidly 
examined, and seizures of fruit made by local inspectors. 
Such action, while it is highly necessary as a measure ol 
protection to orchardists whose trees are clean, will work a 
hardship upon many mountain growers who depend largely 
upon the sales from their apple trees for their income. 

Mr. Boalt informs us that the orchards and their prod- 
ucts thereof will from now on be closely watched; and, no 
matter upon whom it may fall, all infected fruit will be con- 
demned. Consequently, growers should take care that none 
but clean fruit is sent to the market if they wish to prevent 
its being destroyed. As above stated, the most of these 
trees have become diseased through carelessness and ig- 
norance. To the end that the orchardists may become ac- 
quainted with the nature of the parasite affecting their trees, 
and the proper remedies to apply thereto, the following ex 
tracts are made from the best authorities on the subject: 

" The three most common parasites found in the apple 
orchards of this and adjoining counties are the codlin moth, 
the woolly aphis and the pernicious scale. 

" The codlin moth is perhaps the most common. The 
early brood of moths appear about the time of the opening 
of the apple blossoms, when the eggs are deposited in the 
calyx of the fruit just as it is forming. When the egg 
hatches, the tiny worm eats its way through the apple to 
the core. When it approaches maturity, it eats its way 
through the side of the apple, leaving the fruit while it is 
still on the trees. The later brood attacks the later pears 
and apples, and Its habits are similar to the first. The 
most effective remedy for the first brood is to spray once 
with one pound of Paris green to 180 gallons of water, when 
just ont of bloom; and, for the latter brood, spray twice, 
first application as above; second application, with one 

New Rules for Handling Oranges. 

The Riverside Fruit Exchange has formulated the fol' 
lowing rules for the subsidiary county associations: 
1st. No picking to be done by the box or car rate. 
2d. No sacks of any kind shall be used by pickers. 
3d. Suitable buckets or baskets to hold not over half an 
orange-box shall be provided. If baskets with rough bot- 
toms, thev shall be lined to prevent bruising fruit. 
4th. The fruit shall be clipped close. 
5th. All fruit shall be carried from the orchard to the 
several packing-houses on wagons furnished with springs 
to prevent pounding the fruit in transit; or, if not possible 
to get springs, to use props between the layers. 

6th. The boxes shall not be filled so that the fruit be 
pressed by another box placed on top. 

7th. The fruit shall remain in the packing-house not 
less than three days before grading and packing. 

8th. The pressman shall use all possible diligence to 
bring the press down firmly at one stroke gradually to pre- 
vent breaking of cells. 

9th. Any employe who refuses or neglects to handle the 
fruit as herein suggested, and as directed by the foreman 
n charge, shall be discharged; and when so discharged, 
the manager shall at once notify every association so that 
he cannot be employed to the detriment of other parties. 

10th. That when any individual or firm refuses or neg- 
lects to handle his fruit as above outlined, the association 
handling said fruit shall notify said individuals that he can- 
not be a partaker of the benefits of the private plan, but 
his fruit will be shipped by itself for his account and he 
must individually bear the loss entailed by bad handling. 

nth. That no ladder or picking apparatus be trans- 
ferred from one orchard to another, and that all possible 
caution be taken to prevent the spread of scale. 

Fruit Tree Inspection. 

We find in the Oroville Register an interesting report of 
a local fruit-growers' meeting, at which an hour or more 
was taken up in discussing the necessity of more thorough 
inspection for fruit trees. Eben Boalt, R. C. Kells and G. 
M. Gray ably presented the subject, and if the tax-payers 
of the county could have listened to their arguments we are 
convinced they would unanimously have urged the board 
of supervisors to grant a greater allowance for the purpose 
of more thoroughly inspecting the trees that are being 
grown in the county and those that are being brought here 
for planting. 

Last year the board did not limit the commissioners 
closely and in consequence the bills were larger than the 
board of supervisors deemed necessary. This year, or 
some time during the past six months, the board cut down 
the allowance so that the total amount paid for fruit inspec- 
tion should not exceed $50 per month. Messrs. Gray and 
Boalt, members of the Butte county commissioners, gave 
many instances of the value of this inspection and snowed 
the necessity of larger expenditures, while Mr. R. C. Kells 
of Sutter county gave his experience as a commissioner in 
Sutter as a further evidence in this matter. In conse- 
quence of this showing made at this meeting a committee 
of five, consisting of G. W. Thresher, Judge C. F. Lott, S. 
W. Ross, P. R. Persons and R. C. Grubbs, was appointed 
to go before the board and ask that a larger sum be granted 
so that the commissioners and Inspectors might do their 
work in a thorough and effectual manner. 

Mr. Boalt showed that recently this and the adjoining 
counties had been saved from having a large number of 
diseased peach, plum, prune and other fruit trees planted 
through the active agency of the horticultural commission- 
ers. These trees were infested with peach root borers and 
if the diseased trees had been set out here, in a few years 
this disease would have spread widely among our orchards. 
He found the trees on sale, had quarantined them and the 
infested roots had been submitted to the leading experts of 
the State, who pronounced the trees infested ones, and 
thousands of them had been burned. Mr. Kells said the 
reason why our orchards were being infested with diseases 
was because we had made money out of fruit and this had 
led to a rapid extension of fruit planting. Our people are 



January 20, 1894. 

not content to grow their own trees, but had sent for thou- 
sands of trees to Eastern growers, and thus infested trees 
had been brought here. We are now fighting to keep 
down the disease and to have good clean trees. This can 
be done if the trees and orchards are inspected and the 
diseased ones cleaned. The law fully provides for this, but 
it requires some money and this the board of supervisors 
ought to grant. Mr. Boalt gave some figures of Interest 
and claimed that the fruit-growers had a right to ask for 
this protection. 

In 1893 the fruit-growers of Butte were assessed on 
growing trees $186,000; the taxes amounted to $2617. Mr. 
Smith, the deputy assessor, said there was at least $50,000 
more that had been assessed upon fruit trees, but that it 
could not be segregated from the amount assessed upon 
other property. 

Mr. Boalt called attention to the fact that in 1887 the 
land he now owned at Palermo was only taxed for $2.50 
per acre. Now this land was assessed for $40 per acre 
and when planted to citrus fruits, one-year-old trees 
for $20 an acre, two-year-old trees for $40 an acre, 
three-year-old trees for $60 an acre, four-vear-old 
trees for $80 an acre, and five-year-old trees for $100 
acre. He claimed that fruit-growers had a right to ask or 
even demand that some of this money should be used 
protect the horticultural Interests. He called attention to 
the fact that before Palermo became a fruit colony the total 
taxes upon the land was $35,000 for 7000 acres, and that 
only six or seven poll taxes were collected. Now the as 
sessment is $350,000 and between 300 and 400 poll taxes 
are collected. 

Mr. G. M. Gray spoke of our rising olive industry and 
alluded to the remarkable change in the appearance of the 
land just opposite Oroville from what it was ten years ago 
He said the olive trees needed care and attention lest in 
fested and diseased trees be brought here and thus the in 
dustry be crippled, If not killed. 

Hl u,T ffiAr^KETING. 


Orchard Notes. 

Major C. J. Berry, Horticultural Commissioner of Tulare 
county, makes the following statements for the benefit 
his district. They may profitably be applied generally: 

Trees newly planted that are not yet in leaf do not re 
quire any great amount of water. In fact, too much water 
at such a time is a detriment to trees. Water packs the 
ground closely and excludes the air, and a tree's roots need 
some air as well as its branches. Trees can die of suffoca- 
tion as well as individuals, and packing the earth so tightly 
that it cannot contain air is sure to destroy a tree. Obser- 
vation has shown the writer that deaths among trees planted 
in alkali soil are largely caused by the alkali soils packing 
so closely that they exclude the air. If you mix clean, 
short straw and gypsum freely with the alkali soil that you 
plant the tree in, and then place a small tin or wooden 
shield about the tree at the surface and two or three inches 
below it, filling same with gypsum, you will meet with satis- 
factory success where heretofore you've experienced total 

New or virgin soils are not the best to plant in orchards 
The soil worked one or more years at first in grain crops 
will produce a better tree growth. 

Pinching the terminal bud on your prune trees after 
starting and growing 20 inches in the spring is an excellent 
plan for the trees. It branches the tree and prevents ex- 
cessive waste of energy of same in growing one straight 
limb 10 or 12 feet high that has to be pruned off the next 
winter. This applies only to yearling trees. I do not 
prune the prune trees after the first year. 

If you will have the leather trace of the horse that walks 
next to your tree to lap over the end of the singletree and 
fasten on the back side of it, you will not bark your trees, 
and will save yourself a great deal of annoyance. Once a 
tree is skinned, the bark never grows on again without as- 
sistance. It can be helped to grow on again by wrapping 
up in fresh cow dung. 

If trees, by heavy loads of fruit or strong winds, split 
down, put them together again as they were, bolting them 
through and through, and then wrap their trunks where the 
split is in a plaster of fresh cow dung. You will neither 
lose your tree nor the fruit. 

Nearly every orchard in our county contains one or more 
spots of strong alkali soil that will cause the death or pro 
duce very stunted growth of any variety of fruit trees 
planted in it. Such spots are an eyesore to the orchardist, 
and there has been a great deal of time and money spent 
on them without any very satisfactory results. 

If the question is asked the average horticulturist, "What 
kind of trees shall I plant in such soil ? " he will answer, 
"Pear trees." "What kind of pear trees?" " Bartlett." 

The writer knows by actual test and experience that the 
Bartlett pear will not grow or produce satisfactorily in alkali 
soils, but there are other good varieties of pears that will. 
One of the best varieties is Beurre Clairgeau first, and 
Beurre Hardy second. 

In closely examining the effects of alkali soli at our Ex- 
perimental Station, I found there are other varieties of 
pears that will do well in alkali soil, even better than those 
mentioned; but they are not popular thus far in our State. 
For the benefit of our orchardists I will name them: Onon- 
daga does veryv/tW in strong alkali; Keiffer and Lecompte 
seem to be all right. The last two are pretty good pears 
for market. 

This article gives my personal experience with the Bart- 
lett and Beurre Clairgeau. I do not advise the planting of 
Bartlett pears in alkali soils. 

I found one excellent way to use our alkali soils in tree 
planting. Mix freely with soil that you put about your 
tree's roots, gypsum and clean, short straw, and about the 
body of your tree, at the surface of the ground, place a 
piece of tin, " a fruit can with the bottom and top out," 
and fill that space between the tin and the tree with gyp- 
sum. Let the tin extend down in the ground two or three 
inches. The results to you In such spots will be satisfac- 

A County Plan of Organization for Fruit-Selling 

The Placer county fruit men have for some time had 
under discussion a county organization for fruit-selling. A 
plan was submitted in December by P. W. Butler, which 
is now in the hands of the committee on organization. The 
following plan has just been submitted by J. Parker Whit- 
ney, president of the county society: 

The formation of a corporation under the laws of the 
State of California, to be known as the Placer County 
Fruit Exchange. Capital stock, 50,000 shares, at a par 
value of $1 each, $50,000. (The assumed basis of capital 
of $56,000 does not imply the necessity of a cash committal 
of that amount, but so set for possible future convenience, 
and admissible under the State incorporating laws.) To 
be incorporated under a liberal charter, with the right to 
buy and sell fruit or other articles, and to do all things 
which men may legally do in connection with the business 
proposed. To be governed by a code of by-laws, which 
may be drawn up, applicable to the business. 

To be governed by a board of not more than five direc- 
tors, who shall appoint a president, secretary and treasurer, 
and such other officers or managers as may be considered 
desirable. Said directors to be the most earnest, practical 
and responsible fruit-growers in the community, who must 
have the complete control of the company's management, 
and who must give, especially during the first year's busi- 
ness, their close attention, and who must be expected to 
give more attention and exertions than can be repaid for 
by any salary. The governing board of directors, as well 
as the secretary and treasurer, to be salaried, but at the 
most moderate rates compatible with a proper sense of 

The headquarters of the company to be at such town on 
the railroad in the county as may be agreed upon. 

The company not to undertake the purchase at present 
or the erection of buildings, but negotiate or arrange with 
some experienced house which may now be in the fruit- 
drying business, and which may be considered entirely 
truitworthy, and which shall give over its own business 
entirely for the company's, for a fixed sum for the year 
1894. The managing house to do all the business of the 
company in the county, subject to the direction on estab 
lished rules of the board of directors of the company. The 
house to buy from the manufacturers and dealers all the 
boxes and materials required and distribute them among 
the customers of the company at a general price which 
may be determined upon. The managing house to pack, 
ship and sell the products of the growers exclusively and 
keep a clear and explicit account of all of the affairs of the 

The company to secure or not, as It may decide, the 
services of a first-class experienced fruit man in the East 
to aid in the distribution of the county fruits, or establish 
relations with some reputable Eastern house, as it may 
deem best, to do the selling business of the company. 
(This agent must necessarily be most experienced and 
trustworthy, and may be hired during the fruit season 
solely for the company, or to act in connection with an- 
other, or other county organizations which do not conflict 
with those of Placer county.) 

The managing house in the county to be prepared to 
pack the fruit for moderate or other producers, as may be 
required, and shall, besides attending to the furnishing of 
supplies and the forwarding of fruit, be authorized, subject 
to such conditions as may be agreed upon, to sell the com- 
pany's fruits at its station or elsewhere in the county, to 
houses already established or otherwise, as may be de- 
termined upon. 

This, in brief, is the outline of the organization I would 
suggest, subject to such improvement as you may think 
proper, but the outline is quite Inadequate in itself to effect 
the purposes required. The outline is but the frame, and 
the business must be animated by an earnest, patient and 
painstaking intelligence, upon which its success will de 

The company will require the services of intelligent men 
in the community who will give their time to a patient and 
comprehensive circulation among the fruit-growers in the 
county to enlist their interest and co-operation in the busi 

It may be expected that there will be more or less oppo 
sltion from other fruit-buying houses. This will be found 
a serious obstacle, and must not be underestimated, neither 
the objections of other parties or the dissatisfaction which 
may be expected to arise from ignorance, natural ob- 
stinacy, doublings and unfair reflections, which only a con- 
tinuous and successful management can overcome. The 
whole programme of the company must be so worked out 
and clarified that it can be explained and understood by all 
that the efforts of the company are In the interests of the 
fruit-growers, completely co-operative, and not for the in- 
terests or advancements of others. 

It Is advisable that all fruit-growers shall be stockholders 
in the company. It is a question of how much, or to what 
extent, one must or may be interested. I do not know but 
what, in the view that it would be quite impossible at this 
time to furnish an adequate cash capital from stockholders 
for the company to carry on its business without outside 
assistance, it would be as well for the amount of stock 
to be taken by each stockholder joining the company to be 
entirely nominal, without regard to acreage or products, 
even if not more than to the extent of one share of the 
value of $1, inasmuch as the company could not expect to 
place reliance upon such amounts for practical pecuniary 
aid, but having such stockholder fully obligating himself 
to purchase all boxing materials from the company, and to 
commit all his fruit products to the management and sale 
by the company. 

A very important matter for consideration, and of im- 
perative necessity with the company, will be the standing 

of its credit, and its ability to furnish an appropriate sum 
of money to not only pay for packing materials, but to 
make suitable advances for necessitous fruit growers, 
otherwise such fruit-growers would in dire necessity be 
compelled to go to fruit-buying houses, who are ready to 
make advances. I believe this important difficulty can be 
fully overcome by a proper organization and judicious 
management, and without the ability on the part of the 
company to make necessory advances I would consider the 
company to be at great disadvantage. 

It may reasonably be supposed that the company can 
have a first-class credit, and that it can, by its profits 
derived from selling a large quantity of boxes and packing 
materials, and by packing fruit for growers, realize a con- 
siderable profit. It is estimated that over 1,500,000 boxes 
were used by Placer county fruit growers last year, which 
were supplied by local fruit-buying houses at a large profit, 
and it is apparent that from this source alone the proposed 
company would receive a substantial return, if it should 
receive a proper support. With a proper support, this 
source alone would be sufficient to defray all running ex- 
penses, considering the magnitude of purchases and the 
consequent low prices which could be obtained, and with- 
out charging packers more than they ordinarily pay. 

A feature of the greatest importance, and one which is 
generally admitted, but not so generally realized in the 
complete sense it should be in its valuable bearing upon 
the fruit interests of Placer county, and upon the future 
reputation of the company and the distinctive profits to 
be gained, is that of the care which should be exercised in 
the grading and packing of fruit. References to the man- 
ner of packing fruit, I have heard so many times reiterated 
again and again by the fruit-sellers In Eastern markets who 
have continually laid such stress upon this point, that I am 
sure this feature cannot be too seriously considered by 
the company. By a systematic inspection and classifica- 
tion of all fruits shipped by the company, I am sure a large 
resulting profit would be gained and a confidence secured 
for Placer county which would rank it still higher in the 
estimation of Eastern buyers and consumers. It would be 
desirable to have the brand of the company so reliable, 
that purchases of its fruits could be effected at its shipping 
stations by Eastern buyers without examination. A super- 
vision in this respect should be most rigorously enforced. 

I have reasons, well founded I believe, that the whole 
selling commissions to be paid for disposing of the large 
products which the company may be enabled to handle 
can be comprised within or not exceeding five per cent. 
At this rate, and by charging from 7 to 8 per cent, as now 
charged by local houses (and even higher), a considerable 
source of additional income could be secured by the com- 

Therefore the source of revenue for the company would, 
without increasing the average prices now paid by the fruit- 
growers, be : 

First — The profit on boxing materials, which should 
equal 25 per cent. 

Second — The profits on selling commissions of two per 

Third — The interest profits, equal to four per cent per 
annum upon advances made. 

It would be desirable to have it fully and clearly under- 
stood by all those who would engage in the company as 
stockholders that they are to experience all the profits in 
case any should arise from the management of the business 
over its necessitated expenses. It is reasonable to suppose 
that, if a general support is given the company, it will be 
likely to create a surplus. This surplus would be an asset 
for the fruit shippers in proportion to their amounts of 
fruit. It might be desirable, in case of a surplus of this 
character, to continue it in the treasury of the company for 
further convenience in its business, and possibly to be 
added to, which would still continue to be the fruit-growers' 
property, and not otherwise, to be held or be divided in 
its proper distribution, as the directors of the company 
should deem most appropriate. 

It is likely that, in case of a surplus, the fruit-grower 
would receive such palpable advantages from doing his 
business through the company that he would be well satis- 
fied to see his extra capital administered for his further 
benefit, and give that hearty support which would continue 
the company's prosperity. 

Lower Placer county, from its locality and fertile soil, 
with its present irrigating facilities and proximity to ship- 
ping stations, enjoys an enviable distinction which no other 
county In the State surpasses. Its fruits, from their early 
ripening and firm character, from their superiority in these 
respects, lead the markets in price, and when one considers 
the yet Inadequate supplying of the Eastern country with 
its rapid growth and the future demands, one should not 
hesitate in putting himself firmly in support of the organi- 
zation which is proposed, which, if well supported and 
administered, will still further advance the merits of the 
county and enhance the profits of the fruit-grower. 

Co-operative Shipping from Sutter County. 

The co operative shipping business inaugurated last 
spring by the Sutter Fruit-Growers' Association has proved 
a marked success. At the first annual meeting held at 
Yuba City last week it was reported that the shipments of 
fresh fruits for the season were as follows: Denver, 45; 
Chicago, 29; New York, 16; Boston, 11; St. Paul, 12; 
Cleveland, 9; Omaha, 7; Kansas City, 6; Minneapolis, 5; 
Pittsburg, 1 ; Portland, Or., 1 ; Philadelphia, 1; total, 141 

Manager Traynor stated that from talking with large 
growers from other parts of the State, after comparing 
notes of sales with theirs, he had ascertained that the fruits 
from here had netted the grower more than in any other 

It was determined that hereafter the canneries of the 
association should be conducted personally by the direc- 
tors. It was further determined that " the shippers shall 
pay the association, or person deputized by the board of 

January 20, 1894. 



directors for that purpose, one and one-half cents for all 
peach boxes and half crates, and two and one-half cents 
for pear boxes and full crates for loading; any surplus 
money remaining shall be divided pro rata among the 
shippers at the end of the year." The following guarantee 
was also adopted: 

Resolved, That all persons shipping through this association shall 
be required to file a good and sufficient guarantee with the board of 
directors of this association against all losses from non-payment of 
freights, or for any sales of fruit not covering expenses on his or their 

The election of officers was then proceeded with and re- 
sulted as follows: 

President, B. F. Walton; secretary, H. P. Stabler; direc- 
tors, B. F. Walton, R. C. Kells, H. P. Stabler, T. B. Hull, 
J. B. Wilkle, Mrs. J. E. Starr and Ferd Hauss. 

S. J. Stabler then delivered a brief address. He im- 
pressed on the board of directors the absolute necessity of 
attending the meetings regularly. Every fruit-grower in 
the district should, in his opinion, become a member of the 
association. Every person who raises fruit, in no matter 
what quantity, should join. They should join hands, lay 
aside all personal feelings and be bound by a bond of 
union which would benefit them all. 

Chairman Walton stated some steps should be at once 
taken to increase the membership of the association. 

R. C. Kells remarked that they would like to have some 
suggestions from the chairman as to the fruit market. 

Chairman Walton replied that he had been to Chicago 
toward the end of the shipping season. It seemed to him 
that it would have been well if they had an active repre- 
sentative there, as business was done without much regard 
to the growers' interests on the arrival of the fruit. In 
order to make the auction plan work, each locality should 
be represented in the larger markets. The outlook for 
fruit had certainly been discouraging, and he would not be 
in favor of shipping any great quantity unless they had a 
representative at the large markets. It was impossible for 
a person at this end to be thoroughly posted. 

J. Ross Tranor was also called upon. He was in favor 
of sending a man at this time of the year who would solicit 
outside trade and tell them that he could keep them sup- 
plied with certain fruit at a certain price and agree on the 
amount to be shipped at certain dates. He had no doubt 
that their fruit had been sold in the best auction rooms, but 
the competition was great. Porter Bros, did an immense 
business, as did also Blake & Riplew of Boston. There 
was mnch to contend with and much to learn in the fruit 

R. C. Kells introduced the following resolution, which 
was adopted: 

Resolved, That we condemn the practice of misrepresenting the 
contents of fruit packages and we hereby instruct the board of direc- 
tors of the Sutter Fruit-Growers' Association to accept no fruit for 
shipment that is not marked correctly. 

The newly elected board of directors then met and 
organized by the election of B. F. Walton as chairman and 
H. P. Stabler as secretary, and adjourned. 

Call for a Convention in Fresno Connty. 

The following address has been sent out to all the fruit- 
growers in Fresno county in compliance with an action 
taken by the fruit growers of the Scandinavian colony at 
their second meeting January 6, 1894: 

To the Raisin and Fruit Growers of Fresno County, Cat. — In view 
of ttie last two years' experience with ruinous prices and commission 
packers, who seem to go hand in hand in the sale of our raisins and 
other fruits, we believe that it is absolutely impossible for us to go 
any further in the same direction and maintain the dignity of our 
manhood and womanhood, without bringing upon ourselves and 
families poverty and disgrace, and at the same time ruin upon our 
fair county. Hence we call upon our friends and neighbors who are 
engaged in the same business to call a meeting at the most suitable 
place in your respective school districts and colonies, to elect repre- 
sentative men and women to act as delegates at a county convention 
to be held at DeWitt hall, January 27th at 10 a. m., for the purpose 
of organizing a County Fruit Exchange, in connection with the State 
Exchange recently organized in San Francisco. 

We earnestly entreat you to be prompt in action and earnest in 
purpose, because if we do not do something now our fate is sealed 
and we shall be plunged into the vortex of deeper ruin than we have 
ever experienced. Call your district and colony meetings at the very 
earliest possible date, that we may be ready for and represented at 
the county convention when held. We recommend that the school 
districts and colony assemble January 20th, and choose a chairman 
and secretary and three delegates to attend the county convention to 
be held at the DeWitt hall, Fresno, January 27th, 1894. 

We also recommend that the chairman of these several school dis- 
tricts and colonies give a certificate stating who their delegates are. 

A. Henningsen, 


Adam Beaver, 
Carrol Ghent, 

Committee on Address. 

JI[he x^ry- 

Mangel Wnrzels. 
To the Editor: — With the exception of hay, I consider 
the above variety of beets the most valuable crop a farmer 
can grow for his stock. It is very easily raised and 
harvested, and an enormous amount can be raised on a 
small piece of ground. In England they find it is the 
cheapest feed that can be raised for stock on high-priced 
land and claim they have raised from 60 to 80 tons to the 
acre. I have never weighed the product of even a small 
area in order to ascertain just the given amount an acre 
would produce, but I am fully satisfied that, with my past 
experience, I can easily raise 25 tons, without irrigation or 
a particle of manure. It is no doubt generally known by 
most farmers that these beets are excellent feed for milch 
cows, but I do not think that many of them are aware that 

they are also very valuable for feeding to horses, sheep, 
hogs and chickens, and calves only a few weeks old are 
very fond of them. 

For over eight years I planted my beet seeds about the 
last of April, as I was advised to do so by a man who was 
then raising the seed by the ton to sell. I found, however, 
that they stopped growing early in June as the ground be- 
came too dry for them, and in the fall I would not have 
over four or five tons to an acre, and but very few beets 
that would weigh over ten pounds. In 1891 I planted a 
short row the first week In January, and early In June I 
had quite a number that weighed over 30 pounds each. I 
am therefore fully satisfied by this experiment that on land 
which does not retain surface moisture after the middle of 
June, the best time to sow the seed is in January or very 
early in February, according to the season, latitude, etc. 
There is a little more labor in cultivating, hoeing and hand 
weeding them than there is when the seeds are sown later, 
but the great increase of the crop repays one for the extra 
amount of labor performed. There are thousands of acres 
of rolling hill land in this State that I have no doubt would 
produce large crops of these most valuable roots if the 
seeds were planted in the fall, as soon as the first rain puts 
the ground in a suitable condition. My reason for think- 
ing so is as follows : 

Last summer I raised about 200 pounds of these beet 
seeds. I was a little late in gathering them and found that 
some had rattled off. Soon after the first rain they sprouted 
and now (Dec. 30th) I have nice young plants with fine 
fibrous roots. I have transplanted some of them and I 
have no doubt but that they will do well. 
K I am now making ten pounds of butter a week from my 
cow that is fed entirely on alfalfa hay, and chopped beets 
with a little bran and middlings on them. 

I am fully satisfied by past experiments that the beets 
are better for all kinds of stock if pulled, topped, dried and 
packed up under cover like stovewood, some weeks before 
feeding. If they are fed fresh from the ground in winter 
they are somewhat acrid and are apt to " scour " the stock. 
A ton or more can be pulled at a time in dry weather and 
the rest left for use as occasion requires. They can safely 
be left in the ground until they commence to make a second 
growth in early spring, when they should all be pulled, as 
they soon become tough and " woody." 

I know many farmers who are now milking " raw-bone " 
cows, who have acres of unused land that would raise these 
beets to perfection, and some of these men are now buying 
poor hay and paying Si 5 a ton for it. Ira W. Adams. 
Bay State Garden, Calistoga. 

Sterilization of Milk for Children. 
At the request of the Secretary of Agriculture, the Chief 
of the Bureau of Animal Industry has furnished the follow- 
ing simple directions for the sterilization of milk: 

The sterilization of milk for children, now quite exten- 
sively practiced in order to destroy the injurious germs 
which it may contain, can be satisfactorily accomplished 
with very simple apparatus. The vessel containing the 
milk, which may be the bottle from which it is to be used 
or any other suitable vessel, is placed inside of a larger 
vessel of metal, which contains the water. If a bottle, it 
is plugged with absorbent cotton, if this is at hand, or in its 
absence other clean cotton will answer. A small fruit jar, 
loosely covered may be used instead of a bottle. The re- 
quirements are slmp'y that the interior vessel shall be raised 
about half an inch above the bottom of the other, and that 
the water shall reach nearly or quite as high as the milk. 
The apparatus is then heated on a range or stove until the 
water reaches a temperature of 155 degrees Fahrenheit, 
when it is removed from the heat and kept tightly covered 
for half an hour. The milk bottles are then taken out and 
kept in a cool place. The milk may be used any time 
within 24 hours. A temperature of 150 degrees maintained 
for half an hour is sufficient to destroy any germs likely to 
be present in the milk, and it is found in practice that rais- 
ing the temperature to 155 degrees and then allowing it to 
stand in the heated water for half an hour insures the 
proper temperature for the required time. The tempera- 

ture should not be raised above 155 degrees, otherwise the 
taste and quality of the milk will be impaired. 

The simplest plan is to take a tin pail and invert a per- 
forated tin pie plate in the bottom, or have made for it a 
removable false bottom perforated with holes and having 
legs half an inch high, to allow circulation of the water. 
The milk bottle Is set on this false bottom, and sufficient 
water is put into the pail to reach the level of the surface 
of the milk in the bottle. A hole may be punched in the 
cover of the pail, a cork inserted, and a chemical ther- 
mometer put through the cork, so that the bulb dips into 
the water. The temperature can thus be watched without 
removing the cover. If preferred, an ordinary dairy ther- 
mometer may be used, and the temperature tested from 
time to time by removing the lid. This is very easily ar- 
ranged, and is just as satisfactory as the patented apparatus 
sold for the same purpose. The accompanying illustrations 
show the form of apparatus described. 

Use of Separators by Small Dairymen. 

In a report which the Country Gentleman gives of the 
discussions at a farmers institute in Ohio, we find the fol- 
lowing pertinent question and answers: 

Will it pay the average farmer to buy a cream sepa- 

Mr. Dewey — I think it pays me to use one. I get more 
cream from my milk than I ever got before. 

Mr. B Smith — I use a separator and would not return 
to the old methods. Have never followed it with the Bab- 
cock test, but I believe it is skimming all the cream from 
my milk. 

Mr. Dawley — After using the separator on my farm the 
past summer, it seems impossible to go long without it. I 
once thought I got the best possible results with the 
creamers, but when I got the Babcock test I found I was 
losing not less than three-tenths of one per cent of fat 
early in the season; later at least one-half of one per cent, 
and, when the ice gave out, much more; and I found I had 
fed enough butter fat to my calves within a few years to 
more than buy a separator; so I bought one, and a horse- 
power to run it. Now I am getting all the fat there is in 
the milk, and it is paying me well, although I have only a 
14 cow dairy. The separator skim-milk is fed to calves 
directly from the machine, and, although the fat is practi- 
cally all taken out of it, the calves grow rapidly and are 
healthy, and I am satisfied I can grow better calves from 
pure, sweet separator skim-milk fed warm from the open 
pans or creamers, in which is a good per cent of fat. 

Mr. Van Alstyne — Objection has been raised against the 
separator, claims having been made by some creamer men 
that butter made from separator cream is not as good as 
that from cream raised in open pans or creamers. I know 
a better quality can be produced from separator cream 
than from any other. Any way, such is my experience 
after using both open pans and creamers. The objection 
is fast disappearing, and will shortly cease to be heard. If 
you are in need of a cream-raising device and have ten or 
more good cows, by all means buy the separator. It will 
produce more cream, better and purer cream, and will 
hasten the voyage of the butter from the udder to the ship- 
ping package from 12 to 24 hours. 

JElLOr^lST /rND (gUl^DEjNER. 

Plant Collecting in California. 
Of all the many collecting trips I have taken, none so 
impressed itself upon my memory as one to the high 
Sierras some years ago. It was in early August of a sea- 
son when the snowfall was heavy and late in melting. 
August is a disagreeable month in the summer in Califor- 
nia, the most so of any in the year, and in that great 
valley which, hemmed in by the Coast Range on one side 
and the towering Sierra Nevada on the other, runs north 
and south 500 miles, it is especially oppressive. Then a 
pall of smoke hangs over, limiting the view. The heat re- 
flected from grain field or summer-fallow causes constant 
mirages. They come in the image of water, ponds, lakes 
or rivers, or distant real objects, making houses or hay- 
stacks look as tall as steeples, or seem as if they stood in 
the air. One hundred and five degrees is not an uncom- 
mon midday heat — a dry, blistering heat. 

Leaving Sacramento on a hot afternoon, a dry plain is 
passed through, then a more broken country, whose hill- 
sides are covered with orchards and vineyards, while in 
uncleared lands are low, scrubby oaks or round-headed 
Digger pines with gray needles. The grades get steeper, 
the country rugged. Immense canyons and slopes cov- 
ered with immense pines are then passed. Then comes 
darkness. Already the air is chilly and fires are lighted, 
and, as through the early hours of the night the train moves 
slowly along, only glimpses are seen through the snow- 
sheds of rugged, rocky country, with forests and deep can- 
yons. Some time after midnight my destination was 
reached — The Summit, in title and fact. 

The coming of morning unveiled a new and grand scene, 
a strange contrast to the view of the previous day. The 
air so clear that distance is almost annihilated; all around 
great peaks, snow-covered, some of granite, others of tough 
lava in a castellated form; others still lower with open 
pine forests up to their tops. Snow fields and snow masses 
in every direction, and in the cold, sharp morning air 
everywhere the sound of waters — a sound you cannot 
escape from, for everywhere are rills, rivulets, springs, 
brooks and torrents formed by melting snows. 

A short distance from the station a tunnel penetrates a 
granite mass, and when it comes out on the other side the 
descent is commenced into the Great Basin. There it was 
spring. In the frequent meadows flowers of every sort 
bloomed; even snow plants were to be seen in bloom at 
the edge of the snow masses, a thick, fleshy plant like 
Indian pine, but coral red and translucent. Along the 
streams were Lilium parvum in bloom, very much like the 
Eastern L. Candense. The backbone of the Sierras Is 
here a plateau of granite a half-mile wide or so, with vast 
bare surfaces of rock In some places, while in others were 
depressions filled with water and margined with a dense 
growth of the scraggy pine called tamarack. Some were 
mere pools, while others were deep, rockbound lakes, with 
often masses of snow on the rocky slopes and rivulets de- 
scending therefrom to the lakes in cascades, or maybe 
watering tiny protected meadows which were perfect 
gardens of lilies, violets and low purple asters. For fully 
five miles of this plateau there is a constant succession of 
these lovely little lakes. 

A more inviting field for the collector or a more invigor- 
ating change for the summer-worn worker could not be 
imagined. My search took me in every direction, each 
day a new revelation of beauty. One day I came to a 
point overlooking a little vale. Great granite cliffs, 
hemmed in on every side but the outlet, which was down a 


Januaiy 20, 1894. 

cascade. Down a rocky stairway I clambered and found a 
very vale of lilies. There were Lilium parvutn by the 
thousands, all in bloom. I have never found another such 
home for them. One of the lakelets was bordered by a 
marsh, and here were fresh-water sponges, while along the 
mossy edges grew a pretty creeping white violet. But the 
point for sightseers in this region was Castle Peak, and on 
the side of Castle Peak, a preceding collector had written 
to me, a lovely primrose grew, peculiar to these high alti- 
tudes. So one morning I took a lunch, my light pick and 
a sack and started out alone, as I always was. I took a 
general course and came to the foot of the peak. The soil 
is loose and sandy, and it is rather hard walking. There 
are few tress or shrubs except scattering sage or a few 
wild cherries and willows down the stream courses. The 
snow had only been off a short time, and flowers seemed 
to spring into blossom. It was high on the south slope of 
Castle Peak that I saw Calochortus I^ichtlinii, one of the 
Mariposa tulips, which had blossomed so quickly that the 
open cup stood on a basin of sand. The point of the bud 
had penetrated the sand and commenced opening. 

A hard walk, which at these altitudes only a strong- 
lunged person could take, brought me to a great snow-field 
near the top. The snow melting on the rocks above had 
worked beneath, and torrents poured out of tunnels on the 
lower ridge, and on the top of the snow-field It was beaten 
by the hoofs of thousands of sheep, for these high regions 
are filled with flocks driven upward as the snow recedes. 

Crossing to the north side of the mountain I saw below 
me a garden, and by dint of bracing myself in a crevice in 
the rock, managed to descend to it — and such a garden as 
it was ! Perhaps half an acre of open land perfectly fenced 
by cliffs above. Below and at the sides the snow stood in 
a wall, and stretched away in steep slopes, so steep and 
the snow so hard that no animal could have kept a footing, 
and it was fully half a mile down to where, near the can- 
yon, pine trees stood covered to nearly their top in the 
snowdrilt. In my garden were great anemones by the 
thousands, growing from a stout perennial root to a height 
of nearly two feet. On the warm, rocky slope at the upper 
edge were the primroses I sought. The leaves were thick 
and fleshy, and the stems prostrate and rooting all along. 
The plant forms dense masses, entirely covering the rocks, 
and throwing up slender stalks with a single very lovely red 
flower. It is unfortunate that so far it has never been suc- 
cessfully grown in cultivation. This garden was truly a 
thing of beauty, and has lived fresh in my memory. Leav- 
ing it, I essayed to cross the snowfield by another ronte. 
It was necessary to anchor myself by driving my pick in 
the snow till I could by driving my toes in, make a foot- 
hold — and after a half-mile of such working, my back blis- 
tered by the hot sun, my feet chilled, tired out, I reached 
the open rocks above — not too tired, however, to climb to 
the highest point of Castle Peak, using the points of lava 
for a ladder, and at length standing on a flat rock platform 
at the top. And such a view ! East, mountain after 
mountain arose across Nevada, red, barren and forbidding; 
north and south for hundreds of miles snow-covered peaks 
of the Sierra Nevada; westward, the peaks of the Coast 
Range rose across a huge, obscured gulf at a distance of 
fully 200 miles. The great valleys of the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin could be traced for hundreds of miles, not 
clearly, but here and there, where the haze and smoke were 
thinner, grain fields or woods could be seen. Near at hand 
no haze or smoke obscured the view, and below were 14 
lakes, Donner and Tahoe the largest, while meadow, forest, 
peak and rocky plateau seemed very near in the crystal air. 
It was a view to forever live in one's memory. — Carl Purdy 
in the Mayflower. 

The Rose Season of 1893. 

A paper read at the State Floral Society by H . B. McGowan of 

The year 1893 has been a remarkable one in many re- 
spects, and it may be interesting to take a retrospective 
view from our vantage-ground of 1894. There was a re- 
markably cold summer, likewise a remarkably warm fall. 
To the student with his books and his studies and to the 
clerk at his desk this is of small moment, but to the mem- 
bers of the State Floral Society of California this Is of vast 
interest. Temperature is one of the first agencies of horti- 
culture; 'tis true we cannot say to the winds "peace, be 
still," neither can we force the sun to shine. But we can 
profit much if we take note of the effect of both. It is not 
the object of this paper to note the effsct of the past 
season on things in general in the garden, although it might 
be none the less instructive. I will confine my remarks to 
the rose garden, and only a few varieties will I notice. 

It will be remembered by the members of this society 
how late the rose season came on. It will also be remem- 
bered what a fine showing it made, and how reluctantly yet 
sharply it went out. It may be well to note here that the 
following observations on the several varieties of roses and 
the several remarks upon the rose season of 1893 are made 
upon roses which did not receive any water since the early 
summer rains. 

One remarkable feature of the past season that I could 
not overlook was that, although the roses grew more — that 
Is, more continually— a great many varieties did not flower 
so freely as they did the two seasons before this. On the 
other hand, some varieties which did not bloom so freely 
the two previous summers bloomed continually all this past 
summer and fall. This is the more remarkable as the va- 
rieties are not generally classed as ever-blooming roses. 
The varieties are as follows in order of freedom of bloom: 
Paul Neyron, William Penn, Ulrich Brunner, Duke of Con- 
nought, Maf-na Charta, Jules Margotten, Captain Christy 
and Her Majesty. These hybrid perpetual roses were 
more ronstant in bloom than I have heretofore seen them. 
Even Her Majesty, which as a rule is a very poor bloomer, 
did exceedingly well. The tea roses with me did not do 
much. I had some very fine blooms, but not many of 
them. Papa Gontier was very fine. I do not remember 

seeing such fine blooms of this fine rose throughout the 
past few summers. 

From my observations the past summer, I was decidedly 
in favor of the hybrid perpetual rose, and It is with pleasure 
that I note it. Nothing, in my opinion, in the rose garden 
can compare either for fragrance or richness of color with 
the hybrids, and I hope the day is not far distant when 
more hybrids will be planted in California. 

I have long been of the opinion that the climate in and 
around San Francisco was more favorable for the hybrid 
than the tea roses. I have noticed some very fine hybrid 
roses near the walk south of the superintendent's cottage in 
Golden Gate Park in the past few summers. There have 
I seen Her Majesty. If not perfection, it mast be very, 
very near it; and when this rose is fine, it is grand. 

It will be noticed by a close observer of the effect of 
climate upon the rose that long, full buds require more 
warmth to open well and fine than do more thin or semi- 
double ones, as for instance Catherine Mermet and Papa 
Gontier. The former, if the weather is cool, does not come 
out well, while the latter takes on a deeper color and is at 
its best. This is more noticeable in the tea class of roses; 
but I think It can be put down as a general rule in both 
classes of roses that long and full buds require more heat, 
while short buds which open flat require less. 

The fall of 1893 was remarkable for scarcity of bloom, 
notwithstanding the fact that we had what many remarked 
was a fall which was more summer-like than the summer 
just past. The reason I give for this scarcity was the con- 
tinual growth of the plants, which, by reason of the cool 
summer, kept on growing. I have always noticed that if 
the plants do not have a season of rest, either for a short or 
long period In summer—and that generally takes place 
throughout August or September — we have a scarcity of 
roses in the fall. The exception this year with me were the 
roses already mentioned. The observations of other rose- 
growers this past season might be of great value to rose- 
planters as a means of knowing what varieties to plant In 
the various climates of California, as I think this has been 
a subject lost sight of in the great scramble for variety. 

Cannas in California. 

How I wish that those who admire cannas (and who does 
not?) could see them as they have grown here this season! 
About a week ago, after a few days of bright, cool weather, 
they were the best that they have been this year — every 
spike a perfect bouquet. To-day, Christmas, they are still 
gay, but the weather has been darker for a few days, and 
not so many blooms are open. 

Perhaps a few notes on the newer varieties will not be 
out of place. 

I have them growing on a sandy soil, naturally poor, bat 
slightly enriched in the spring, and the plants were well 
mulched with manure in midsummer. 

Star of '91 Is not so new, of course, but it has been rather 
popular. It Is of good habit and color, but the flowers 
won't open well for me. 

Admiral Gervals is very dwarf and quite pretty, but the 
flower Is quite small. 

Marquis Arthur de l'Aigle is good habit and quite pretty, 
but small. 

Alphonse Bouvier is of a gorgeous color, bat rather tall — 
six feet — and the flowers lack substance and don't open 

Maurice Mussy has the largest flower of all and nice 
color, but petals are rather narrow and very limp. 

Nardy Pere is very good, but does not have enough 
blossoms open at a time. 

Chas. Henderson, I think, is going to be away ahead of 
Bouvier, being much earlier, a better bloomer, and, above 
all, of a mnch better habit, only about three and one-half 
feet high. 

Mme. Crozy is still to the front, only it Is a little too tall 
— four and one-half to five and one-half feet— and in warm 
weather loses nearly all its beautiful golden border. 

Egandale would be about perfect in every way if the 
flower was a little larger. The color Is not pleasing to all, 
but it is bright and showy, and every spike is full and well 
rounded, and the rich, bronzy leaves are very handsome. 

J. D. Cabos is a handsome thing if only the flowers would 
retain their color. It is rather tall, though, and too ram- 
bling in growth. 

Among the yellows I had counted very much on Captain 
Suzzoni, but, I must confess, to a good deal of disappoint- 
ment, when the stalks began growing up and up until they 
stand seven feet high. Being so tall it seems top-heavy, 
and is inclined to lop in all directions. The color is good, 
but the ends of most of the petals are notched and ragged, 
and many flowers don't open well. 

Countess l'Estoile is a pretty thing, but petals are narrow. 

Nellie Bowden, in my opinion, has nothing to recom- 
mend it but its color. 

Florence Vaughan has the finest shaped flowers and the 
best substance of anything I have yet seen, but has ton 
much red and is entirely too tall — six to six and one-half 

Hermosa, a California seedling yellow, is better color 
and good flower, and has a habit of growth and flower 
spike that answers the description of the ideal canna. Very 
compact, and three to four feet high. 

Cannas don't seem to take very well here yet, but I 
think mostly because so few have seen the best ones. 

They are certainly a grand sight wnen grown In masses 
of one color, and in this country are especially valuable be- 
cause in bloom so long. Most of mine have been a blaze 
of color since Jane, and bid fair to continue good for some 
time yet.— F. R., in Florists' Exchange. 

Agricultural Directors. 

Governor Markham has appointed and commissioned 
the following Agricultural Directors: W. H. Aiken, for 
District No. 14, Santa Cruz county; A. McAllister and E. 
W. Steele, for San Lais Obispo county. 


Road Legislation in the United States. 

The investigation into road construction and manage- 
ment in the United Slates by the U. S. Agricultural De- 
partment, and under Gen. Roy Stone as special agent, is 
said to be making good progress. State geologists are be- 
ginning to supply information as to materials available for 
road construction, and 50 engineers of railway companies 
have sent in reports. This material is now being tabulated 
and a map Is In preparation which is to show the location 
and cost of the best available road-making material through- 
out the country. A bulletin is soon to be issued outlining 
the new road laws of 14 States. 

General Stone will say that road legislation is proceed- 
ing on ten distinct lines, ranging from more rigid operation 
of the old system to the direct building of State roads. 
Tennessee gives the county courts full power and direct 
control over roads and eliminates local politics and prevail- 
ing easy-going methods. The courts classify the roads, 
establish districts, appoint commissioners and assess road 
taxes. Vermont, New Hampshire, North Dakota and 
Oregon increase tax levies for roads. The latter State 
allows county courts to levy a special tax of 50 cents on the 
$100 and $2 per head for a county road fund. New Jersey 
absolutely abolishes the payment of road taxes in labor and 
the abolition is almost absolute in Wisconsin. In Oregon, 
Indiana and by special acts in Ohio, local assessment ap- 
plies to construction for a three-mile limit on each side of 
the road. In Oregon the county may assume half the cost, 
and in Ohio a large share is assessed upon the county. In 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey much work has been done 
by townships and by township bonds. The issue of county 
bonds is provided for in New York, New Jersey, Indiana, 
Michigan and Washington; but in the two latter States a 
popular vote is required to authorize the issue. 

State highway commissions have been created in Massa- 
chusetts, Vermont, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan and sev- 
eral other States. Massachusetts has the only permanent 
body of this character charged with important duties con- 
nected with actual road construction; the other commis- 
sions can only inquire into existing conditions and recom- 
mend methods for improvement. New York is experi- 
menting with convict labor on roads near the Clinton 
prison, and Tennessee law makes available for this purpose 
all prisoners confined in county jails or workhouses. 

New Jersey is probably the only State giving direct aid 
to road-building. The report says: " This aid is limited 
to one-third of the roads built by the counties and to the 
sum of $75,000 per annum. The highway commission of 
Pennsylvania has reported a bill for State aid to the amount 
of $1,000,000 per annum to be distributed among townships 
in proportion to the road tax paid by them. The town- 
ships, according to this bill, must set aside 25 per cent of 
their tax for making permanent highways. Co-operative 
road-building, as provided for in New Jersey, has been very 
successful. Abutting land-owners pay one-tenth of the 
cost, the State one-third, the county the remainder, by sale 
of bonds. Under this law, ten miles of road were built in 
1892, 25 in 1893, and 64 are applied for by land-owners 
for 1894. 

The data already gathered shows that new roads are 
constructing in many parts of the country and that in- 
creased knowledge and skill, improved machinery and 
methods and extended practical experience are rapidly les- 
sening the cost of good roads. Civil Engineer Harrison of 
Asbury Park, N. J., Is authority for the statement that, 
while three or four years ago the cost of road-building was 
$10,000 per mile, It was last year $3500 a mile. Prof. J. B. 
Hunnicutt, of the University of Georgia, in response to an 
inquiry from the bureau, states that the cost of good, hard 
roads recently built in Georgia, providing for a track of 
stone and one of earth, was $1200 a mile. Supervisor 
Chapin of Canandaigua, N. Y., in a letter to General Stone, 
reports that ten miles of a single-track stone road, with an 
earth track each side, was built in that town for $700 a mile. 
Active interest in the movement for better roads is shown 
by the railroads generally. Special or reduced rates are 
offered by many railroads, and a tabulated statement of the 
various concessions in shipment rates by a large number of 
companies has been prepared. 

Farm Wages. 
To the Editor: — In your issue of Nov. 4, 1893, ap- 
pears an article from the Oroville Register headed " Farm 
Wages Must Come Down," which I have read with much 
interest, and looked for comments thereon in every suc- 
ceeding issue of the Press. The Register is to be com- 
plimented for the courage its editor displays in his attack 
on high farm wages, and I regret very much that at the 
end of his article he expresses fear of meeting and discuss- 
ing this question and agreeing to pay only certain rates, be- 
cause all the newspapers In the State would howl against us. 

There Is an abundance of labor now, and, following the 
laws of supply and demand, It should be cheaper, and it 
really is. As far as I am concerned, general meetings as 
mentioned by the Register are not necessary, as I can get 
all the labor I can make use of in my vineyard at 75 cents 
per day and board for pruners, etc., and brush-pickers for 
much less. A meeting of vineyardists to discuss ways and 
means of reducing the cost of raising grapes and making 
wine, however, would be of much benefit to the grower, and 
I think that in such a meeting it would be shown that labor 
to-day can be had at fully 25 per cent less than a year ago. 
All that is necessary is to give an employment agent in San 
Francisco an order for the help wanted at certain rates and 
there will be a hundred applicants to choose from for every 
man needed. Wm. Wehner. 

Evergreen, Santa Clara Co. 

January 20, 1894. 




The Wool-Growers' Convention. 

The convention of wool-growers and dealers held in this 
city last week to protest against changes as to wool and 
dressed meats, proposed by the Wilson Tariff bill, was a 
large and notable gathering. It represented all interests 
related to the sheep industries, all parts of the State and 
every phase of political sentiment. It was strictly a busi- 
ness meeting in which all thought of politics was put aside. 
Among those present were: B. P. Flint, Donald Chis- 
holm, J. A. Freeman, Thomas Richardson, Daniel Dono- 
van, J. T. Lampkin, James Davidson, W. H. Ballinger, 
F. L. Orcutt, S. T. Gage, E. H. Tryon, J. H. Glyde, 
George Champlin, James R. Hebbron, Thomas McConnell, 
J. R. Hall, E. S. Holden, J. E. Shoobert, H. W. Wood- 
ward, Charles W. Hill, T. H. Smith, W. W. Davis, T. T. 
O'Brien, Jacob Rosenberg, L. Breslaur, George S. Gilbert, 
T. E. Trampleasure, Jacob Wollner, Amiel Hockhiemer, 
Henry Marx, E. B. Willcox, P. D. Jewett, P. H. Cahill, 
Julius Platshek, H. W. McDaniel, H. J. Ostrander, George 
T. Davis, Barker Davis, M. S. Koshland, Charles H. Ab- 
bott, J. E. Bell, James P. Hulme, A. C. Schlessinger, Isaac 
Harris, Alfred Holman (editor of the Rural Press), A. 
Bissinger, A. Legallet, W. B. Lee, E. H. Ward, T. F. Ma- 
guire, Thomas Cotter, P. J. O'Rourke, Frank B. Findley, 
J. H. Sandford, P. H. Cahill, Joseph Gibson, Charles How- 
ard, A. Dempster, S. Daniels, C. Clifton, J. Lawler, Jr., 
George Sattler, William G. Eaton, John Carmody, M. W. 
Haley, J. Maguire, Francis X. Foley, Timothy McMahon, 
George Dickie, J. T. McMahon. 

Organization. — The convention was called to order by 
Mr. Jacob Rosenberg, president of the Wool Growers and 
Dealers' Protective Union; Hon. Barclay Henley was 
chosen chairman, and F. T. Moody secretary. The follow- 
ing vice-presidents were elected: 

Alameda— John Flanagan, Professor E. W. Hilgard. 

Amador— A. Whittle, -R. S. Pardoe. 

Butte— John Bidwell, John Crouch. 

Calaveras— R. B. Randoll. George W. Hayes. 

Colusa— L. F. Moulton, E. M. Manx. 

El Dorado— H. C. Barton, R. M. Day. 

Fresno — A. H. Blasingame, W. J. Dickie. 

Glenn— I. W. Bromwell, G. W. Murdock. 

Humboldt— H. W. McClellan, Robert Porter. 

Inyo— Mark Matterson, H. W. Bellows. 

Kern — Captain J. P. Robinson, Sol Jewett. 

Lake— E. L. Maze, R. T. Polk. 

Lassen— J. A. Grlman, D. C. Wheeler. 

Los Angeles— K. Cohn, L. Bixby. 

Madera— J. F. Daulton, F. G. Goulart. 

Mariposa— R. A. Prouty, A. G. Black. 

Mendocino — Judge R. McGarvey. E. M. Hiatt. 

Merced— C. C. Smith, J. F. Chamberlain. 

Modoc— W. N. Scott, P. L. Flanigan. 

Monterey— David Jacks. J. A, Trescony. 

Mono— Reuben Terry, Fred Hardy. 

Napa— B. F. Holden, P. D. Grigsbv. 

Placer— J. Parker Whitney, J. W. Kaseberg. 

Sacramento — Thomas McConnell, J. G. Glyde. 

San Benito— E. T. Donnelly, Dr. Thomas Flint. 

San Diego— W. W. Stewart, P. Ikineque. 

San Franciscrj — Justinian Caire, S. T. Gage, A. Legalette. 

San Joaquin — L. U. Shippee, J. D. Prather. 

San Luis Obispo — R. E. Jack, Henry Schaefer. 

Santa Barbara — E. Elliott, Thomas Dibblee. 

Santa Clara— R. F. Peckhara, J. Eberbard. 

Santa Cruz— George K. Porter. 

Siskiyou — J. F. Bloomingcarap, J. M. Walbridge. 

Solano— J. B. Hoyt, Dennis Laughlin. 

Sonoma — H. Meecham, H. E. Fairbanks. 

Stanislaus— John Dunne, John Russell. 

Sutter — J. F. Brockman, Sumner Paine. 

Tehama— J. S. Cone, E. H. Ward. 

Tulare — Thomas Mclntyre, Pat Cunningham, 

Ventura— Thomas R. Bard, J. R. Willoughby. 

Yolo-G. W. Scott. 

Yuba— D. E. Knight, J. M. C. Jasper. 

Address by Hon. Barclay Henley. — Upon taking the 
chair Mr. Henley spoke as follows: 

This is a convention of earnest, thoughtful and conscientious men, 
who, at great personal inconvenience, have assembled together for a 
purpose that cannot be too highly commended, and the success of 
which constitutes a most important factor ; z> the prosperity of this 
State. We have now pending in the House of Representatives of the 
Federal Congress a tariff measure called the Wilson bill, which, if it 
becomes a law, in the opinion of those most interested, will bring 
utter destruction to one of the most important industries in Califor- 
nia—sheep husbandry and wool-growing. All engaged in that busi- 
ness are of the same opinion in regard to the effect of free-listing 
wool. It is not even a subject of debate among the growers in this 
day of generation. It is the college professor, the doctrinaire, the 
theorist on one side and the men who have grappled with the prob- 
lem all their lives and thought of nothing else upon the other. 

The industry which is being trifled with by the Ways and Means 
Committee of Congress and whose existence is remorselessly 
threatened represents, exclusive of manufactures in the United States, 
about 43,000,000 sheep, employing directly and indirectly 1,200,000 
persons and a capital of $125,000,000. The value of the annual wool 
clip of California, say in the year 1892, should be about $5,000,000, 
being the value of an annual clip of 35,000,000 pounds of wool. That 
means that that much money flows into the pockets of the people of 
this State every year from the sales of wool, aside from what they get 
from mutton. Assume that the industry perishes, that much money 
would be missing every year from the resources of the people of this 
State. But it has been urged that while the production of wool will 
cease we will turn our attention to mutton and to the production of a 
different kind of sheep with its compensatory advantage. Unfor- 
tunately the showing in that regard is worse than in reference to 
wool. The progress of science has devised a means by which, by the 
use of refrigerators, frozen meats may be shipped from Australia and 
South America all over the world. They have built ships whose 
carrying capacity exceeds 50,000 carcasses of mutton, which are now 
plying between Australia and Great Britain; and it must be borne in 
mind that mutton is free-listed under the Wilson bill as well as wool. 
Therefore, if the bill becomes a law, the inevitable doom of both mut- 
ton and wool is sealed; but I imagine, if you should speak to one of 
our free-trading friends on the Ways and Means Committee upon 
that subject, the chances are he would rush wildly off for comfort to 
Adam Smith, Ricardo or one of the political economists from whom 
they have drawn inspiration upon this subject And it is one of the 
marvels that attends upon these matters that these theorists will not 

bring themselves face to face with the actual, hard, close details of 
the various businesses whose fate they want to control. 

Your dreamer and your free-trader, always up in the regions super- 
nal where ordinary mortals cannot ascend, think that the sum of 
human happiness is obtained by cheapness. I don't think so. I 
think that, unless commodities can be sold at living rates in a com- 
munity, the inevitable result must be a destructive disturbance to the 
industries of the country and misery. According to the cheap idea, 
the wool-grower and the wheat-raiser and the producers of everything 
in this State now, the price of which is below the cost of producing, 
should be in a state of inexpressible beatitude. Is the California 
farmer to-day a happy man ? Never before were the clothes that he 
wears upon his back so cheap in the history of the country; never be- 
fore was the iron which enters into the construction of his utensils so 
cheap; all things, in fact, are cheap which he eats, wears or in any 
respect uses, but the trouble is that, cheap as they are, he has 
nothing to buy with, and therefore the boon of cheapness is a mock- 
ery to him. When you say to a pauper upon the street, who solicits 
your alms, " Look into that store and see how cheap everything is," 
you simply mock and insult him. 

During an inconspicuous, but, as I believe, faithful, term that I 
served in the Federal Congress, I was one of the followers of Samuel 
J. Randall, and would be did he live to-day; and I here now still 
avow my belief in the soundness of a tariff for revenue, with incidental 
protection. I believe myself that an unquestioning allegiance to the 
edict of a party has resulted in more detriment to the country than 
anything that I can now recall; and you see now in Washington the 
pitiable and lamentable spectacle of a caucus being called by the 
Democrats in the House of Representatives, the sole and avowed pur- 
pose of which is to constrain Representatives to forego or rather be- 
tray the interests of their constituents, whose servants they are, and 
right or wrong to vote for the Wilson bill. I spit upon and despise 
any construction of the tenets of a political faith that upholds such 
party discipline, as it is called. It is said that free wool has been de- 
creed heretofore by the Democracy. I deny it, and declare that, were 
that issue made in California, it would meet with overwhelming de- 
feat, as it recently did in Ohio, when Governor McKinley was elected 
by a majority that makes us dizzy to think about. He was elected 
not because he was a Republican, not because he was a better man 
than his opponent, O'Neil, not because of any superiority, mentally 
or morally, over his adversary, but because the people of the great 
Slate of Ohio felt that there was an opportunity for them to say to the 
people of the United States that they wanted a man whose character 
and political career was absolute guarantee of the maintenance and 
everlasting upholding of the industries of America. 

The Resolutions. — The Committee on Resolutions, com- 
posed of Thos. McConnell, Alfred Holman (editor of the 
Rural Press), J. H. Glyde, B. P. Flint, S. E. Holden, 
D. E. Knight, Isaac R. Hall, Prof. E. W. Hilgard, J. 
Rosenberg, Atwater M.. Wardwell, G. G. Kimball, F. L. 
Orcutt, N. Manasse, H. J. Ostrander, A. F. Pedreira, E. 
Bennett, brought in the following preamble and resolutions 
which were adopted by unanimous vote: 

Whereas, It is proposed in the Congress of the United States to 
modify the existing tariff laws to admit wool and dressed meats free 
of duty; and, whereas, it is proposed to make sweeping reductions in 
the duties on woolen manufactures; and, whereas, 30,000 citizens of 
California are employed directly in the production and handling of 
wool and mutton sheep and in woolen manufacture; and, whereas, 
the State of California contains approximately 4,500,000 sheep, pro- 
ducing annually 35,000,000 pounds of wool, and has heretofore 
profitably employed as sheep ranges 10,000,000 acres of land, other- 
wise waste and of little value; and, whereas, in this industry an aggre- 
gate capital of $100,000,000 is invested in this State; and, whereas, 
it is our judgment, after full review of all the circumstances and con- 
ditions, that the proposed tariff changes, if carried into effect, would 
inevitably imply the destruction of the sheep industries of our State; 
that it would wipe out the capital employed in them and thus im- 
poverish a multitude of our people; that it would drive a worthy ele- 
ment of population to seek other branches of employment now over- 
crowded, with the result of filling the highways, causing beggary 
and widespread sufferings; and, whereas, we believe that we should 
not consume the products of foreign labor, leaving our own laborers 
in idleness, but that we should protect them and enable them to re- 
ceive proper and fair compensation for that labor, consuming in our 
own country their products. Whereas, the mere prospect of the pro- 
posed tariff changes has prostrated our business, scaled down the 
value of our property and made alarm and apprehension of disaster 
widespread. Whereas, it is a fact established by experience that at 
the prices for wool now prevailing in the foreign markets our farmers 
cannot continue the business of wool growing without absolute yearly 
loss, in proof of which we state that at the present time a large pro- 
portion of the sheep remain unshorn and the shearers have even de- 
clined to accept the clip as compensation for shearing. During the 
past year, owing to the impending threat of free wool and radical re- 
ductions in the duties on woolen goods, the prices of domestic wools 
of all descriptions have fallen from 30 per cent to 50 per cent below 
the prices that prevailed a year ago. Even at these figures there has 
been little demand for wool and many farmers have on hand this 
season's clip, which at this time last year were being rapidly con- 
verted into goods by mills that now stand idle. In the United States 
the value of sheep has depreciated over $50,000,000; of this Califor- 
nia's share is $5,000,000. Therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we, the wool and mutton growers and the woolen 
manufacturers of California, in convention assembled, do protest in 
the most positive and solemn spirit against the admission into the 
United States of wool and dressed meats, and against the proposed 
reduction in the duties on woolen goods. 

That the good faith of the Congress of the United States requires 
continuance of the protective policy as to wool, dressed meats and 
manufactured woolens. 

That the sentiment of the business element of this State, regardless 
of partisan affiliations, heartily favors the retention of tariff duties on 
wool, dressed meats and woolen goods, and stands with us in pro- 
testing against the enactment of the Wilson bill in so far as it re- 
lates to the changes above named. 

That the first duty of our representatives in Congress is to the in- 
terests of California; that to this duty they should subordinate partisan 
motives; and we call upon them, in the name of the people of Cali- 
fornia, to work and vote against the proposed changes, in whatever 
form or whatever relationship they may appear. 

We protest against and denounce as false and absurd the claim 
persistently urged by advocates of free trade in wool that American 
wools cannot be manufactured successfully and profitably into the 
form of clothing, except in combination with foreign wools, and we 
deny that the importation of foreign wools is essential or even desir- 
able as a means of consuming our domestic wool product, there 
being no class of foreign wools imported into this country that cannot 
be produced by the wool-growers of the United States. 

We selemnly declare it to be our profound conviction that the prin- 
ciple of protection by tariff duties is essential to the independence 
and comfort of the American people, to the promotion of liberal and 
wholesome standards of living and of education, and to the fullness 
and stability of our national life, and the only barrier that prevents 
American children from being reduced to the level of the pauper 
nations of the earth. 

General Discussion. — Following these formal proceedings 
there was a general interchange of opinions by leading 
wool men. Mr. Thos. McConnell declared our wools to 
be as good as any imported wools. The only reason, he 
said, why the American wool is not considered as good as 
some other wool is because it is not put in such good con- 
dition by artificial means. 

Judge Peckham of San Jose said that he was a woolen 

manufacturer. The goods for the millions of Americ 
be made of Californlan and Oregonian wools. The 
blankets are made from those wools. He did not know of 
any mills here which manufacture goods from imported 
wool. The objection that the Pacific Coast manufacturers 
meet with is that their products are too good for the trade. 
They wear too long. When the manufacturers seek to sell 
their goods they are told that what is wanted are stuffs that 
will wear out sooner. The goods of very fine texture can- 
not be manufactured from the wools of this coast, but the 
people of the United States can be clothed with the wool 
product of this country, fine wools being produced in the 
Eastern States. These wools, with some impoitations 
from Australia when needed, are all that manufacturers re- 
quire. The English and French, who are well clothed in 
woolens, use American wool. If the duty is taken from 
wool and the business of raising that product Is partially 
destroyed, the time will come when the price of wool will 
go so high, on account of the small supply, that only the 
rich man can afford to wear a suit of woolen clothes. 

Mr. Hebbron of the State Board of Equalization said 
that he had transferred his wool raising to Texas. He has 
his last year's clip on hand yet. If the duty is taken off he 
will go out of the business. He is now on an official tour. 
He thought that in assessing sheep this year the deprecia- 
tion of the industry should be taken into consideration. 

Mr. McMahon of Humboldt said that Congress should 
be asked to exempt all other American products as well as 
wool from the operation of the Wilson bill. A protest 
should be made against interference with the M Kinley bill. 

Professor Hilgard said that an English expert testified 
before a Congressional committee lately that he could find 
no kind of woolen goods in which the English manufacturer 
excels the American. The fruit interests, he added, are so 
badly threatened by the Wilson bill that he did not see 
how any representative from California can consent to the 
adoption of the fruit or the wool feature. 

Judge Peckham added: "In the streets of San Fran- 
cisco woolen ready-made clothing such as the millions of 
America wear can be bought cheaper than in London. But 
there are Americans who want something foreign and who 
insist on getting clothing from abroad. Possibly in ex- 
pensive fabrics they can save a little money on the foreign 
garments when bought abroad, but the cheaper clothing 
that the millions wear can be purchased at home for less 

S. E. Holden, president of the woolen mills at Napa, 
exhibited a fine overcoat which was sold in this city recently 
for $16.50. It was made and lined well, the lining as well 
as the outer cloth being of wool. He said that the wool- 
grower is as much entitled to protection as the manufac- 
turer. Mr. Holden pronounced the proposition in the 
Wilson bill to raise revenue from an income tax unpatriotic 
and unbusinesslike. It is preposterous to think that taxes 
will be systematically obtained by reaching at incomes. 

Mr. Ostrander of Merced, whose two grandfathers fought 
in the Revolutionary war, whose father fought in the war of 
1812, and who himself kept the Union flag flying in Mer- 
ced county every day during the Civil war, said that poverty 
will surely attend a removal of protective duties. 

Isaac Harris said that the importance of the wool busi- 
ness is not appreciated by the general public. When peo- 
ple hear that the Wilson bill threatens the sheep industry 
they do not understand what the declaration means. A 
loss of $1 a bead on 4,000,000 sheep and of $2,000,000 on 
the clip means that much loss to the State, and not merely 
to wool-growers. The wool-pullers employ 2000 men. 
The Wilson bill will destroy their industry. The wool- 
pullers here will find it advantageous to locate at Havre, 
where they can get laborers for from 60 to 80 cents a day. 
They can get pelts from Butchertown here, do the work at 
Havre, and ship their products to New York and Boston at 
a greater profit than they could by doing the work here if 
the duty should be removed. The firm of which Mr. Har- 
ris is a member has bought a great deal of wool in the dis- 
trict represented by Congressman Geary, " who says that 
wine, being a luxury, should be protected, but wool should 
not be," he remarked. 

Chairman Henley said that an opponent of the Mills and 
Wilson bills cannot be found in the English list of news- 
papers. The reason why they favor such legislation for 
the United States is that they want American coin. Mr. 
Henley remarked that he was not a Cleveland Democrat, 
but he is a Jeffersonian and Jacksonian Democrat. Conse- 
quently he could stand whatever criticism might be uttered 
of the present policy of the Democratic powers that be. 
Jackson was in favor of a protective system for American 
labor when President. The convention adjourned to the 
call of the chair. 

A meeting was then held by the executive committee, 
composed of John E. Shoobert, Thomas Denigan, J. Ros- 
enberg, F. P. McLennan, James P. Hulme, Isaac R. Hall, 
J. L. Moody, C. S. Moses, Thomas McConnell, T. T. Mc- 
Mahon, R. F. Peckham, T. H. Glide, P. D. Jewett, H. 
Mecham and E. H. Ward. J. L. Moody was chosen chair- 
man of the committee. 

Special Agent at Washington. — Hon. Thos. McConnell 
of Elk Grove (Sacramento county), who has large interests 
in sheep and sheep lands in California, Oregon and Nevada, 
was selected to go to Washington to confer with our repre- 
sentatives in Congress and personally urge our interests. 
Mr. McConnell will start on about the 16th inst. He has 
already a large acquaintance among public men, and will 
carry with him letters to others whom it will be important 
for him to know. 

It is expected that the chief fight will be made in the 
Senate. The House seems to be completely under the 
control of the free traders, and there is little doubt that the 
bill will go through. In the Senate, however, it will meet 
stern and determined opposition. Senator Perkins is out- 
spoken against the measure, but It is believed that Senator 
White will support it. His speeches on the stump in this 
State during the Presidential campaign were warm for tariff 
reform (which means absolute free trade so far as wool Is 
concerned), and there is no reason to believe that he has 
changed his mind since that time. 



January 20, 1894. 

JIJhe Rojme QiRS^E. 

The Weather. 

Us farmers in ihe country, as seasons go and come 
Is purly much like other folks— we're apt to grumble 
some I 

The spring's too back'ard for us er loo for'ard— ary 
one — 

We'll jaw about it anyhow and have our way er 
none I 

The thaw's set in too suddent er the frost's staid in 
the soil 

Too long to give the wheat a chance, and crops is 

bound to spoil I 
The weather's either most too milder too outrageous 


And altogether too much rain er nol half rain 
enough 1 

Now what I'd like and what you'd like is plain 

enough to see; 
It's jest to have old Providence drop round on you 

and me 

And ast us what our views is first regardin' shine er 

And post 'em when to shet er offer let er on again ! 
And yit I'd ruther, after all— considerin" other 

I got on hands, a-tendin' both to my affairs and 
yours — 

I'd ruther miss the blame I'd git a-rulin' things up 

And spend my extry time in praise and gratitude 
and prayer. 

— James Whitcomb Riley. 

Count Sorrow a Gain, 

It is easy, you know, it is easy, 

When the skies of our life are clear, 
To whistle a song as we journey along, 

And to walk with a heart of cheer. 
It is easy, you know, it is easy 

To sing when the weather is fair, 
And to feel that Ihe day will be pleasant alway, 

Unhaunted by trouble and care. 

But it's harder, ah yes, it is harder 

To walk through the storm-beaten night, 
When the soul ot man quails as the dreary wind 

And there's nowhere a glimmer of light. 
It is harder, dear God, it is harder 

To stand 'neath the burden we bear, 
When we see not the end where our weary feet 

And our heart is o'erladen with care. 

It is harder, ah me, it is harder, 

Yet I think, if we manfully bear, 
That the spirit will grow 'neath its buiden of woe 

Till it's wholly perfected and fair; 
And the one who plods on through the tempest, 

With a smile for the ti -rce-beating rain, 
Though he misses the cheer of a pleasant way 

In the end may count sorrow a gain. 

— Stockton Mail. 

The Missing Pages, 

'^APER, sir? Something to 
read io the train, ma'am? 
— Times, Herald, Sun. 
All the magazines?" 

But the people hurried past 
John's little stand into the sta- 
tion, as they had done all the 
morning. Only two papers 
sold and here was noon ! Profit two cents. 
On sunny days his sales were very brisk; 
but it was drizzling. The thick air was full 
of falling soot and nobody cared to stop to 

"No wonder they want to hurry out of 
this horrible place !" muttured John, look- 
ing about at the wet, dingy houses, the 
pools of black mud through which the horses 
tramped, and clouds of smoke rolling 
through the streets. He thought of the sunny 
farm on which he was born, and (elt that he 
never could grow used to this place. Two 
cents profit ! Not enough to buy a loaf of 

John thought of his mother and of the 
scanty breakfast which they had eaten to- 
gether in their bare garret, with its windows 
opening on the sooty roofs. If he could but 
have had a good trade, he might have car- 
ried a nice little treat home to her. But the 
crowd hurried past and nobody stopped. 

" Magazine, ma'am ? Something to read 
on " — 

The lady stopped. " Ah, your books are 
dirty !" she said, dropping the sooty mag- 
azine with a shrug. 

As if he could help that ! But he began 
blowing away the soot for the twentieth time 
that day. It was four years since his father 
died, and he and his mother had come down 
to town; and in that time he did nothing but 
fight weekly against soot and starvation. 

He opened one of the story papers for 
boys. There was a sea story in it; a boy 
goes off in the first chapter as a stowaway; 
in the third, " the gallant lad leaped upon 
the deck, and the commander clasped him 
in his arms !" On the next page was an 
account of a boy going home from work, 
who arrived in time to scale the walls of a 
burning house and rescue a child, for which 
daring act he was the next day taken into 

partnership by the child's father, a mil- 

" Some fellows have such splendid 
chances I" said John, laying down the book 
with a sigh. " Now, I've been here for 
years, and nothing grand or noble turns up 
for me to do. Buy twenty- five papers daily 
sell them— if I can. On Saturdays, buy 
the weeklies; once a month, the magazines 
That's the heft of it, year in, year out 
How's a fellow to make a living at that 
sort of work ?" 

An old gentleman who had missed the 
train sauntered up and began idly looking 
over the boy's stock. 

John watched him anxiously. If he 
should buy one of the six bound books ? 
Profit on each was a quarter of a dollar ' 
If he should buy one ot those, he would take 
home a little treat to his mother after all. 

The boy's eyes fairly glistened; for, be- 
sides being fond of his mother, he was 
hungry, and the smell of fried oysters and 
coffee from the stall near by was almost 
more than he could bear. 

The old gentleman took up one of the 
books. John thought he was certainly go 
ing to buy one. What should the treat be ? 
A bit of fresh meat ? A mince pie ? He 
decided that steak would be best. 

" Ha ! here is a book which I have 
wanted for a long time," said the gentleman. 
" What's the price of this, my boy ? " 

"Those are one dollar each, sir." 

" I'll take this. No, you needn't wrap it 
up. I'll read it in the train.'' 

He laid down a bright new dollar. 

John could almost smell the delicious 
steak, and thought of his mother's thin 
starved face. They had not tasted meat for 
days. But a glance at the book as the gen 
tleman dropped it into his satchel, caused 
him to say faintly; 

" Stop, sir ! I did not see which one you 
had taken. That is an Imperfect copy. 
There are four leaves missing in the mid- 

Too bad ! " — throwing it down. " The 
money please." 
"Will none of the others suit ?" said John. 
" No, I have wanted this book for some 


" You can have it for half price," said 
John eagerly. 

" I don't want a mutilated copy at all." 
John handed him back the money; and, 
closing his satchel, the man walked on a 
few steps, and sat down in an open doorway 
to wait for his train. He was a ruddy, fat 
old gentleman, with a kindly, shrewd blue 
eye. Having nothing to do, he thought the 
occurrence over leisurely. 

" That's an honest lad," he said to the 
proprietor of the store in which he stood. 
" He might have cheated me just now, but 
he did not." 

"Who? John M'Tavish ? As honest as 
steel. He's been under my eye now for 
four years, and I know him to be as truthful 
a lad as ever was born of Scotch blood." 

Urn, um ! " said the old gentleman. But 
he put on his spectacles, and eyed John 
from head to foot. 

The next day he stopped at the same 
shop, and walked up to the proprietor. 

" How's he for intelligence, now ? " he be- 
gan, as if the conversation had stopped the 
moment before. "Stupid, probably?" 

" I don't think he's very shary in trade," 
was the reply; "but he's a very handy boy. 
He has made a good many very convenient 
knickknacks for the neighbors — that book- 
shelf, for instance." 

" Why, that's the very thing I want in a 
boy I Well, there's my train. Good day, 
. H 

' He'll be back again. Odd old fellow," 
said the storekeeper, laughing. 

The next day he was back, and he came 
at the same hour. 

" I like that boy's looks, sir. I've been 
watching him. But of course he has a 
dozen relations — drunken father, rag-tag 
brothers — who would follow him?" 

" No. He has only a mother; and she is 
a decent. God-fearing Scotch woman — a 
good seamstress, John tells me, but can get 
no work. Times are dull here just now. 
Pity the country folks will pour into the 
cities. Mrs. M'Tavish has nothing but what 
the boy earns at his stand yonder." 

The old gentleman made no reply. But 
the next day he was up to the boy's stand. 
John was looking pale and anxious. Some 
of his regular customers had refused to take 
their magazines, times being so hard. They 
would be a dead loss on his hands. 

" Paper ? Magazines, sir ?" he asked. 

" No. A word with you, my lad. My 
name is Bohnn. I am the owner of the 
Bordale Nurseries, about thirty miles from 
here. I want a young man to act as clerk 
and salesman on the grounds, at a salary of 
thirty dollars a month, and a woman who 
will be strict and orderly, to oversee the 

girls who pack flower-seeds, at twenty dol 
lars a month. I offer the position to you 
and your mother, and I give you until to 
morrow to think it over." 

" But yon — you — don't know me sir !" 
gasped John. 

" I know you very well. I generally know 
what I am about. To-morrow, be ready to 
give your answer. I will take yon four 
weeks on trial. If I am satisfied, the en- 
gagement will be renewed for a year." 

AH the rest of the day John felt like one 
in a dream. Everybody had heard of the 
Bordale Nurseries and of good old Isaac 
Bohnn, their owner. But what had he done, 
that this earthly paradise should be opened 
to him ? 

" You'll come, eh ?" said Mr. Bohnn, the 
next day. " Thought you would. When 
can you begin work ?" 

" At once, sir." 

"Good! By the way, there's a vacant 
bouse on the grounds which your mother 
can have, rent free, if she remains with me. 
A mere box, but big enough. There's my 
cart. Suppose you come out, M'Tavish, 
and look about you. You can come back at 

John locked up the stand, sent a message 
to his mother, and went with Mr. Bohnn. 
He had not yet told his mother of this 
change in their affairs. 

He was very silent when he came home 
that evening, but oddly tender with his 
mother; and she noticed that he remained a 
long time on bis knees at prayer that night. 

They had only a little bread and milk for 
breakfast the next morning and John scarcely 
tasted it. 

" You look as if you could not bear this 
much longer, mother," he said, coming up 
to her, and putting his hands on her shoul- 
der. " You need good wholesome meals 
and the fresh air and the hills and the trees 
instead of this!" — looking out at the piled 
stacks of chimneys belching forth the black 
smoke of an iron foundry. 

" Don't talk of them, John, lad !" 
"Well, I won't." And he put on his hat 
and went out. 

An hour later he came back. 
" What is wrong? Why have you left the 
stand ! " asked his mother In alarm. 

" We are going to have an outing, mother. 
Don't say a word. I can afford it." 

She never had seen the boy so full of ex- 
citement. He hurried her to the station, 
and soon they were gliding among beautiful 
rolling hills and across lovely meadows that 
were sweet with the odor of new-mown hay. 
At noon they came to stretches of rising 
ground, covered with nurseries of young 
trees of delicate green and with vineyards 
and field after field of roses, mignonette and 
all kinds of sweet-smelling flowers. 

" Why, John, this is fairyland ! What is 
this place?" 

" The Bordale Nurseries. We will get 
out here, mother. I want to show you a 
house that "— 

He trembled with agitation. His face 
was pale as he led her down to the broad, 
glancing river, near which was nestled in 
the woods a cozy little cottage covered with 
a beautiful creeper. There was a garden, a 
well and a paddock for a cow. Inside, the 
rooms were clean and ready for furnishing. 
The river rippled drowsily against its pebbly 
shore. The birds darted through the blue, 
sunny air. The scent of roses came in upon 
the breeze. 

" Mother," said John, " this, I hope, will 
be your home now." And with that he be- 
gan to laugh and caper about her like a boy, 
but the tears rolled down his thin cheeks. 

John M'Tavish Is now foreman of the Bor- 
dale Nurseries and a man of high standing 
in the country. Not long ago he said to old 
Mr. Bohnn: 

' I owe this all to the friend who said a 
good word for me that day in Pittsburg." 

"No, Johnny," said the old man; "you 
owe it to the book with the missing pages. 
The chance came to you, at it comes to 
every boy, to be honest. Honesty and in- 
dustry, John, are what did it, and I am in- 
clined to think that they never fall to com- 
mand success in the end." 

Brilliant 8. 

"A Happy New Year," you can make it, my dear 
By smiling and doing your best; 
Be cheery and true the twelvemonth through 
So shall the New Year be blest. 

— Youth's Companion. 
I have had playmates, I have had companions, 
In my days of childhood, in my joyful school days 
All, all are gone, the old familiar faces I 

— Charles Lamb. 
A common form, his like you see again; 
To look at he was much like other men; 
But all his thought was beauty most refined, 
With all the graces dancing in bis mind; 
So beauty educates us as we know it, 
And so transforms the man into the poet. 

--James Bartlett Wiggin. 
The woman could not be of nature's making 
Whom, being kind, her misery made not kinder. 

— Anon. 

He that lacks time to mourn lacks time to mend 

Kternity mourns that. 'Tis an ill cure 

For life's worst ills to have no time to feel them 

Where sorrow's held intrusive and turned out, 

There wisdom will not enter, nor true power 

Nor aught that dignifies humanity, 

Yet such the barrenness of busy life. 


A careless hand half broke an apple twig, 

And presently there hung a withered spray. 
An emblem, thought I, of the human soul. 
When from its life in God 'tis torn away. 

— Mary Seabury Lothrop. 
The winds like funeral dirges sigh, 

The forest trees their leaves have shed, 
And like a pall the snow doth lie 

O'er Nature's lovely form, now dead. 
But wait; the sun will smile once more, 

Nor smile upon the earth in vain; 
For. bright as e'er they were of yore, 
The beauteous flowers will bloom again. 

So when the storms of life strip bare 

The sheltering roof tree o'er the head. 
And 'neath the chill snow-wreath of care 

Thy fondest hopes, like flowers, lie dead, 
Wait, wait; the sun will smile once more. 

Nor smile upon the home in vain; 
For, bright as e'er they were of yore, 

Life's beauteous flowers will bloom again. 
— Anon. 

Gems of Thought. 
Loving kindness is greater than laws; and 
the charities of life are greater than all cere- 
monies. — Talmud. 

Life is before you; not earthly life alone, 
but life — a tbtead running interminably 
through the warp of eternity.— J. G. Holland. 

True dignity abides with him alone who in 
the silent hour of inward thought can still 
suspect and still revere himself in lowliness 
of heart. — Wordsworth. 

Youth is apt too much to spend all its time 
in looking forward. Old age is apt too 
much to spend all its time in looking back- 
ward. People in middle and on the apex 
look both ways.— T. DeWitt Talmage. 

The aged oak upon the steep stands more 
firm and secure if assailed by angry winds; 
for if the winter bares its head, the more 
strongly it strikes Its roots into the ground, 
acquiring strength as it loses beauty.— Mes- 

Tears, idle tears, I know not what they 
mean; tears from the depth of some divine 
despair rise in the heart and gather in the 
eyes in looking on the happy autumn fields, 
and thinking of the days that are nc more. 
— Tennyson. 

Snch help as we can give each other in 
this world is a debt to each other, and the 
man who perceives a superiority or a capac- 
ity in a subordinate, and neither confesses 
nor assists it, is not merely the witbholder 
of kindness, but the committer of injury. — 

What a chimera is man ! what a confused 
chaos ! what a subject of contradiction ! a 
professed judge of all things, and yet a fee- 
ble worm of the earth ! the great depository 
and guardian of truth, and yet a mere bun- 
dle of uncertainty ! the glory and the scan- 
dal of the universe. — Pascal. 

The weakest living creature, by concentrat- 
ing bis powers on a single object, can ac- 
complish something. The strongest, by dis- 
posing of his over many, may fail to accom- 
plish anything. The drop by continually 
falling, bores its passage through the hardest 
rock. The hasty torrent rushes over it with 
hideous uproar and leaves no trace behind. 
— Carlyle. 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report 


January 20, 1894. 



Homely Suggestions. 

A way of treating soiled kitchen walls 
Dissolve a lump of extract of logwood the 
size of a grain of corn in hot water, and put 
it in four or five quarts of lime that is ready 
to use. One application will be as good as 
two without the logwood. 

New tins should be set over the fire with 
the boiling water in them for several hours 
before food is put in them. 

To scour knives easily, mix a small quan 
tity of baking soda with your brick-dust, 
and see if your knives do not polish better 
To prevent crockery glaze from cracking, 
place the crockery In a boiler of cold water 
and give it a good boiling. Let the crockery 
remain in the water until cold. A little 
milk and water rubbed over oilcloth after 
it has been scrubbed and dried will 
freshen it. When dishes become dis- 
colored through careless washing, wash 
them In strong soap suds and scour them 
with marble sand or sifted coal ashes, 
Trim and fill the lamps in the morning or 
you may add to the tale of accidents, as the 
unwise virgins whose lamps were not ready 
when wanted. Rubbing warts with lemon 
juice three or four times a day will, it is 
said, cause them to disappear within a 
month. Grease spots may be removed 
from a cold stove by covering them entirely 
with hot wood ashes. To clean a spice 
mill : If you wish to clean your spice-mill, 
grind a handfull of raw rice in it. The 
particles of spice and pepper, or of coffee, 
will not adhere to it after the rice has passed 
through. — Jenness Miller Monthly. 

Household Hints. 

A tart in great favor is an iced case of 
puff paste with a filling of marmalade and 
whipped cream. 

It is very vexing and annoying to have 
one's lips break out with cold sores, but it is 
better to have them out than in. A drop of 
warm mutton suet applied to the sores at 
night just before retiring, will soon cause 
them to disappear. 

In a charmingly furnished apartment, 
where the space is very much limited, the 
substitute for the cumbersome buffet is a 
spot of beauty In the little dining-room. 
Two skeleton shelves have been made of 
walnut, and placed in one corner against a 
piece of dark-red matting tacked upon the 
wall. On these shelves rich blue china is 
arranged with a most delightful effect. 

All physicians who have had much to do 
with gymnasiums are eloquent in their 
praises. Within certain common-sense rules 
they say that no growing child should be 
debarred the healthful exercise and helps to 
right development that is here extended, 
where it is possible to take advantage of 

Table fruit will keep twice as long if it is 
kept in separate lots. Contact hastens de- 
cay. One bad apple will spoil a barrel. It 
will pay the housewife to have the peaches, 
plums, oranges, lemons and other small fruit 
wrapped in paper when it comes from the 
market, and to separate the bunches of 
grapes. Street venders preserve them by 
hanging them up in a cool place. The next 
best plan Is to lay them on a large platter or 
In kitchen saucers, with space between. 

Do You Know 

That eggs covered when frying will cook 
much more even ? 

That if you heat your knife you can cut 
hot bread as smoothly as cold ? 

That camphor menthol Is an excellent in- 
halent if one is suffering from cold? 

That a little flour dredged over the top of 
a cake will keep the icing from running? 

That the white of an egg, with a little 
sugar and water, is good for a child with 
an irritable stomach ? 

That clear, black coffee, diluted with 
water and containing a little ammonia, will 
cleanse and restore black clothes ? 

That a large slice of raw potato in the fat 
when frying doughnuts will prevent the 
black specks from appearing on their sur- 
face ? 

That by rubbing with a flannel cloth dip- 
ped in whiting the brown discoloration may 
be taken off cups which have been used for 
baking ? 

That a little powdered borax in baby's 
bath water prevents the little one's skin 
from chafing, and is not so liable to break 
out with the heat? — Ella B. Simmons, in 
Good Housekeeping. 

Exact justice is commonly more merciful 
in the long run than pity, for it tends to fos- 
ter in men those stronger qualities which 
make them good citizens. — Lowell. 


Cuddle Doon. 

[This sweet and tender little poem for the nursery 
is by "Surfaceman" (Alexander Anderson) in "Con- 
temporary Scotch Verse." It is very popular ii 

The bairnies cuddle doon at nicht 

Wi' muckle (aught an' din; 
"Oh, try and sleep, ye waukrife rogues, 

Your faither's comin' in." 
They never heed a word I speak; 

I try to gie a froon, 
But aye I hap them up an' cry, 

"O bairnies, cuddle doon ! " 

Wee Jamie wi' the curly heid — 

He aye sleeps next the wa', 
Bangs up an' cries, " I want a piece " — 

The rascal starts them a'. 
I rin and fetch them pieces, drinks, 

They stop awee the soun', 
Then draw the blankets up an' cry, 

"Noo, weanies, cuddle doon." 

But ere five minutes gang, wee Rab 

Cries out frae neath the claes, 
"Mither, mak Tarn gie ower at ance, 

He's kittlin' wi' his taes." 
The mischief's in that Tam for tricks, 

He'd bother half the toon ; 
But aye I hap them up an' cry, 

"O bairnies, cuddle doon 1" 

At length they hear their faither's fit, 

An', as he seeks the door, 
They turn their faces to the wa', 

While Tam pretends to snore, 
"Hae a' the weens been gude?" he asks, 

As be pits aff his shoon; 
"The bairnies, John, are in their beds, 

An' lang since cuddled doon." 

An' just afore we bed oorsel's 

We look at our wee lambs, 
Tam has his airm roun' wee Rab's neck. 

And Rab his airm round Tarn's. 
I lift wee Jamie up the bed. 

An' as I straik each croon, 
I whisper, till my heart fills up, 

"O bairnies, cuddle doon 1 " 

The bairnies cuddle doon at nicht 

Wi' mirth that's dear to me; 
But soon the big warl's cark an' care 

Will quaten doon their glee. 
Yet, come what will to ilka ane, 

May He who rules aboon 
Aye whisper, though their pows be ba, 

"O bairnies, cuddle doon I" 

The Ducklings. 

Written for the Rukal Press by Aunt Susie. 
" O, mother, what shall I do? The old 
duck has left her nest and won't go back. 
Only four days more and the eggs would 
have hatched ! Do you suppose I could 
make them hatch out in the house?" 

All this was said in a very anxious tone 
by a little boy named Billy, who lived on a 
ranch and had a dozen hens and ducks all 
his own. He had set an old duck on a nest 
of eggs and was so disappointed when he 
found she had tired of setting. 

His mother said: " You better see if you 
can find a hen that wants to set. If so, put 
the duck eggs under her and perhaps they 
will hatch out all right. You couldn't keep 
them warm all night; it would be nc use to 
bring them into the house." 

So Billy went to his yard of hens, and 
sure enough he found a big Black Langsban 
hen he called Betsv on a nest. When he 
touched her, she ruffled up her feathers and 
clucked and wouldn't get off the nest, and 
she looked dull and stupid, as setting hens 
do. Billy was greatly rejoiced, and put the 
duck eggs under her. 

She settled down comfortably, and seemed 
to say: " Well, these are the largest eggs I 
ever sat on; but then the Langshans are such 
a fine breed of hens. I suppose my rela- 
tions have laid these big eggs on purpose for 
me. I have been laying eggs a long time 
myself, and some of these must be mine, 
only I didn't know they were so big; but it 
must be all right, so I'll just take a nap and 
be comfortable, for it is a long time before I 
shall have any chicks come out of these eggs. 
Let me see. The sun has to come up be- 
hind that big hill and travel way round to 
that other hill behind me and go out of sight 
twenty- one times before I can get my chicks. 
I don't expect to sleep all that time, but I 
mean to have a good nap." So she nestled 
down and looked very comfortable. 

Billy went off to work very happy. It 
was his regular duty to keep the house sup- 
plied with wood for stoves and fireplaces and 
plenty of kindlings, nicely split, and put in a 
separate box. Billy was only twelve years 
old, but whatever he did was well done. His 
motto was, " What is worth doing at all is 
worth doing well." 

Good old Betsy did not know she had to 
finish up the neglected duties of a duck, so 
when the fourth day came after Billy gave 
her the eggs she was very much astonished 
to hear the eggs crack under her. She 
poked one egg out from nnder her to see 

what was the matter, when out rolled a little 
yellow duckling that surprised her so she 
jumped off and found her nest full of the 
same queer-looking things; they made a 
noise almost like the " peep, peep " of young 
turkeys. Poor old Betsy didn't know what 
to do. At last Billy came and found all the 
eggs had hatched. He was much delighted 
But Betsy did feel happy, nevertheless. She 
went back on the nest, and seemed to say 

" Well, this Is certainly very funny. All 
my relations are Langshans, and here I 
have a nestful of yellow chicks, when every' 
body knows that Langsban chicks are black. 
And these are such queer-looking chicks, 
too; they have a piece of skin between their 
toes, and have such funny bills. I certainly 
never saw such queer chicks, but I am sure 
they keep calling ' Mother,' ' Mother,' though 
not in just the same tone as my last chicks 
did; but if I am not their mother I'm sure I 
don't know who is. I'll do my duty and 
keep them warm to-night, and to-morrow 
take them for a walk, and find bugs and 
worms for them." 

The little ducklings did not seem to under 
stand her " cluck, cluck," but they knew her 
feathers kept them warm, so cuddled under 
her and went to sleep. 

The next day Billy let Betsy out with her 
brood, and laughed to see the little duck- 
lings waddle along beside the hen. There 
was a pond on one side of the corral near 
the barn, where the horses drank, and Betsy, 
like a good mother, thought she would give 
her chicks a drink; so they followed her to 
the pond. She took a drink, and expected 
them to do the same; but, to her intense as 
tonishment and fright, they went right in the 
pond and began paddling around. She 
called: "Come back. Come back. You 
will all be drowned.' Chicks can't play in 
water. Come back, I tell you." 

But they paid no attention to her. They 
didn't understand what she said. They 
knew that " Quack, quack, quack " meant 
" Go in the water and swim," but they didn't 
know that " Cluck, cluck, cluck " meant 
"Don't go in the water." So they swam 
clear across the pond and had such a good 
time. They caught some long-legged flies 
on the water, and ate the grass when they 
reached land on the other side. 

Poor Betsy was so frightened and bewil- 
dered she didn't know what to do; but at 
last, as they wouldn't come to her, she de- 
termined to go to them, so made a brave 
step in the pond. But she went way down 
in the water and got her feathers all wet, 
and she began to call and make such a noise 
Billy heard her and went to see what the 
matter was. He had to laugh, she looked 
so funny, but felt sorry for her. He knew 
she was trying to follow her ducklings, and 
also knew she would be drowned if he left 
her, so pulled her out and carried her over 
to the other side, where her ducklings were. 
She shook herself and stood in the sun, and 
after awhile was dry and comfortable again. 
She scolded her ducklings, but they didn't 
understand. They knew they felt tired and 
sleepy, so ran to her, and she brooded them, 
scolding all the while. 

Well, the next day the ducklings went in 
the pond again. Betsy didn't try to follow 
them. She made up her mind they were the 
queerest and most disobedient chicks she 
ever had. She scolded and scolded; but 
they didn't understand, and went in the pond 
every day, had fine times, and grew fast, 
and soon became beautiful white Pekin 

Discovery of the Telescope. 

As in many other cases of discovery, that 
of the telescope appears to have been the re- 
sult of a playful accident, says the Optician. 
Several stories are told about it, but they are 
all similar. The one most generally ac- 
cepted tells how, about the year 1590, just 
303 years ago, the children of Zachariah 
Jansen, a spectacle-maker, residing at Mld- 
dleburgh, in Holland, were playing one day 
in their father's workshop, and observed that 
when they held between their fingers two 
spectacle glasses, one some distance from 
the other, and looked through them at the 
weather-cock on the church, it seemed in- 
verted, but very much nearer to them and 
greatly Increased in size. Their father, when 
his attention was called, saw that one of the 
glasses was convex and the other concave. 
He made experiments, and ended by fixing 
such glasses in wooden tubes a few inches 
long and selling them for curiosities. An- 
other account tells us how one Lipperscheim 
discovered the telescope in a similar manner. 
Descartes, however, a contemporary, gives 
the credit to James Metius, a glass-cutter in 
Holland, whose brother, a professor of 
mathematics and a maker of burning glasses 
and mirrors, hit upon the discovery in the 
same way that Jansen's children are said to 
have done. 


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January 20, 1»94. 

jJgricultural I^otes. 



Palermo Prograt: Mr. Stone of Concow is 
preparing to go extensively into hop raising 
next season, and is now getting oat 16,000 hop 
poles for that purpose. 

W. E. Gillespie, who grew tobacco in the 
East some years ago, will raise a qnantity of 
tobacco next season near Oroville, as he is con- 
fident that a good quality can be raised in this 

Chico Chronicle- Record: About one year ago 
Matt Schwein bought of D. M. Reavis a sow 
with eleven shoats, the latter being then about 
six months old. Lately he killed the mother 
and one of the shoats, the former weighing, 
when dressed, 525 pounds and the latter 494 

Del Norte. 

Del Norte Record: From one of the stock- 
holders of the Crescent Creamery Co., Smith 
river, we learn that the following is the busi- 
ness done by the creamery during 1893: 
Amount of milk purchased, 1,980,792 pounds; 
amount of butter made, 92,676 pounds; average 
amount of milk for the season required to make 
one pound of butter, 21.44 pounds. It must be 
remembered that it was rather late in the season 
when the creamery began operations, and the 
above is a good showing. 


Fresno Expositor: The owner of a 20-acre 
vineyard near this city has just received word 
that about five tons of his raisins have been 
sold in the East at 1* cents a pound. He esti- 
mates that he is out about $500 on his year's 


The Eureka Standard declares that it is hardly 
worth while to ship potatoes now. They are 
worth more by the sack in Eel river valley 
than they are in San Francisco. 

Many range owners in the Garberville sec- 
tion who had intended to plant orchards have 
concluded to wait another year. They fear 
that the late grasshopper visitation may be 
more than duplicated another year. 

We take from the Eureka Standard of last 
week the following manifest of the oat-going 
steamer Pomona as illustrating the industry 
of Humboldt county: Six boxes apples, 1200 
feet moulding, 3000 fancy pickets, 300,000 
green shingles, 5 cases fish; from Areata, 15 
rases butter, 25 sacks peas; from E. K. & E. 
R. R., 67 cases fish, 48 cases butter, 8 kegs 
butter, 59 boxes apples, 15 bundles green hides, 
10 coal oil cans tallow, 3 sacks tallow; from 
Fields Landing, 153 boxes apples. The Po- 
mona is one of many boats that ply between 
San Francisco and northern ports. Such 
shipments as those above reported are made 
every day or two. 


D. M. Hanson whose ranch is in Lake county 
12 miles from Sulphur creek, shipped 3700 
pounds of almonds to market at San Francisco 
last week. This is the first shipment of the 
kind from those parts. 

Los Angeles. 

Downey Champion: A fatal epidemic has 
prevailed among the hogs of this vicinity dur- 
ing the past month. The loss has been mainly 
among young stock running at pasture. The 
symptoms: No desire for food, violent breath- 
ing, or what is commonly called the thumps. 
The disease proves fatal in three or four days. 
The heaviest loser in this neighborhood is Al- 
len W. Neighbours, who has had upward of 100 
bead of weaned pigs and growing hogs die in 
the last three weeks. Messrs. Morrow, Slinger- 
land and others have also lost heavily by the 
mysterious disease, which is supposed not to be 
hog cholera, but some unknown disease equally 


Jesse D. Carr is making preparations to win- 
ter 600 head of cattle at the lava beds southeast 
of Tule lake, Modoc county. He is hauling hay 
there for the saddle horses, and expects to keep 
two men on the ground uutil grass grows again. 
This is the place where Captain Jack and the 
troops held their protracted dispute 20 years 


Salinas Index: Mayor H. S. Ball of Salinas 
has been looking up the dairy statistics of Mon- 
terey county. He finds that there are between 
75 and 80 dairies in the county, equipped with 
from 50 to 500 cows each, very few — probably 
not more than half a dozen — having less than 
100 cows. 

O ran ae. 

Santa Ana Blade: William Paramore and F. 
L. Smith have been awarded the contract for 
picking, packing and hauling oranges from the 
orchards to the packing houses for the Santiago 
Orange-Growers' Association at the rate of 33 
cents per packed box. Material and appliances 
will be supplied at cost by the association and 
everything is included in the price named ex- 
cept washing. The boxes will cost 12J cents a 
piece. Secretary Cargill of the County Ex- 
change told the meeting that the establishment 
of an auction house now under way by some 
large commission firms would obviate the diffi- 
culty expeoted by some growers who are in need 
of ready money. 

El Toro letter in Santa Ana Blade: About 
7000 acres of barley, wheat, corn and oats will 
be put in this year at El Toro. The chief 
grain-growers are Mr. Hiles, of Santa Ana, 
about 500 acres; D. Ahern, about 1000 acres; 
Henry Schwartz <fe Sons, about 1000 acres and 
Mr. Buckheim, of Santa Ana, about 1400 acres; 
Mr. Cooper, 250 acres; Rogers & Thompson, 
600 acres; Mr. Cook, 500 acres; 8alter Bros., 350 
acres; Chas. Salter, 200 acres; Kohlmeyer, 3000 1 

acres besides a number of others who will plant 
smaller patches. Most of the acreage will be 
broken for the first time this year. The new 
acreage in fruit this year at El Toro amounts 
to about 22,000 trees of the deciduous and citrus 
varieties. The largest planters are William 
Hoyle, E. P. Hoyle, A. C. Twist, Captain Hud- 
dy, C. W. Lyons and Charles Salter. 

Santa Clara. 

Gilroy Advocate: A wonderful showing of 
wild oats, barley and mustard of this season't- 
growth was brought under our eyes a few days 
since by Mr. Sanders. The barley was volun- 
teer and stood four feet high, the oats looking 
equally thrifty and the mustard was full of yel 
low blossom. It is certainly a remarkable 
growth at this early date and it tells of the 
absence of frosts and the rich nature of the soil 
of the redwood foothills of the west range. 

J. A. McKerran has recently planted at his 
ranch near Gilroy a large number of olive and 
cork elm trees of large growth. Last year he 
made a similar and successful planting of trees 
three and four years old. 

Santa Cruz. 

Watsonville Pajaronian: Over 9000 acres have 
been contracted for beets for the campaign of 
1894 — the largest acreage in the history of th» 
Watsonville factory. Of this amount 4000 
acres are in this valley and the balance on the 


The Yacaville Reporter names the following 
as examples of successful woman orchardists in 
its neighborhood: Mrs. E. P. Buckingham 
Mrs. Geo. M. Blake, Mrs. Thayer and Miss 
Bates. Mrs. Jagger, Mrs. Shroeder, Miss Holmes, 
Mrs. Marvine, Mrs. Whitman, Mrs. Levi Korns, 
Mrs. Pearson, Mrs. Allen, Mrs. Barrows, Mrs. 
M. C. Smith, Mis. Quick, Mrs. Martell. The 
last named lady ships every year the first ript 
oranges in the State. 

Dixon Tribune: Peter Boyens has a novel 
weavil trap in operation at bis place. It is 
simply a five-gallon oil can, which is thrust in 
the barley bin, where the little pests abound. 
What attraction the metal can has for the 
weavil it would be hard to determine, but they 
leave the grain in thousands and gather in the 
can, which is easily emptied and reset. 

Sonoma Tribune: Orchardists began plowing 
immediately after the recent rainstorm cleared 
away and the soil is reported to be exactlv in 
the proper condition for its being turned. Thus 
far the fruit trees have been faring well and il 
the weather in spring will be mild the crops 
will turn out well. 

Cloverdale Reveille: This year marks another 
important epoch in the history of this favored 
section. For the first time olives are grown in 
sufficient quantities to be pat on the market. 
The Italian -Swiss colony, whose extensive 
vineyards, olive orchards and olive groves are 
growing in such a prodigious manner, and 
whose wines are prize - winners wherever 
brought into competion, have this year sold 
their crop of olives to Mr. Tiburio Parrott at 
8t. Helena. It was our pleasure to visit the 
superintendent, Mr. L. Vosconi, recently, and 
he presented us with a bottle of pickled olives, 
the first ever put up by the colony, and we say, 
without any favor, that they were richer in 
tsste and more palatable than the foreign 
pickled olives. With the olive groves already 
planted and those about to be pat out, with 
the extensive orange groves, the future promi- 
nence of this section as a citrus district 
promises to bring great riches. 

Cloverdale Reveille: A. C. Ledger is arranging 
to go into the pork business in an extensive 
way. He says that in his estimation there is 
more money in raising hogs for market than 
any other farm product that he knows of. 
Men are now engaged in clearing a tract of 
land back of his house, which will be planted 
to grain and hogs turned in to harvest the 


Sutter Independent: The conditions have 
been very favorable for planting, and the grain 
that is now up is doing well. The recent frosts 
have been of great benefit in mellowing the 
soil and making it pulverize nicely for winter 
sowing. It will also prove of advantage to 
summer-fallow in rooting. On the adobe lands 
the grain is about all in. Some of the sandy 
lands remain to be plowed and sown, but not 
to any large extent. On the whole, we do not 
remember to have seen a more favorable winter 
during a residence of a quarter of a century 
in this county. The rivers, up to this time, 
have remained with remarkable propriety. 
The waters of Butte creek and slough, the 
Tisdale outlet and the back water from the 
delta have filled the lower part of the tnle 
basin, without spreading out over the winter 
pasturage, or endangering the back levees. Of 
course there is still time for very high waters. 
Major J. 8. Cone and Gen. N. P. Chipman, 
says the Red Bluff Sentinel, have received a 
quantity of pecan nuts from Texas which will 
be planted on their respective places. They are 
of the best variety and were on a tree that cost 
$50 when it was scarcely more than a switch. 
The nuts received cost $1 a pound, while the 
ordinary varieties do not command more than 
15 cents a pound. 


Tulare Times: Four potatoes that weigh 16 
pounds ! A pretty big story, but that is what 
was accomplished near Porterville the past sea- 
son. Those four potatoes will loom up at the 
Midwinter Fair. 


Ventura Advocate: Some of our farmers are 
seeding their land to rye grass, which has 
proved to be the best crop, both in quality and 
quantity, for feed. It does best on wet land, 
where it forms a sod and will last for years 
without re-sowing. 




UV >; in,. 

Good & 
Roses are 
their own 

The rows w« (tend nre on their own root*, from 10 tn IS 
incht>H Mshf and will bloom freely thisNummer either in pott* 
or planted in yard. They (ire hardy, ever bloomers. We Mtnd 
inntructionn with each order how to plant and care for them. examine the below list of choice fragrant monthly 
rosea, and if you can duplicate them anywhere for an 
amount ho hnmll hs«M- They are nearly all new kind*.— Wo 
guarnnteo them to reacti yon in Rood condition, and wv ulm> 

fuuruntvc them to hv tlie, bvmt dollar'* worth of ro«<*« vou 
are OTor purchased. THE RAINBOW COLLECTION OF 20 

The List : — Rrldenmnld, the best pink rose by far ever introduced, 
rlnci'** of W alt-, amber yellow, dcufteniiuc to orange. Nnowflake, 
ire white, always in bloom. IVInretu* dt* Kudzlwell* lovely corn I red. 
earl of the <*arden«, deep Kolden yellow. Beauty of MtapU-furd, 
bright rosy crinihon. <1 ■••-«- n of F rust run ec, in clusters of six to ten roses, 
white edged pink. I, t>eautiful shades of saffron and tawn. N tin wet, 
golden amber, resembles an "afterglow." l>r. 4: rill, coppery yellow and fawny 
rose. IliicheHH Marie Immueulata, an intermingling of bronze, urange, yellow, 
pink and crimson. Lady < 'n«(lrr< ngli. noft rosy crimson and yellow. Pupa 
Gentler, lovely dark red. Ktac of Gold, the (|ueen of all yellow roses. Wuhun, 
a great ro*o in bloom all the time. Lady Stanley, great garden rose. Vlweoun- 
ftHM Wniitlr r, one of the best roses grown. Cleoputm, soft shell pink, lovely. 
Mappho, fawn suffused with red. Lctty I'olc*. very chaste und beautiful. 


Ballineer. Tenia, Nov. 29. Pittuburiih, Fa.,8ept. 31 1H93. 

The Good A Reese Co., Springfield, O. Gentlemen: The Goon* Reese Co., Springfield, O. Gentlemen: 
The 20 ever bloomiuK rosea you sent me for tl. arrived I wish to thank you for the excellent assortment of 
yesterday in the most splendid condition, and allow me roses contained in your Rainbow Collection. On May 
to say that I was absolutely surprised at the size of the 8, 1 planted them, 19 of them lived. About six of them 
stalks and the amount length and thriftiness of the bloomed in June, since which all have bloomed either 
roots. I hAve wondered many times how you could af- monthly or i**rpetunl. true to their color. On Sept. 1, 1 
ford to send out such roses for such a small price. Every counted 1U6 buds and blooms on the 19 roses. They were 
home in the lund should have their yard full of ever much admired by my friends and neighbors, and allow 
blooming roses at tins price. me to thank you for furnishing this source of pleasure 

Yours, so cheaply. Very respectfully, 

(Judge. C. H. WlLLINOHAM. 82 Fifth Avenue. E. D. SMITH. 

We will also .end our Iron < In.l Collection of 1* Hardy Base*, all dlir, rent colors. #1. Try u set. 
Mil Chrysunflicmums. all prize .tinners. $1. 16 Geraniums, double and -Ingle, flowered and scented, +1. 
liS choice Heconlus. dill, rent kinds. *1. 40 packets choice Klower Kccds, ull different kinds. #1. Our 

handsome, illustrated. lW-i>age Catalogue, describing alKive Roses. Plants and all S Is. mailed for 10c. sUnips. 

Don't placo your order before seeing our prices. WE CAN SAVE YOU MONEY. We have lante two year old 
!£...,. for Immedlutc effect. Liberal Premium, to club raisers, or how to ret year seeds und plunts free. We 

are the LARCEST ROSE CROWERS IN THE WORLD. Our «ul.« of lt..«, Plntaatem l»-i - 
exceeded u million and u hull'. When you order Roses, plant • and Seeds, you want the very beat. Try us. Address 

GOOD & REESE CO., Box 143 Champion City Greenhouses, Springfield, Ohio. 



-is THE— 

m mtlfc INFERIOR 



Because it ia more 
profitable to Borne 

Squirrel and Gopher Exterminator! 


Send lor Price Lists 

And all Articles used 
by Hunters and 





That One tableapoonf ui of 


will produce more actual results than a whole bottle 
of any liniment orspavln euro mixtureever made. 
It Is therefore the cheapest (as well as safest and 
best) external applicant known fur man or beast. 








Wood-choppers, try the 

Kelly Perfect flxe 

It will cat more wood 
than any other axe. 

The scoop in the blade 
keeps it from sticking in 
the wood, and makes it 
cut deeper than any other 
axe. Ask your dealer for 
it. Send us his name if 
he don't keep it. It is the 
Anti-Trust Axe. 

Kelly Axe Mfg. Co. 


choice and cheap properties, 


Send for circulars giving full particulars. Now is the 
time to buy, before the Hood tide sets in. 


88 Market Street San Frauclaco. 





Capital paid up • I.OOW.OO* 

Bwritry»d and Undivided ProflU, ISO,*** 
DlTldeadapald lo Stockholders.... M3*,**« 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I. O. STEELE. VIoe-Presideut 

ALBEKT MONTPKLLTER Oathler and Manager 

FRANK MCMULLEN. . Secretary 

General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Silver. 

Bills of Exchange bought and sold. 

Loans on wheat and country produce a specialty. 

January 1, 1894 A. MONTPBLLIER, Manager. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
Open All Tear. 
A. VAN DKR NAILLKN, President 
Assaying of Ores, 935; Bullion and Cnlorlnalton Assay, 
$26; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course ot assaying. 160. 
ESTABLISHED ISM. tST Send tor circular. 

January 20, 1894. 



Uses of Cotton Seed Oil. 

Last year there were probably 1,250,000 
torjs of seed crushed. Out of this seed there 
were obtained 1,000,000 barrels of oil. Of 
this amount it is estimated by Pharmaceuii 
cal Era that 300,000 barrels are used in Chi 
cago for making lard, and St. Louis, Kansas 
City and Omaha are credited with about 
200,000 in making the same product. A 
comparison of the statistics of lard produc- 
tion and cotton seed oil consumption might 
show interesting results as to the compos! 
tion of the former. About 20,000 barrels o 
cotton oil are used on the coast of Maine to 
pack sardines, and probably from 50,000 to 
100,000 barrels are used by soap-makers in 
the manufacture of toilet soaps. About 250,- 
000 barrels go to Rotterdam, Holland, for 
making butter, and large quantities go to 
southern Europe for mixture with the pure (?) 
olive oils exported from Marseilles, Trieste, 
and other Mediterranean ports. Although 
this oil is not to be preferred for illuminating 
purposes on account of its containing too 
much gum, considerable of the cheaper 
grades is used for such purposes. The use 
of this article upon its own merits is, how- 
ever, rapidly increasing. It is already ex- 
tensively used in Latin countries as a cook- 
ing grease, and several American manufac- 
turers are advertising it for culinary pur- 

How to Catch Mice. 

Take ajar or tin bucket and fill it about 
half full of water and place it where mice 
are in the habit of promenading. Take a 
board 18 or 20 inches long, one end of which 
lay on the floor or ground, as the case may 
be, and the other end on top of the bucket. 
Sprinkle a handful of oats over the water in 
the bucket. This will not sink, but will re- 
main on top and hide the water from view. 
Now sprinkle wheat, corn or anything else 
that mice like on the board so as to entice 
them to the top, when they will see the oats 
in the bucket and jump In to get it and soon 

I have tried this plan with quite satisfac- 
tory results. The trap is always set, and, 
when a mouse once gets in, there is no get- 
ting out. Of course it should be noticed 
every day or two, and the drowned rodents 
removed. I have never tried to catch rats 
In this way, but think if a jar that would 
bold six gallons or more were used, the plan 
would prove quite satisfactory. 

It is a much safer way than the use of 
"rough on rats" or other poisons, and is con- 
siderably cheaper than those notorious 
" champion liar " rat traps. Give the plan 
a trial. — Ohio Farmer. 

How To Tell a Person's Age. 

A German newspaper says the age of a 
person and the month in which he was born 
may be discovered as follows: First you ask 
him to go to the other end of the room, to 
prevent your seeing what he is going to 
write. Then you ask him to put down the 
number of the month in which he was born, 
and multiply the latter by two; add five to 
the sum and multiply the latter by 50; add 
his age to the product; then deduct 365 and 
add 115 to the remainder. Suppose he is 
49 years of age and was born in February — 
the computation might stand thus: 2x2 
equals 4, plus 5 equals 9, x 50 equals 450, 
plus 49 equals 499, minus 365 equals 134, 
plus 115 equals 249. The last two figures 
indicate the age, viz., 49, and the first figure, 
2, February, the second month 01 the year. 
You simply ask the person to state the result 
of the calcu ation, and then declare that he 
was born in February and is 49 years of age. 
Experiment with this as often as you please 
and it is sure to work, provided you do it 

Electricity is now being utilized for killing 
homeless dogs and cats at Hartford, Conn., 
says the Chicago Journal of Commerce. In 
the rear of the police station there is a cage 
just large enough for a dog to stand in, 
fitted up with electrical connections. The 
fore feet of the animal rest upon one elec- 
trode and his hind feet upon another, and 
when he is in position an electric current is 
switched on and he is put to death on the 
same principle as criminals are executed. 

$100 Reward, $100. 

The reader of this paper will be pleased to learn 
that there is at least oue dreaded disease that science 
has been able to cure in all its stages, and that is 
Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the only positive 
cure known to the medical fraternity. Oatarr being 
a constitutional disease, requires a constitutional 
treatment. Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally, 
acting directly on the blood and mucous surfaces of 
the system, thereby destroying the foundation of the 
disease, and giving the patient strength by building 
up the constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers, that they offerOne Hundred Dollars 
for any case that it fails to cure. Send for list of 
eatimonials. Address 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 
49* Sold by Druggists, 76c. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six Hoes or less in this directory at 50c per line per month, 


V. H. BORKE, 826 Market St., S. F. Registered 
Holstelna, winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums than any herd on the Coast. 
Pure registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

JERSEYS AND HOL.STEINS, f-om the best 
Butter and Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs and 
Poultry. Wno. Niles & Co.. Los Angeles, Cal., 
Breeders and Exporters. Established in 1876. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 

PERCHERON HORSES.— Pure bred Horses and 
Mares, all ages, and Guaranteed Breeders, (or sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, LaKe County, Cal. New 
Catalogue now ready. Wm B Collier. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick Bouse, San Francisco, 
Cat Importers and Breeders, for past 21 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

JERSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. Registered Prize 
Herd is owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 

Li. V. WILLITS. Watsonvllle, Cal., Blaok Perch- 
erons. Registered Stallions for sale. 


J. W. FOROEUS, Santa Cruz, Cal., has established 
one of the best equipped poultry ranohes on this 
Coast. He has 300 Kankin Strain Pekin Ducks, also 
Brown Leghorns and Barred Plymouth Rocks. Write 
for prices of what you want. Reference: People's Bank. 

WM. NILES & CO., Los Angeles, Cal., Breeders of 
nearly all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

Cal. Send for Illustrated & Descriptive Catalogue, tree. 

R. G. HEAD, Napa. Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 


R. H. OR ANE, Petaluma, Cal. Breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


MONROE MILLER, Elisio, Ventura County, Cal., 
Breeder of Registered Berkshire Hogs. 

H. J. PHILPOTT, Niles, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Tecumseh and other choice strains of Registered 
Poland-China Hogs. ,. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, Cal. Breeder and Importer 
of Thoroughbred Swine. Sma'l Yorkshire Victoria, 
Essex and Poland-China. Superior Stock, new Prices. 

Best 8tock; also Dairy Strains of Jerseys and Holsteins. 
Wm. N lien & Co. Los Angeles, Cal. Established 1876. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sao. Co., Cal.— Breeder of 
Short-Horn Cattle, Poland-China and Berkshire Hogs. 

T. WAITE, Perkins, Cal., breeder of registered 
Berkshire Hogs and Plymouth Rock fowls. 

rYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

CHAS. A. STOWE, Stockton, Reglst'r'd Berkshires. 


Los A ngeles, Cal. 
Direct Importers of 

Large Draft and Fine 
Coach Stallions, 

l"German Coach, Percherons, 
English Shires, Belgians, 
Cleveland Bays and Yorkshire Coach, all Registered. First 
Prizes at Cal. Fairs. 8ixty-One Prizes, Five Sweep- 
stakes and two herd prizes at World's Fair, 1893. Corre- 
spondence solicited. Address 208 Belmont Ave. We make 
speciai inducements and terms to a company of breeders. 

In These Dull Times 

Tod Cai Largely Increase 

Your Income by buying an Incubator 
and engaging in the chicken business. 
Send stamp for our catalogue of 
Incubators, Wire Netting, Blooded 
Fowls and Poultry Appliances gen 
erally Remember, the best it the 
1317 Castro St., Oakland, Cal. 


STABLE BLANKET fits !Tk.- a tailor-road, 
tout. Ask yuur dealer far the " BURLINGTON 
Write tor handsome illustrated catalogue— sent frcs. 


-THE — 

HALSTBD incubator 

laiit Myrtle Mtreet, Onblnnd. Cal. 

Solid Stamp for Circular 


SANTA KOSA, CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National Bank.) 
Importer, Breeder, Exporter. 

S. O White Leghorn 
8. O. Brown Leghorn 
Barred Plymouth Rock 
Black Minorcas, 

Eggs, $3 per 13. Send for circular. 



Warehouse and Wharf at Port Ooata. 


ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

B. VAN EVERY. Manager. T. R. BAL, LINGER, Oraln Salesman. 


Chickens are easily and successfully 
raised by using the Petaluma Incu- 
bators and Brooders. (! Our illus- 
trated catalogue tells all about it. Don't 
buy any but the Petaluma if you want strong, vigorous chicks. We 
are Pacific Coast Headquarters for Bone and Clover Cutters, Markers, 
Books, Caponizing Tools, Fountains, Flood's Roup Cure, Morris 
Poultry Cure, Creosozone the great chicken-lice killerand every other 
article required by poultry raisers. See themachinesinoperationat 
our exhibit with the Norwalk Ostrich Farm, Midwinter Fair, hatch- 
ing ostriches and all kinds of eggs. Catalogue free, if you want it, 

750-752-754-756 Main St., Petaluma, Cal. 


Prize Herd of Southern California. 


SESSIONS & CO., Los Angeles, Cal. 

P. O. Box 686 


Imported and California, 


A number or MULES, 2, 3 and 4 years old. 

L.U.Sbippee, Stockton,Cal. 

Calves, Yearlings and 2-year-olds 



Baden Station, San Mateo County, Oal 

The cars of the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Road 
pass the place. 


The numerous diseases that are usually 
prevalent among very Young Turkeys 
may be prevented by tbe nee of 


Send for Circular 


BO North William Street, New York. 


Dovetailed Hives, Sections, Comb Foundation, Founda- 
tion Machines, Extractors, Smokers, Hooey Knives, 
Alley's Traps, Perforated Zinc Honey Boards Shipping 
Cases, Cans and Casus for Extracted Honey, Bee Tents, 
HOOT'S GOODS, and everything required by tbe trade, 
wholesale and retail. 

WM. STTAN. San Mateo. Oal. 

The Most Successful Remedy ever discovered 
as It Is certain In its effects and does not blister. 
Itead proof below. 


Btae, Lane Co., Obkgou, Feb. 8th, 1892. 
Da. B. J. Kendall Co., 

Dear Sirs :— I have used yonr Kendall's SrA-vnr 
Cure for the last twelve years never being without 
It but a few weeks In that time and I have made 
several wonderful cures with it. I cured a Curb 
of long standing. Then I had a four year old colt 
badly Sweenied ; tried every thing without any 
benefit, so I tried your liniment, and In a few weeks 
he was well and his shoulder filled up all right, and 
the other, a four year old that had a Thorounlipln 
and Blood .Spavin on the same Joint, and to-day 
no one can tell which leg it was on. These state- 
ments can be proven, if necessary ; the four year 
olds are now seven and can be seen any day at Cot- 
tago Grove, Or. s. Z. Paxton. 

—Price $1 00 per bottle 

Enosbnrgh Falls, Vermont. 

Treatise on the Horse and His Diseases. 

By B. J. Kindall, M. D. 

85 Flee Engravings showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal medicines used 
for the horse, and a few pages 
on the action and uses ot med- 
diclnes. Rules for telling the 
age of a horse, with a fine en- 
graving showing the appearance 
of the teeth at each year. It Is printed on fine paper 
and has nearly 100 pages, 74x6 inches. Price, only 26 
oents, or five lor 91, on receipt of which we will send 
by maU to any address DEWEY PUBLISHING CO.. HO 
Market Street. San Francisco 



Sent on Trial 
Mix Months for 



Teaches How io 
Make Money with 
A Few Hera* 


It Is well worth $1.00. Send stamps. Sample free. 

C1DU BMII TDWlsthenan Fit. Mention this ad. 

rAnlfl-rUULl III L S. Johnson & Co., Huston, Alas* 


IVCkr k IV O Sample oopy of 

A Handsomely Illustrated nrr CM DDI ITC 
Magazine, and Catalog, of Dill. OUT rLltO .J 
Fit ICE. A. I. ROOT, Medina, O, ™ 



Poultry and Eggs for Sale Cheap. 

Tolouse Geese a Specialty. 

I American Bee Journal, 

(Established 1861.) 

IS Oldest, Largest, Ilest, 
Cheapest and tbe Only 
weekly Bee-Paper In all 

America. 32 pages, 11.00 
i a year. 8end for Free Sample. 

$1.00 iii-book rnmm 
A«0. W TOBK A 00* H nru In., Chicago, 111, 



January 20, 1894. 


California's Praise. 

The following poem by Mrs. Imogene A. Casey 
was read on Admission Day at Klonn Grange, No. 
130, September 9, 1893. 

Fair California 1 Golden State I 
Dear Calilornia, grand and great, 

To ihte, to thee, we sing. 
Thy Golden Gate is open wide; 
The ships of every nation tide 
Upon thy harbor's peaceful tide; 

For this, to thee we sing. 

We prai<e thee for thy hidden wealth 
And thy pure breezes giving health 

Belter by far than gold. 
We praise the richness of thy soil, 
Which giveth back for honest toil 
Abundant fruits and nuts and oil 

And grains an hundred lold. 

Lind where the orange, fig and vine 
Are fast supplanting upland pine, 

To thee, to thee, we sing. 
Adown thy hillsides and between 
Flow rivers through thy valleys green 
Where blooming flowers are always seen. 

For this, to thee we sing. 

Tby giant groves, thy falls sublime, — 
Thy gifts to us lor endless time, — 

Ever will sing thy praise. 
From where thy mountains, cloud-capped, stand 
Down to the ocean's glittering sand 
Are scenes of beauty which rh-m.tnd 

That we should sing thy praue. 

Thy balmy air and sunny sky 
With far-famed Italy may vie. 

To thee, to thee, we sing. 
Thou land of every promise bright. 
That fillest all hearts with delight, 
We only give to thee thy right 

When in thy praise we sing. 

The pioneers who sought thy gold 
Fond memories in their hearts enlold 

Ol days of '49. 
They suffered hardships by the way; 
In noble service they've grown gray. 
Alas I too soon they pass away 

Whose fondest praise is thine. 

Thy sons and daughters name with pride 
A birthplace on thy mountains' side 

Or in their valleys fair. 
And when united heart and hand 
They build their homes in thy fair land 
Their children's children — noble band — 

Will say, "'Our home is there." 

Secretary Morton in Reply. 

Patrons of Husbandry will be Interested 
In the following remarks by Secretary Mor- 
ton, made to a reporter who brought him in- 
formation that the National Grange has 
passed resolutions denouncing him. Mr. 
Morton said: 

The grange is an independent body. 
There can be no objection to that or any 
other independent body attending to the 
purposes tor which it was created. It is 
subject to criticism whenever it devotes it- 
self to any other purposes. And only to 
those grangers and granges who have been 
Instituted lor other than agricultural ad- 
vancement can any of the language used in 
the remarks at Chicago on the 16th of last 
October be applied. The gentlemen who 
applied and fitted those remarks to them- 
selves have no cause for self-congratulation. 
What would they think if farmers who for- 
merly belonged to the grange should pass a 
series of resolutions inquiring what became 
of more than $200,000 that the National 
Grange alleged, some years since, it held in 
the form of Government bonds for the bene- 
fit of the order? Of course, it is understood 
that the reply to such a resolution would be 
that it bad been returned to the State Grange 
in each case, and then the question would 
be: What did the State Grange do with it? 
How much of the $200,000 ever reached the 
original donor or contributors of that sum. 
No good citizen desires to criticise agricult- 
ural associations which are legitimately or- 
ganized for the very useful and legitimate 
purpose of exalting the calling of the farmer, 
and the intellectuality of those who pursue 
It. More than thirty years ago, with Gov- 
ernor Furnas of Nebraska, I organized the 
State board in that State, and continued an 
active member of it for many years, being 
twice the president thereof. I also assisted 
Governor Furnas, J. H. Masters and others 
in organizing the first Stale Horticultural 
Society in Nebraska and making the first 
Territorial fair in 1859; and in 1872 I origi- 
nated the phrase ana lounded the anniver- 
sary "Arbor Day." Since then I have been 
president of the American Forestry Associa- 
tion, and contributed in a small way the best 
I could to cultivate in the American mind 
the love of tree conservation and tree plant- 
ing. It is not necessary for me to attempt 
to make any defense as to my real interests 
In real farmers. I will neither modify nor 
retract anything that I said at Chicago, no 
matter what the results will be to me person- 
ally, politically or otherwise. As a retractor 
I have always been a complete failure. 

From Two Rock. 

To the Editor:— On the 4th inst. Two 
Rock Grange installed its new officers and 
celebrated the occasion with a harvest feast. 
About 150 patrons were present. All the 
granges in the county had been invited, but 
owing to cold weather and bad roads the 
representation was not good. The under- 
signed, assisted by Sister Purvine, presided 
over the ceremonies of installation. Each 
of the new officers in turn made brief and 
appropriate remarks. 

Past Master Uenman, in taking leave of 
the master's chair and in welcoming the new 
master, Houx, said: " As the retiring mas- 
ter I want to say a few words of welcome to 
you, as yon enter the high position you so 
well merit. When I say that on you now 
devolves many Important duties and much 
responsibility, I know I call no new thought 
to your mind, and it is to encourage you as 
you now enter on those duties and assume 
that responsibility that I will sum up my 
experience as master of our grange and to 
say to you, as I wanted to say to our State 
Grange last fall, that the promptness of our 
members at meetings and in committee 
work, the ready assistance of brother officers, 
the entire absence of selfish interest or petty 
jealousies, and, above all, the full attend- 
ance of a hearty spirit of co-operation and 
fraternal charity and regard, all these com- 
bine to make the position of master of Two 
Rock Grange one much to be enjoyed. 

" I know of no words to more strongly 
express my best wishes for a happy adminis- 
tration of your office than these: May your 
experience be as pleasant and profitable to 
you as mine has been to me — knowing how 
constant will be your endeavors to meet all 
your duties as becones a true and faithful 
Patron of Husbandry. I will add in con- 
clusion, in confidence of the complete attain- 
ment of my best wishes, that the experience 
of the past is a sure guarantee for the great- 
est possibilities of the future. 

" And now, fellow patrons, I want to say 
a few words of farewell to you as I now take 
leave of the high position with which you 
honored me. 

" On first assuming the chair I was deeply 
impressed with a sense of the responsibility 
it brought and have earnestly striven to 
meet all my duties in a fair and strictly im- 
partial spirit and to do all I could to ad- 
vance the interest of our Order. 

" I keenly appreciate and am deeply 
grateful for the ready assistance and the 
kindly regard that I have always encoun- 
tered and the favor and confidence that my 
election to the position implied, and lastly, 
that the memories of my term of office as 
your master will be among those that I most 
warmly cherish." J. C. Purvine. 

Petalnma, Jan. 10. 

From Stockton. 

To the Editor: — We are prosperous 
financially and fraternally and alive to the 
questions of the day. Our attendance is 
good, though some are out, seeding. The 
rains have been just right for that. A half 
hour, under " Good of the order," is to be 
taken to discuss the subjects for the year, 
given by W. S. L. Goodenoagh. 

With zest, we enjoy the literary half hour 
under W. L. Sister Leadbeater, who always 
has some members ready with readings or 
recitations, beginning with music by our 
organist, Sister Noyce. Quaint solos, duets 
and rousing grange songs make us feel that 
we will better grow, and love each other 
more, till palsied in death are the kindly 
hands that grasp our own. 

On the 6th, a triple installation of officers 
of Stockton, Waterloo and Independent 
Granges was admirably carried out by W. S. 
L. Goodenough, Bro. Overhiser, and Sister 
Fine of Independent Grange. 

Brightened by W. A. S. Lizzie Root's fes- 
toons, Sister Kumrel's and other bouquets, 
the hall was alight with redolent bloom 
which made us feel 

" That Dame Nature, in her bounty, leaves us 
nothing to forgive 
Right here in California, where it is a comfort just 
to live." 

The feast, shared by 80, seemed a contra- 
diction to low prices and hard times, but the 
poor were remembered. 

The after-dinner speech by W. S. L. 
Goodenough was so replete with logical 
facts and figures showing the unremunera- 
tive toil of farmers and fruit-raisers com- 
pared with other callings; the gestures so 
natural and the language so plain, that it 
ought to have been published. Short days 
compelled many to go during its delivery, 
and deprived us of an instrumental treat by 
Sister Lottie Barber, but we had a pleasing 
vocal duct by Sister Bessie A'llng and A. S. 
N. H. Root. A. A. 

Stockton, Jan. 15, 1894. 

Tulare Grange. 

To the Editor : — The regular semi- 
monthly meeting of Tulare Grange was held 
in its hall on Saturday afternoon, the 6th 
inst. All the elected officers for the en- 
suing year being present, were duly installed 
by the retiring master. 

Bro. Shoemaker reported that, after pay- 
ing expenses of Farmers' Institute in Visalia 
on the nth of December, a balance of $10 
from the proceeds of concert on that even- 
ing was turned over to the Midwinter Fair 

Sister Bertha Ingham, from committee 
on resolutions on death of Bro. B. F. Moore, 
reported resolutions, which were ordered 
engrossed on the Grange minutes and a 
copy sent to the family of Bro. Moore; the 
charter to be draped for 30 days. 

Bro. Shoemaker presented a resolution 
against the reduction of duties on imported 
fruits and in favor of the same duty on 
Zante currants as on raisins; copies to be 
sent to our Representatives in Congress. 
Carried without debate. 

A talk was had on the usefulness of the 
order and the best way to promote and 
make known the same. 

So much time being occupied in the busi- 
ness of the grange, the discussion on the 
future of wheat cultivation and marketing, 
set for this meeting, was laid over until next 

State Lecturer Goodenough's subjects for 
grange consideration, as published in the 
Rural Press, were read and filed for 
reference. By vote of the grange, the 
lecturer was requested to act as the grange 

All members present showed enthusiasm 
in their work and a desire to assist in pro- 
moting the good work of the order. T. 

Merced Grange. 

Miss Emma Perry of Merced Grange 
writes to report an interesting meeting held 
on the 6th inst., when the officers for 1894 
were installed as follows: 

W. M., Mr. A. Bickford; O., H. C. Healy; 
L., Mrs. M. D. Atwater; S., Mrs. J. T. 
Lander; A. S., Miss Alice Peak; Chap., 
Mrs. A. Kahl; Sec, Miss Jessie Peck; T., 
Mr. M. D. Atwater; G. K., Miss Mattie 
Perry; Pomona, Miss Belle Clark; Flora, 
Miss Letitia Archibald; Ceres, Mrs. W. E. 
Elliott; L. A. S., Miss Emma Perry. 

As there had been a harvest feast at the 
previous meeting, that feature was omitted; 
but the contents of many baskets were pooled 
in a " picnic lunch," which was greatly en- 
joyed. The best possible spirit prevails in 
Merced Grange, and there is every prospect 
for a good year's work. 

RUDY'S PILE 8UPPO8ITORY is guaranteed to 
cure Piles and Constipation, or money refunded. 80 
centa per box. Send stamp for circular and Free 
Sample to MARTIN RUDY. Lancaster, Pa. For sale 
by all first-class druggists. 

— The Idaho State Wagon Road Commis- 
sion has let contracts aggregating $114,500 
for the construction of a system of roads to 
connect the northern and southern sections 
of the State. 

An Attractive Offer. 

Readers of the Pacific Rural Press need not 
be told of the high character and general value of 
the Cosmopolitan Magazine. It is a splendid 
monthly publication, a marvel of beauty and excel- 

We will send the Pacific Rural Press and the 
Cosmopolitan Magazine to any address in the 
United States or Canada for twelve months for 
$3.50. This is an attractive and unusual offer and 
will not long continue. 

— The cold weather last week was a great 
boon to the "ice farmers" in the mountains. 
One company for the first crop harvested 
3500 tons. 



rate of interest on approved security in Farming Lands. 
A. SCUULLEK, Room 11, 508 Montgomery St., San 
Francisco (Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Building). 

Hay Pressing. 

It yon are Interested in pressing hay writel Truman 
Hooker k Co., San Francisco. They will save vou money 

— The State Board of Examiners will pay 
no more cayotrt claims until a specific 
appropriation is made by the Legislature. 

— Walter Cheadle, a Carson business man, 
in an open letter, advocates the building of 
a railroad from Carson to the Sacramento 
river, through Carson, Fredericksburg and 
Diamond valley, around the south end of 
Lake Tahoe, through Lake valley, then over 
the hill to Strawberry, down the American 
river to Placerville, and from there to the 
Sacramento river, putting the State in direct 
communication with the ocean and making 
Nevada a competitive point. He advocates 
the building of a road by the State by the 
issuance of three-per-cent bonds for $3,000,- 
000, redeemable in 50 years, with the Gov- 
ernor, Controller, Treasurer, Surveyor-Gen- 
eral and Attorney- General as the board of 
directors. He advocates the formation of a 
new party, electing legislators on a platform 
which inflicts the death penalty on all who 
sell out to competing roads. He would 
make the Governor superintendent, with the 
power to appoint an assistant. He would 
fix the passenger rate at $5 for a round-tiip 
ticket to San Francisco, half a cent a pound 
the freight rate and $10 for a carload. 

• » fjav a Turkrv ml on corton 

TAII I llfO I n that won't freeze, boil 

■ V/vl y \s I ■ I orwaaboat No 

_ ■ _ will 1 1" it. Package to 

30 m mutes ar^aasg 

wool or cotton, 40c. BtejMV Agents. Write quick. Men- 
tion ihtspajx;r, FRENCH DYE CO.Vassar.Mlch 





per box 
• far S3.50 

script! ve 

Schenectady, N.Y. 
nd Brockvlllc.Ont. 


TEN 18" diam. suction and discharge 



Together with 

NINE UPRIGHT BOII.KK8, 65" dlain., V high 

TEN FOOT VALVES, and about 300 feet of IS" 
diam. STKKI. FLANGED PIPE in 4, 8 and 

12 foot lengths. 

This machinery Is practically new, and was t ml It 
specially for use as a wrecking plant. The pumps have 
each a maximum capacity to deliver 80 tons of water per 
minute. The plant will be sold very low as a whole or 

These pumps are suitable for Irrigating purposes or 
under any conditions where a large volume of water is 
required to be moved quickly and cheaply. 

For price and other particulars, address 

MORAN BROS. CO,, Seattle, Wash. 

^220 MARK ET.ST.S.F., 


CorrugMliMl McH Hinges. 

They are Stronger, nandsomer 
and cost no more than the old 
style. For sale by Hardware 
Dealers generally, but if not In 
your vicinity write the Manu- 
facturers. Send for " Biography 
of a Yankee Uinge."mailed free 


1:1 1 







ip for catalogur to 


I I.C. H».i .nun n. 1 i.i. 

lAMifT 6 1 WELL MACH INERYworks. 

All kin. In of tool-. Fortune for Ihuclrillcr by unlnir our 
Adanvtnliiieprocfw*;c:in takeacore. Perfected Kcouom- 
lciil Artesian Putiiplnir Rie* to work by steam. Air. etc. 
Letushelpv .11. Til K AMKHH1AN W ELI. W'Oltkfi. 
Aurora, 111 | < l>l. ««o. 111.: Dallas, Tex. 





January 20, 1894. 



£eeds, Mapts, tic, 


years by the large number of trees sold by me that 
nursery stock grown on the river bottom of Sutter 
count} Is far su)ierior to any grown In the State. I am 
prepared to supply In large or small quantities: 

Bartlett Fears, Plums and Prunes 

On Myrabalan Plum Roots. 

— ALSO— 

Cherries, Peaches, Apricots, Apple, Almond 
Trees. Etc. 

Special Kates on Large Orders. 
Send for Price List for 1883-91. 

James T. Bogue, Marysvllle, Cal. 

Santa Rosa: 



TKKK j TRUE TO NAME — Warranted clean and 

raised without irrigation. 
PRICES till my surplus is sold. 
Price List mailed free. 

Address R. W. Bell, Santa Rosa, Oal. 



A Ti PAZiFA ! 

Grass, Clover, Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 
Onion Sets. 



Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced Seed Catalogue for 
1891 mailed frco to all applicants. Address 


815 & 817 Sausome St., San Francisco, Cal 
65 Front Street, Portland, Or. 
or 214 Commercial St., "eat Me. Wash. 

San RafflDa Valley Nursery. 

Surplus Stock of 

ALMONDS, 8 Varieties. 
PEACaES. 4 Varieties. 
PRUNES, 3 Varieties. 

At very LOW PRICES. Also an assortment of 
other varieties of Fruit Trees. 



Danville, Oal, 


I Are Jupt wlmt every, 
Isower needs. The mer- 1 
Jits of Ferry 'm Seeds I 
form the foundation up- 
on which bus been built the 
largest seed business in the world. 
Ferry's Seed Annual for 1894 
contains the sum and substance of 
the latest forming knowledge. Frco 
for the asking. 
D. M. FERRY & CO., 
Detroit, Mich. 

Trees, Vines and 

FOR 1893 and 1894. 

Ug~ Terms on Application. "St 
Adukkss, - • Ii. ■ i . ETJTT, 
Penryn, Placer Co California. 


Davisville, Oal. 

Write for Catalogue and Prleeg. 



LODI, - San Joaquin Co., Cal, 


Royal Blenheim and French APRICOTS, 
I.X.L , Nonpariel, Ne P us Ultra and 

Texas Prolific ALMONDS. 
In Variety, 


Colossal Pansies. 

This pure strain of Pansies cannot be sur- 
passed for brilliancy of colors, mammoth size, 
luxuriant growth and rich blending of gay col- 
ors, while thMr profusion of bloom is truly 
wonderful. The flowers possess great sub- 
stance ) nd a*e of the most perfect form, and 
frequently measure three or /our inches across. 
There are over one hundred different shades 
and markings, the numerous blendinga atd 
combination being of exquisite beauty. This 
lovely strain is so beaut ful that no description 
or praise can do it justice, and we can safely 
n:iy that those who sow this strain are sure to 
be delighted. By Mail, 1 Fkt. 40c. 

We will mail free, on application, our Beautifully Illus- 
trated Catalogue containing description and pricesof Grass, 
Vegetable and Flower Skei>s of all descriptions; Fruit Trees, etc. &3TIt trill be to your advantage to send/or it. 

Address: SBVIN VINCENT & CO. , 607 ^aneome St San Francisco, 


1 Yearling Trees, also June liud Trees 
at Bedrock Prices. 

For Particulars Address 

Lodi, San Joaquin County, Cal. 


In Variety for Nurserymen, 
Dealers and Planters. 

Will also contract now to propagate Rooted 
Olive Cuttings for persons who wish to 
plant them In nursery spring of 1894. 


Sixtierj pages, mailed Iree. 








Also Fine Stock of Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Palms, Roses and Carnations. 


Correspondence Solicited. 



Tlio JZV&^w Yollow Freestone DE»©a,olx! 

Kl PENS IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE ALEXANDER (White Cling), which la the earliest 
peach In market. 

Fruit Is round, of medium size, VERY HIGHLY COLORED, flesh firm and sweet. 
la no new, untried variety. 

Tree healthy, strong grower, and heavy bearer, never having missed a crop. 
A limited number of yearling trees for sale this season. Apply early before stock is exhausted. 








jSC£D i*. Kentucky Blue Grass, Clover, VegetaDle, Flower and Tree Seeds SE33DS. 


THOMAS MEHERIN, - - - 516 Battery Street. San Francisco 

P. O. Box 2069. 


Fruit, Nat and Shade Trees, Grape Vines, Etc., Citrus Fruits, Ornamental Shrubs, 
Flowering Plants, Hoses, Palms, Bulbs, Seeds, Etc. 

Fruit and Nut Trees propagated from bearing orchards at Sausal Fruit Farm; Unirrigated, Clean and Healthy. 
Do not fail to correspond before making purchases. Satisfaction guaranteed. 






California Paper-Shell, Nonpariel, Ne Plus Ultra 

and I. X. L. 

A pamphlet on Almonds mailed froe of ohirge on application. A large supply of the GOLDEN PEACH and 
FRENCH PRUNE. All kinds of leading fruit treeB for sale. No charges made for haling treea 
A ( Ul i omm, PBR.CY ~VtT. TRB 
Daviavllie Nurseries uncord, California 


Missions and Nevadillos. 


Two- Year-Old, 4 to 6 feet High. 

Extra inducements offered to intending hu>ers both 
as regards choice trees and very lo* prices. Order at 
once or open correspondence with me. 

J. E. PACKARD, Pomona, Cal. 



Nursery Stock. 

Send and get book on Olive Culture. 


Pomona, Oal. 


Twelve years experience has taught me how to 
PROPERLY root the olive. No artificial heat used. 

Montecito P. 0., Santa Barbara, Cal. 

Pepper's Nurseries. 


For Sale at Low Rates, a General Assort- 
ment of Hardy Deciduous Fruit Trees, 

I do not buy trees to sell; what is offered is grown in 
my own grounds and free from scale bugs. No scale 
bugs of any kind to be found In the Nursery. No agents 
employed. Order direct from the nursery and procure 
your trees true to label. Order early, as earl v planting 
Is the most suocessful with deciduous trees. Prlocs fur- 
nished on application. 

Address W. H. PEPPKR Petalnina. Cal. 


Fine for Canning, Drying and Shipping. 

They run 3 and i to the pound. Tho Largest and Finest 
fruit of the Apricot variety. 


N.B SMITH, Ventura, Ventura Co., Cal. 


Grown on high rolling Mr land without irrigation or 
manure. >40 OOO Prunes — French, Italian, Silver 
and Qoldon. Peaches — E. Crawford, Alexander, Ams- 
den, Foster, Mulr, Malta, and 20 other kinds, including 
K >rly Charlotte, the greatest peach that Nature has 
yet invented. (Write to us about it.) IMnms Bur- 
Dank, Satsumas, Ogon, Olyman, Tragedy, Boton, Colum- 
bia, and a dozen others. Clark's Early Straw- 
berry. If you want the above In quantity, we will give 
you the finest trees grown, healthy, true to namo and at 
imprcccdentedly low prices. Address 1'ILKINQTON 
& CO., Portland, Or , or Or. J. B. Pllklngton, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 



January 20, 1894. 

The valves and work- 
ing parts of the Fulton 
Pump can be removed, 
repaired and replaced 
without taking the pump 
out of the well. 

Pumps fitted up for all 
depths of wells, ready to 
put in. 

Send for illustrated 
circulars and price list to 

A. T. Ames, 


Hagnlaclvrrr of l'uni|» and 



Makes Three Complete 

Brass Machines. 

Endorsed by the Lead- 
ing Entomologist of 
the United States. 

Satisfaction guaiantced 01 
uioney refunded. 

A valuable illustrated bjok 
on onr insect pests given to 
each purchaser. 

We will put this pump In 
competition with any other 
pump made, costing $16 or 
It ss. Address 

2716 Mission St., S. F. 
Only General Agent o( the 
Pacific Coast 




? Y oU Vfitf £S 



Doul.U- A. lin- 
~ eUior Spi 
1 iog Out tits prevent 
I Leaf Blight a Wormy 
I Fruit. Iu!-urvs a huavyg 
'yield of all Fruit anuv^ 
Vegetable crops. Thous- 
ands in line. Send 6cte. for 
i catalogue and full treatise 
t on spraying. Cireulanfrt 



Porteons Improyed Scraper 

Patented April 8, 1883. Patented AprU 17, 1SSS. 

Manufactured by G. LISSENDEH, 

The attention of the public Is called to this Scrapei 
and the many varieties of work of which It Is capable 
sucb as Railroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, Levee Build 
Inc. Leveling Land, Road Making, etc. 

This implement will take up and carry Its load to an} 
desired distance. It will distribute the dirt evenly 01 
deposit its load in bulk as desired. It will do the work 
of Scraper, Orader, and Carrier. Thousands of then 
Scrapers are In use In all parts of the country. 

tr This Scraper Is all steel— the only one mauufac 
tured In the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, $40; Steel two-horse, $81 
Address all orders to G. LIS8BNDBN, Stockton 





For the half year ending December 31, 18!)3, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of five and ouc-tenth 
(6 1-10) per cent per annum on term deposits, and four 
and one-quarter (4J) per cent i»er annum on ordinarv 
deposits, payable on and after Tuesday, January 2, 1894. 

GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 



"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 


Sole Agents, 

Mo 6 Market Street, San Francisco, Oal. 





FOR TREE WASH ! r.gmm&* 

— DM— 

One pound to 5 gallons of water. 

Thousands of Orchardists testifv to Its 
value, using it In preference to all other 
preparations. Where the Red Seal is ap- 
plied It kills the Insects and at the same 
time forms a coating through which 
others cannot penetrate. WhoH used in 
the above proportions, It is a 


Put up in SIFTING-TOP CANS, so that 
any quantity may he used and the bal- 
ance preserved uninjured. 


1 84 Cal If ornlaSt., San Francisco. 




—BY — 



The Ked Seal Lye Is Indispensable. 

USED AS DIRECTED It will take the 
place, and at lb% less cost, of all other 
alkaline preparations, soaps, etc, no* on 
the market. ONE CAN will make lO to 
IS lbs. of Hard 8oap. or SOO lbs 
of £ oft Soap. See directions In can. 

It cleans floors, kills roaches and bugs 
of all kinds, cleans milk vessels, tin or 
wood; keeps farming implements bright 
and free from rust; Is a perfect disinfect, 
ant; softens water, washes dishes and 
clothes; and can be put to a thousand 
uses In place of soap or other prepara- 

P. C. T0MS0N & CO., 

Manufacturers, Philadelphia, Pa. 




First Prizes at the World's Columbian Exposition, 1893. 

PARAFFINE PAINT CO, - . 116 Battery Street, 


E. G. JUDAH, Agent, 

221 South Broadway, 






Some reasons why yon should keep H. B. H. Liniment: 

1st— Because It Is the best for Man or Beast. 

Id— Because it is the Cheapest One bottle mixed wltb double Its quantity of oil Is theu as stroug i 


8d— Because you don't have to wait for It. You can buy it anywhere. 

H H. MOORE & SONS, Druggists, 







Oust send for Ciroula-r and 
see what it uitll do FOR YOU 


THE CUTAWAY HARROW GO higganum, co*/v »™™™% F <ti 


This Solid 14 K Gold 
Htg. Case Ladles' 
Watch. Waltham or 
Elgin Men.. $30. 
In 14 K 1:1,: Oaxe. 

O. F, $17; Htg .$18. 
Ladirs' O. F. Silver 
Swiss Watch, $5. 

«. . ii 1 1 «• in < ■■ « 

Watrbn, Waltham 

or Elgin Movt. In- 

Solld 14 K d Htg. 

Case, $45; 14 K Filled 
Htg. Cane, $20, 10 K 
Filled Htg. Case, $18; 
Heavy Nickel Htg. 
Case. #7.50; 2 Ol. Cefn 
Silver Htg. Case, *12; 
3 oz. Coin Silver Htg. 
Case, $13.50; 4oz. <k)iu 
Silv. Htg. Case. $15 5(1 
P. N. Burtlett 
Movl.-IuKolidH K 
Gold Htg. Case, $50; 
14 K Filled Htg Case, $25: 4 or. Coin Sliver Htg. Case, (20. 
"Appieton, Tracy & Co. Movt., $10 extra." "Orescent Stn-t 
Movt., $15 extra," All Watches stem wtrd and set. 14 K 
AUed cane* guaranteed for 21 rears. FINE WATCH 
REPAIRING. Inaniondu, Watches and Fine Jewelry sent 
C, O. D. with privileKe of examination, on ruceipt of $1 to 
guarantee charges, or sent express or postpaid if cash accom- 
panies the order. Correspondence solicited. Particular 
attention paid to mail orders. When you visit the Mid- 
winter Exposition call and inspect my stock. AGENTS! 
ing Jeweler, Watch.-, and Diamonds, Kooui 113. 
I'll. In n BiilldlaiK. Han I'ranelKO. 



Hay ward's famous Paste and Liquid 
Dips received the Highest Award at the 
World's Columbian Exposition, also the 
Prize Medal at the California State Fair. 
Dips from all over the world were ex- 
hibited at Chicago and practical sheep 
men pronounced Hay ward's the best and 
most effective medicine for the core of scab 
and general benefit to wool. 


Geoeral and Sole Agents for tie PatiOc Coast, 

Office— Fifth and Townsend Streets, 

Sau Francisco. 



Complete and Special Fertilizers 

roa all kin us or 

Fruit, Grain, Sugar Beets, Vegetables, Etc. 



For circulars and other information address 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO.. Agents, 

309 6* 311 SANSOME Sl'oKKT, 
San Francisco. 





Cancer, Tumor, Catarrh, Piles, Fistula, 
Eczema and all Skin and Womb 

CANCER of the nose, eye. Up, ear, neck, breast, stomach 
or womb; In fact, all diseased Internal and external 
orgaus or tissues, successfully treated, without the 
knife or burning caustic planters, but with soothing, 
balmy magnetic oils. Beware of Imitations as there 
are those who hope to profit by advertising an oil cure 
for these diseases. We are the originators of this sys- 
tem, all others are frauds. 

Correspondence solicited. Consultation free. Testi- 
monials furnished. Address 

Cancer Institute, 
Cor. McAlllBter and Larkln si- , San Francisco, Cat. 



1428 Market fet., San Francleco. 

CANCER, Tumors or Malignant Growths removed 
without knife or caustic A GUARANTEED CURE a 
specialty. Call or send fur circular. Over SOO cancers 
preserved In alcohol in our office. Consultation free. 


January 20, 1894. 



Market Review. 

San Francisco, Jan. 17, 1894. 
The wheat market is not perceptibly changed 
since last week and there is no likelihood of change 
during the week to come. Shippers are not buyiDg 
anything, and their inaction of course tends to create 
a feeling of discouragement. In speculative circles 
there is moderate activity, but operations in the Call 
Board do not stimulate export trade. Prices are 
low enough, it would seem, to invite liberal buying 
on the part of shippers, but the situation abroad 
does not justify local exporters in purchasing largely. 
Quotable at (1.02K per ctl for No. 1 Shipping, with 
$1.03% for choice offerings. The range for milling 
grades is $i.o6X@i.o8& per ctl. 


The market is somewhat sensitive. During the 
closing days of last week quite a firm tone developed 
in values, which was partly attributed to dry weather. 
But the rain of Monday changed the situation. No- 
body wanted to buy, while sellers were more than 
disposed to accept reduced figures. With the re- 
turn of sunshine, however, confidence is again as- 
serted, and, at the moment, the outlook is rather 
promising than otherwise for sellers. We qnote: 
Feed, 72j^@75c $ ctl. for fair to good quality, 
76#@77Kc for choice bright; Brewing, 82K@90C 
$ ctl. 

Dried Fruits. 

Dullness is still a feature of the market. Stocks 
are light of about all kinds except Prunes and 
Raisins. Apples are quite scarce and sellers have 
the advantage. Apricots are also in slim offering. 
Choice Peaches are also in light receipt. Apples, 5 
@5'Ac ^ lb for quartered, 5@S'A C for sliced, and 
8@gc for evaporated; Pears, 4@8c ^ lb for 
bleached halves, and 4@Sc for quarters; bleached 
Peaches, 6@8c; sun-dried peaches, 4@sc; Apricots, 
Moorparks, n^@i3c; do Royals, io@nc for 
bleached and 6@7%c for sun-dried; Prunes, <\ l Ac 
$ lb for the four sizes, and 2@4C for ungraded; 
Plums, 5@5!^c for pitted and i'A to 2c for un- 
pitted; Figs, 3 to 4c for pressed and iK to 2c for 
unpressed; White Nectarines, 6 to 7c; Red Nec- 
tarines, s to 6c ^ lb. 

General Produce Market. 

OATS— Offerings are of fair proportions, though 
the amount of strictly choice stock is comparatively 
small. There is fairly brisk movement and the out- 
look is generally considered promising for both trade 
and values. We quote as follows: Milling, 
$i.i5@i.22K; Surprise, $1.22% @\.-yi l A; lancy 
feed, $t.20@t.22 54 ; good to choice, $i.12'A@i.17'A; 
Door to fair, 92)4c@$i.07K ; Black, 85c@S1.22K; 
Gray, $i.05@i.i5 $ ctl.. 

CORN— An easy feeling prevails. Stocks are 
liberal, but there is no selling pressure, and this cir- 
cumstance helps to sustain matters. Quotable at 8o@ 
82KC $ ctl. for large Yellow, go@^2'Ac for small 
Yellow, and go@gi'Ac for White. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $ 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote feed at $20 to $21 
per ton; fine kinds for the table, in large and small 
packages. 2ji@3^c per pound. 

OILCAKE MEAL — Quotable at $37.50 per ton 
from the mill. 

SEEDS— We quote. Mustard, brown, $2.75(^3; 
Yellow, $3.25@3 50; Canary, irapor'ed, $4(5)4.25; 
do, California, — ; Hemp, 3%c $ lb; Rape, 1% 
(&2%; Timothy, 6%c per lb; Alfalfa, 8@9C per 
lb; Flax, $2 25@2 50 per ctl. 

CHOPPED FEED -Quotable at $I7.5o@i8.5o 
per ton. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $i8@2o pf-rton. 

MILLSTUFFS— We quote: Rye Flour, 3%c; 
Rye Meal, 3c; Graham Flour, 3c; Oatmeal, 4J^c; 
Oit Groats, 5c; Cracked Wheat, 3%c; Buckwheat 
Flour, 5@5^c; Pearl Birley. 4@4J4c per lb; 
Normal Nutriment, $3 per case ol 1 doz°n cans; 
Breakfast Delight, $3.25 per case of 2 dozen pack- 

BRAN— Quotable at $t6@i7 per ton. 

HAY — The late rain has given the market 
easier tone. Wire-bound hay sells at $i@2 
per ton less than rope-bound hay. Following 
are wholesale city prices for rope-bound Hay: 
Wheat, $10 to $14; Wheat pnd Oat, $to@i3; 
Wild Oat, $io@i2; Allalfa, $8@to; Barley, $9@n; 
Compressed, $tt@i2.t;o; Stock, $8@io $ ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at 45@55c $ bale. 

HOPS — Market quiet and likely to keep so. 
Quotable at is@i8c $ lb. 

RYE— Quotable at $t@r.02^ # ctl. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotab'e at $t.20@$i.30 $ctl. 

GROUND BARLEY— Quotab'e at $ 5o 
per ton. 

POTATOES— No scarcity of supplies. We quote: 
New Potatoes, 2j^@3c per lb; Sweets, $1(3)1.50 per 
ctl; Garnet Chiles, 45@55c; Early Rose, 40@5oc; 
River Rurbanks, 35@45c; River Red, 37K@4° c ; 
Salinas Burbanks, 70@8sc $ ctl. 

ONIONS — Are firm in price. Quotable at $1.10 
@i.40 IC ctl. 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $1.50(0)1.65; 
Blackeye. $i.6o@i.65; Niles, $1.50(0)1 60 $ ctl. 

BEANS — Steady tone to values. We quote: 
Bavos, $; Butter, $t. 75(0)1. 93 for ^malland 
$2@2 25 for large; Pink, $1.40(5)1.75; Red, $1.75® 
2.1.0; Lima, $2.10(0)2.15; Pea, $; Small 
White. $2@2.t5: Large White, $2(0)2 10 $ ctl. 

VEGETABLES— The supplies are very light. 
We quote as follows: Asparagus, io@2oc ^ 
lb.; Mushrooms, — @ — c ^ ft), for common and 
— @ — c ^ lb. for good to choice; Rhubarb. — @ 
— c $ lb.; Green Peas, 6@ioc; String Beans, 25® 
30c; Marrowfat Squash, $7@8#? ton; Green Peppers, 
8(0.' toe $ lb.; Tomatoes, 5oc@$i.25 # box; Tur- 
nips, 75c # ctl; Beets, 75c@$i $ sack; Parsnips. $1.25 
# ctl; Carrots, 40(0)500; Cabbage, 5o@55c; Garlic, 
3@4C lb; Cauliflower, 6o@70C # dozen; Dry 
Peope'S, 5@7C & tb; Dry Okra, 15c per lb. 

FRESH FRUIT— For first-class apples there 
is steady demand, but inferior qualities are 
not wanted even for peddling trade. We 
quote prices as follows: Apples, 75C@$i $ box 
for good to choice, and 25(6)650 for common to 
fair; Choice mountain Apples, $1.25(0)1. 50c <t? box; 

Persimmons, 50(0)850 per box; Cranberries, Eastern, 
$8@8.5o per bbl. 

CITRUS FRUIT— We quote as follows: Fair 
to choice Navel Oranges, $1.25(0)1.90 per box; Seed- 
lings, 75c@$i.25; Mandarin Oranges, 6sc@$i 
box; Mexican Limes, $6@7 per box; Lemons, Sicily, 
$4@5; California Lemons, $i@2 for common and 
$2.25(6)3 for good to choice; Bananas, $1.50 
©2.50 per bunch; Hawaiian Pineapples, $2.50 
@3; Mexican Pineapples, $3(0)4 per dozen. 

RAISINS — In heavy supply at weak prices. We 
quote as follows: London Layers. $1 to $r.25; 
loose Muscatels, in boxes, 75@90c; clusters, $1.50 
to $t.75: loose Muscatels, in sacks, 2'A to 3c per 
pound for 3 crown; 2 to 2}£c for 2 crown; Dried 
Grapes, 1 to iJ4c per pound. 

NUTS — Trade is of very small proportion";. 
We quote as follows; Chestnuts, 8c per lb; 
Walnuts, 6K@7C for hard shell, $ l A@gc for 
soft shell and 9c for paper shell; Chile Walnuts, 
8(6)90; California Almonds, io@iic for soft shell, 
6@7C for hard shell and ii'A@i2'Actor paper shell; 
Peanuts, 3@4c; Hickory Nuts, 5@6c; Filberts, 
io@ioKc; Pecan, 8@9c for rough and nc for pol- 
ished; Brazil Nuts, io@iiKc; Cocoanuts, $4@5 $ 

HONEY — Business slow and limited. Prices 
easy. We quote : Comb, io'A@nlAc $ lb for 
bright, and 8@io for dark to light amber; light 
amber, extracted, 4^(0)50; dark, 4U@4'Ac; water 
white, extracted, 5(6)5 54c $ lb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 22(0)230 # lb. 

BUTTER — Prices are depressed under increasing 
receipts. Dealers are not inclined to carry stock, 
and anxiety to sell shapes the situation favorably 
for buyers. Fancy creamery, 24@26c; fancy dairy, 
22(5>24c; good to choice, 20@2ic; common grades, 
I 7@ I 9 C ¥ tt>; pickled roll, 17(6)190; firkin, 15(6)180. 

CHEESE — Supplies are moderate. Values 
are unchanged. We quote as follows : Choice 
to fancy new, iuC^i-jc; fair to good, 9@tic; 
Eastern, ordinary to fine, 11(6)140 $ lb. 

EGGS — Values have been steadying for several 
days, and a slight advance in ranch parcels has 
been established. We quote : California ranch, 
25@27c; store lots, 22@24c; Eastern Eggs, i8@2ic 
$ dozen. 

POULTRY — The market continues in bad shape 
for sellers. Stocks are large, while the demand is 
slow. Prices weak all round. We quote as 
'ollows: Live Turkeys — Gobblers, io@nc 
lb; Hens, io@nc; dressed Turkeys, I2j£@i4c; 
Roosters, $4(6)4.50 for old and $4(6)5 for young; 
Fryers, $4(6)4.50; Broilers, $3(6)4; Hens, $4(6)5-50; 
Ducks, $4 50(6)6; Geese, $1.50(6)1. 758? pair; Pigeons, 
$t@t.25 Ijr doz. for old and $t.50@i.75 for young. 

GAME — Market very badly demoralized. Stock 
gots for about anything that buyers choose to pay. 
We quote as (ollows: Quail, 75c@$i $ dozen; Can- 
vasbacks, $2.50(6)3 50; Mallard, $2(6)2.50; Widgeon, 
5°(3)75 c ; Teal, 50 to 75c; Sprig, $1; Small Ducks, 
50(6)650; Gray Geese, $1.75(6)2; White Geese, 
50@75c; Brant, 75c@$i; English Snipe, $1*8)1.25 $ 
doz.; Common Snipe, 50(8)600 ^ft doz.; Honkers, 
$2.50(6)3; Hare, 75c to $1; Rabbits, $1(0)1.50 
per doz. 

PROVISIONS— We quote as follows: Eastern 
hams, i2@i2Kc $ lb; California hams, ii@I2c; 
Bicon, Eistern, extra light, i5M@i7c; medium, 
uiiMi 1 r, do, light, 12c; do, light, clear, 13(6) 
@i3/4c; light, medium, boneless, I2}4c; Pork, 
prime mess, $14(6)15; do, mess, $18(6)19; do, 
clear,$2i; do, family, $24 $ bbl; Pigs' Feet, $12.50 
per bbl; Beef, mess, bbls, $7.50(6)8; do extra mess, 
bbls. $8.50(6)9; do, family, $9.50(0)10; extra do, 
$11(6)11.50 }j? bbl; do, smoked, io(Oioy 2 c; Eastern 
lard, tierces, 8@8Jic; do prime steam, io^£c; East- 
ern pure, 10-lb pails, nJ4c; 5.1b pails nK c : 3 lb. 
11 YiC; California, io-lb tins, io%c; do, 5-lb, 11c; 
do, kegs, iiK@i2c; do, 20-lb buckets, 11c; com- 
pound, 8c for tierces and 8^c for hf bbls. 

WOOL — Trade continues dull in locil circles, 
and the same condition of affiirs is reported at dis- 
tant centers. We quote spring : 

California, year's fleece, 7@8c; do 6 to 8 months, 
7@9c; do Foothill, io(6)iic; do Northern, 12(6)130; 
do extra Humboldt and Mendocino, 11(6)130; Ne- 
vada, choice and light, I2@t4c; do heavy, 8@ioc; 
Oregon, Eastern, choice, io@t2c; do Eastern, poor, 
7(6)90; do Valley. I2@i5c. We quote fall : Free 
Mountain, 6@8c; Northern defective, 5@7C; 
Southern and San Joaquin, 3@5C 

HIDES AND SKINS— Quotable as follows: 
Sound. Culls. 
Heavy Steers, 57 lbs up, J? lb. 5 @ — c 4 @ — c 

Medium Steers, 48 to 56 lb 5.4 @ — c 3%@ c 

Light, 42 to 47 lbs 3 @3'Ac 2K@3 — c 

Cows, over 50 lbs 3 @3%c 2'A@ c 

Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs 3 @ — c 2%@ c 

Stags 2%@ — c 2 (5) — c 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs 4 @ c 3 @ — c 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs 5 @ — c 4 (5) c 

Calf Skins, 5 to 10 lbs 7 (6) — c 6 @ c 

Dry Hides, usual selection, 7c; Dry Kips, 
7c; Calf Skins do, 7c; Cull Hides, Kip and 
Calf, 4c; Pelts, Shearling, io@20c each; do, short, 
2 S@35 C ea ch; do, medium. 40(6)500 each; do, long 
wool, 50(6)750 each; Deer Skins, summer, 25c; do, 
good medium, 15c; do, winter, 5c per lb; Goat Skins, 
25(6)400 apiece lor prime to perfect, io@20c for 
damaged, and 5@ioc each for Kids. 

TALLOW — We quote: Refined, s l Ac\ rendered, 
4J4@4^c; country Tallow, 4@45£c; Grease, 3@ 
3l4c per lb. 

San Francisco Meat Market. 

The supply of Beef is ample for all immediate 
needs. Of Mutton and Lamb there is no surplus, 
and quotations still show steady tone. Following 
are the rates for whole carcasses from slaughterers 
to dealers : 

BEEF — First quality, s%@6c; second quality, 
4K@5c; third quality, 3 l A@4C $ lb. 

CALVES— Quotable at 4@sc for large, and 6@ 
7c fl? lb for small. 

MUTTON— Quotable at 6@7C $ lb. 

LAMB Quotable at 7@8c ^ tb. 

PORK — Live Hogs, on foot, grain fed, heavy and 
medium. 45ic; small Hogs, 5c; stock Hogs, 
4K@4Mc; dressed Hogs, 7@7#c $ tb. 


Loans negotiated on first. class securities Mines and 
raining prospects of guaranteed value gold on working 
bonds. C. H. DW1NELLE, Grand Hotel, Man 
Francisco, Oal. 

Good Lemonade. 

For a quart I take the juice of three lem- 
ons, using the rind of one of them. I am 
carelul to peel the rind very thin, getting 
just the yellow outside; this I cut into pieces 
and put with the juice and powdered sugar, 
of which I use two ounces to the quart, in a 
jug or jar with a cover. When the water is 
just at the tea point I pour it over the lemon 
and sugar, cover at once and let it get cold. 
Try this way once, and you will never make 
it any other way. — Scientific American. 


We have made arrangements with Dr. B. 
J. Kendall Co., publishers of "A Treatise 
on the Horse and his Diseases," which will 
enable all our subscribers to obtain a copy 
of that valuable work free by sending their 
address (enclosing a two-cent stamp for 
mailing same) to Dr. B. J. Kendall 
Co., Enosisurgh Falls, Vt. This book 
is now recognized as standard authority 
upon all diseases of the horse, as its 
phenomenal sale attests, over four million 
copies having been sold in the past ten 
years, a sale never before reached by any 
publication in the same period of time. 
We feel confident that our patrons will 
appreciate the work, and be glad to avail 
themselves of this opportunity of obtaining 
a valuable book. 

It is necessary that you mention this 
paper in sending for the " Treatise." This 
offer will remain open for only a short time. 

A Worthy Institution. 

Established in 1863, the Pacific Business College 
of this city has had a successful bus ; ness career for 
over thirty years and has trained thousands of young 
men and women in business methods. The terms 
"old" and "reliable" can well be applied to this insti- 
tution, its name and fame are as extensive as the 
field it covers and its thorough practical system 
commends it to the thoughtful attention of our 
readers. Write to Prof. T. A. Robinson, 320 Post 
St., San Francisco, Cal., for a circular or a copy of 
the college paper. 

Eclipse Corn Planter, 

Testimonials to the worth, merit and value of the 
Eclipse Corn Planter are so many that it is evident 
this popular planting machine gives universal satis- 
faction wherever tried. Every one who uses it com 
mends it, and any one who thinks of buying a corn 
planter would do well to inquire for the Eclipse, 
manufactured by the Eclipse Corn Planter Co. of 
Enfield, New Hampshire. 

— Two large ocean steamers are now en 
route from the Atlantic coast for Puget 
Sound ; they will arrive there some time 
next month, and will carry passengers and 
freight between Sound points and San 
Francisco during the Midwinter Fair period. 
The vessels are said to be the property of 
the Canadian Pacific Railroad Company. 




This College Instructs in Shorthand, Type- Writing, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
for full six months. We have sixteen teachers and give 
individual Instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State. fT SEND FOR 


will plant Core, 
Beans, Peas and 
Beet Seed in 
bills, drills and 
checks, in dis- 
tances desired 
It is the only 
Planter that will 
distribute all fertilizers, wet as well as dry, with a certainty, 
in different amounts, each side of seed. Send for circulars. 


Enfield, Grafton Co., New Hampshire. 

The Highest Award 
in the World, 

Is the unqualified approval of every customer. Our 
fence bas won at every Fair or Exposition where • ntered, 
hut what does a practioal fanner care for that ? The 
fighting qualities of a soldier are proven on the field of 
battle, not on dress parade 

mi WOVEN WIRE FENCE CO., Adrian, Hid. 

two to six years old; weight fro'-: 1600 to 2000Jpounds. 
J. Parsons, Santa Rosa, Cat. 

Commission fUerchants. 


601, 603, 505, 607 & 600 Front St., 
And 300 Washington Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 


Commission - Merchants, 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 


404&4-06 DAVIS STS.F. 




General Commission Merchants, 

SIO California St., S. V. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

Cnvrinnal attention given to sales and liberal advances 
made on consignments at low rates of interest. 



From $1000 upwards at market rates. ) PROPERTIES 
We also deal in county lands. Several foreclosed prop- 
erties for sale cheap, on easy terms. Write for list, or if 
you desire to sell, send us full particulars. LINDSAY & 
CRAIG, Land and Financial Agents, Crocker Building, 
San Francisco. 







jt" BELT 


1 v AN0HNNIN6 



Only Award of Gold Medal and Di- 
ploma at the World's Fair, Chicago. 



— AND — 




Embodying the Experience and Methods of Hundred! 
of Successful Growers, and Constituting a Trust- 
worthy Guide by wbicb the Inexperienced 
may Successfully Produce the Fruits 
for wLlch California Is Famous 



Large Octavo — 599 Pases, Fully ninstralei 




Publishers Pacific Rural Presb, 
220 Market Street, Elevator, 12 Front Stroet 




January 20, 1894. 

What Pearls are Made of and Where 
They are Found. 

Very few people are aware that the pearl 
oyster is not in any way like the oysters 
which we eat. It is of an entirely different 
species, and, as a matter of fact, the shells 
of the so-called pearl oyster are of far more 
value to those engaged in " pearl fishing " 
than the pearls, says Harper's Youn% Peo 
pie. There are extensive pearl fisheries in 
the Gulf o( California, and some of the finest 
pearls have been taken from these waters 
In 1881 one pearl, a black one, was sold for 
$io,ooo, and every year since that time 
many pearls have been taken from the beds 
in the Californian gulf valued at $7500 each 
But such " finds " are very rare, and, as a 
rule, the pearls which are brought up are of 
very little value. The shells, however, are 
very valuable; most of them are shipped to 
Europe, where they are manufactured into 
ornaments, knife handles, buttons, and 
various other articles for which " mother of 
pearl " is used. 

Another fact concerning the pearl oyster 
and the pearl Itself is very little understood 
I have seen in books of instruction, both in 
this country and in England, the statement 
that " the formation of the pearl in the 
oyster shell is caused by a disease of the 
oyster; " and this statement is more or less 
generally believed, as is also the erroneous 
Inference to be drawn from it, that the 
oyster referred to is the edible oyster. The 
mother of pearl is nothing more than a 
series of layers of nacreous matter deposited 
by the oyster upon the interior of the shell, 
and the pearl itself is a perfectly accidental 
formation. It is caused by a similar deposit 
of nacre around some foreign object. This 
foreign substance may be a grain of sand, a 
parasite or some similar object; but most 
authorities agree that it is more usually an 
undeveloped egg of the oyster around which 
the natural deposit is thrown. 

The largest pearl ever found measures 
two inches long and weighs three ounces 
This is of Eastern origin. The largest 
found in the Gulf of California did not ex 
ceed an inch and a quarter long, and was 
somewhat larger than the egg of a bluebird 
Many of the Californian pearls are black 
and speckled. These are considered more 
valuable than the white pearls in Europe, 
but the most highly prized pearls of all are 

Hypnotism in Disease. 

The chief arguments used against the em 
ployment of hypnotism in disease are, first, 
that it subordinates and enervates the will; 
second, that it renders the patient liable to 
be influenced by persons of evil intent; and 
third, that only nervous or hysterical per- 
sons are subject to its influence, says James 
R. Cooke, M. D., in Arena. My own ex- 
perience is that it may be used without in- 
jurious effects, and aho that it may take the 
place of narcotics in a large number of cases 
in which they are now used. I have myself 
used it with advantage in delirium, in insan- 
ity and in chronic alcoholism. I have suc- 
cessfully treated one case of kleptomania 
and two cases of excessive irritability of 
temper. At the same time hypnotism is a 
two-edged sword. Wielded by an unskilled 
hand, it may 'cut both ways deep into the 
faculties of intellection and into the nervous 
system generally. Also, it should never be 
used save by a skilled hand upon patients of 
an unbalanced mind accompanied by what 
is known in medical parlance as paranoia. 
In my treatment of a perfectly healthy, calm, 
intelligent, unimaginative man, whom I 
operated on 51 times, I found that the 
diapason of his whole mental and emotional 
system would give forth concordant sensa- 
tions of pleasure or discordant sensations of 
pain, at the will of the operator. 

Summing up, I would say that in hyp- 
notism, as with every other new remedy, 
there is great danger that, on the one hand, 
it may be used Indiscriminately, or, on the 
other hand, be scouted by a senseless skep- 
ticism. It has, beyond doubt, its definite 
limits of usefulness, and the medical man of 
the present day, realizing the futility of many 
of the old methods of treating disease, should 
keep his mind open to the reception of every 
new discovery. 

— The reported consolidation of the South- 
ern Pacific Milling Company and the South- 
ern Mill and Warehouse Company is af- 
firmed by Manager F. H. Wheelan of the 
latter corporation. The consolidation will 
now be known as the Southern Pacific Mill- 
ing Company, with headquarters at San 
Francisco. The warehouse company's in- 
terests were confined to Santa Barbara and 
Ventura counties, with the central office in 
this city, while those of the other lay 
between Santa Margarita and Soledad. 

Some Interesting Dates. 

The apple-parer was given to the public 
in 1803. At the present day, one Eastern 
firm makes over 27,000 a year. 

Matches were first Invented In 1839, and 
it is estimated that 75,000,000 a day are 
burned by the people of the United States. 

The blast furnace was devised in 1842. 
In 1890 the United States alone made 
9,000,000 tons of iron and 4,277,000 tons of 

Washboards with a metal face were pat 
ented In 1849; now the backs of the Ameri 
can women are weekly bent over 6,000,000 
of these useful articles. 

Window glass was first used in modern 
times in 1 557. Now the consumption of 
plate glass alone exceeds 6,000,000 square 
feet in England and 9,000,000 in the United 

A machine for making tacks was patented 
in 1806, but not put into practical use until 
near the middle of the century. Now the 
world consumes 50,000,000 tacks a day. 

The nail machine was invented in 1775 
At the present time it Is estimated that 
4,000,000,000 nails are annually made by 
machinery in Great Britain alone, and from 
a fourth to a half of this number in the 
United States. 

The first forks made in England were 
manufactured in 1608. Their use was ridi 
culed by the men of the time, who argued 
that the English race must be degenerating 
when a knife and spoon were not sufficient 
for table use. Last year a Sheffield firm 
made over 4,000,000. 

Breech-loading rifles were invented in 
181 1, but did not come Into general use for 
many years. It is estimated that over 12 
000,000 are now in actual service in the 
European armies, while 3,000,000 more are 
reserved in the arsenals for emergencies 
Statisticians say that there are 100,000,000 
guns of all kinds in the world. 

The railroad system of this country began 
in 1827. Now there are 214,528 miles of track 
in the United States, and 354,310 in the 
world. The number of passengers carried 
by the United States railroads in 1892 was 
555,025,802, and the total earnings were 
Si, 138,024, 459. The capital stock was 
$4,800,176,651, and the dividends $90,719, 
757. The number of men employed was 

The harvester was Invented by McCor 
mick in 1831. Since that time this machine 
has been brought to such perfection that, it 
is said, it will cut and bind an acre of grain 
In 45 minutes. To such an extent has ma- 
chinery superseded hand work in the grain 
farms of the Northwest that it is estimated 
that the labor of one man will raise enough 
grain to support a thousand men for a year, 
while the labor of a second will transport It 
to market, and that a third will prepare it for 

— The California and Nevada Southern 
railroad will reach Iron county in southern 
Utah in four and one-half or five months. 
The line is being pushed right along. It 
will connect with the Rio Grande Western 
at Provo. This line will give Utah a direct 
route to southern California, and by next 
July it is expected that a through train will 
be run between Ogden and Los Angeles. 
The new line starts from a point 100 miles 
north of Goff, Cal., on the Atlantic and Pa- 
cific, and extends through southern Nevada 
to Iron county, Utah, where the company 
owns coal and iron properties, there to con- 
nect with an extended line from the Rio 
Grande Western. There is unlimited capital 
behind this road, and the track will be con- 
structed so as to make it a fast and safe 
line. The grade will not exceed 1 ,' 2 per 
cent anywhere, notwithstanding the rough 
country through which it passes. Already 
$600,000 has been expended for engineering 
work alone. 

—The longest drawbridge span in the world 
so it is claimed, is that now being con- 
structed between East Omaha and Council 
Bluffs. It measures 520 feet from end to 
end. That at New London, Conn., is 503 
feet long and one over Arthur Kill, Staten 
Island, just 500. The new drawbridge of 
the New York Central, over Harlem river, 
has an extent of only 389 feet, but it pro- 
vides for four tracks and is the heaviest one 
In the world, weighing 4,400,000 pounds. 
The one at East Omaha will weigh, when 
completed, about 3,000,000. 

A uoori Pointer. 

Why should you be idle for one hour? No use in 
the world for it. Every moment of the working part 
of each day ought to be employed. The busy people 
are the happy people. B. F. Johnson 4 Co. of Rich- 
mond, Va., are offering in to-day's paper to show you 
how to turn every hour into solid cash. 

Gaseous Theory of the Earth. 

The Idea of M. Rateau, as expressed to 
the French Academy of Sciences, is that the 
phenomena of the earth's crust are well ex- 
plained by considering that the planet's in- 
terior is molten, and that a layer of gaseous 
matter separates it from the portion of the 
crust forming the continents, where the sea- 
beds rest directly upon the igneous globe. 
The continental masses tend generally to 
rise, being forced up by the accumulating 
gases, while the seabeds sink. The gradual 
escape of the gases, imprisoned under high 
pressure, will in time exceed the production 
of new supplies, when the pressure will di- 
minish and the continents fall in, giving rise 
to more or less crateriform configurations. 
This is the state in which the moon now ap- 
pears. Assuming the crust to be i8£ miles 
thick, the pressure of the gases should be 
650 atmospheres, their temperature 900 C, 
and their density nearly equal to that of 
water. This theory makes it clear why vol- 
canoes in the interior of continents give off 
gas instead of lava, and why lines of coast 
volcanoes have successively receded inland 
where the sea has encroached. 

Dust Over Buried Cities. 

The rapid shifting by the winds of beds of 
sand, often destroying or menacing human 
works, is a phenomenon well known in dif- 
ferent parts of the world. But the slow ac- 
cumulation of the finer particles — the at- 
mospheric dust — has attracted attention only 
In recent years. Most ruins of ancient cities 
are buried, and It has now been learned that 
the covering Is not only the debris of de- 
cayed buildings and other works, but that 
much of it is atmospheric dust. The layer 
that becomes visible to-day on a polished 
surface, if undisturbed, may grow into a 
deep stratum in the course of centuries. 

A Fine Calendar. 

The calendar issued by W. W. Ayer& Son, news- 
paper advertising agents. Philadelphia, is a thing of 
beamy and a joy for 364 days. It combines the 
useful and the ornamental in an eminent degree, and 
will be sent postpaid to any address for 25 cents, 
which sum is in this case evidently a tariff for pro- 
tection only, as at that figure there can be no profit 
to its publishers. 

— The Pacific Coast Council of Trades, in 
session at Sacramento, has declared in favor 
of the municipal ownership of gas, electric 
light, waterworks, street railways, the nation- 
alization of telegraph, telephone and railway 
lines, and postal savings banks, compulsory 
education up to sixteen years, and eight 
hours' labor a day. 

Chas. Lewell of Ventura has received from 
England a pair of White India game chickens 
at a cost of $75. The male bird weighs ill 

— The Governor has appointed the follow- 
ing delegates from the State at large to the 
Transmississippi Congress which is to be 
held in San Francisco: A. P. Williams of 
San Francisco, J. M. Walling of Nevada 
City, J. A. Louttit of Stockton, J. P. Wid- 
ney of Los Angeles, Joseph Brown of San 
Bernardino, D. E. Knight of Marysville, 
Charles McCreary of Sacramento, W. D. 
Tupper of Fresno, M. A. Luce of San Diego 
and C. H. Phillips of San Luis Obispo. 

Look for the Corrugation. 

When you find it necessary to purchase new 
hinges for your barn door, we would suggest that 
you ask for the corrugated hinges, made by the 
Stanley Works, New Britain, Conn. They cost no 
more than the old style, and are driving the others 
out of the market. 

The " Biography of a Yankee Hinge" is a smart 
little pamphlet issued by the Stanley Works, and it 
will be sent free to any one who will take the trouble 
to forward their address. 

Roses, Plants and Seeds. 

The Good & Reese Co., Springfield, Ohio, pub- 
lish a beautiful 152-page illustrated catalogue of 
roses, plants and seeds— 'our colored plates, one of 
them the wonderful new rose Gen'l Rob't E. I^ee. 
Be sure and see it. They will mail it to our readers 
for 10 cts. in stamps. 

— Official statistics, just compiled at Port 
Townsend, show 2350 Chinese passengers 
in transit from the Orient, by way of the 
Canadian steamers, landed in Portland and 
Astoria last year. With the exception of 
500, all obtained admittance as merchants. 


A dollar * week for eixty weeks, buys a lot 25x125 feet 
east of Chicago Heights, the great manufacturing bu* 
burb of Chicago. Sixteen factories, streets pavtd, stone 
sidewalk, beautiful shade trees, schools, churches, etc 
No doubt these lots will treble In value within one year. 

No such bargain was ever offered in Chicago Real Es- 
tate. These lots are now on the Belt Line where facto- 
ries are now is successful operation, employing over 
50,000 people. Business transacted for non-residents 

Address, LcForrest Land Co., Unity Buildiug, Chicago 


Now that the interest In the culture of the orange la 
extending so M to embrace nearly all parts of the State, 
a hook giving the results of experience Id parts of the 
8tate where the growth of the fruit has been longest pur • 
suei' will be found of wide usefulness. 

" Orange Culture in California " was written by Those 
A. Garey of Los Angeles, after many years of practloal 
experience and observation in the growth of the fruit. 
It is a well-printed hand-book of 227 pages, and treats of 
Dursery practice, planting of orange orchards, cultiva- 
tion and irrigation, pruning, estimates of cost of planta- 
tions, best varieties, etc 

Thebook Is sent post-paid at the reduced price of 76 
cents per copy, In cloth binding. Address DEWS Y PUB- 
LISHING CO., Publishers "Paoiflo Rural Press." Via 

M»rk«t St S«r> frniHirn 

By Prof. Edward 
J. Wickson. 

C/ILIr-ObW flllllJS 

A practical, explicit and comprehensive book emhodyliJK 
the experience and methods of hundreds of successful 
growers, and constituting a trustworthy guide by which the 
inexperienced may successfully produce the fruits for which 
California is famous. 600 pages. Fully Illustrated. Price $3 
Postpaid. 8end for circular. DEWKY PUBLISHING CO. 
Publisher* 230 Market Street, 8ao Francisco. Oal. 


Gilman s Patent Tule Tree Protector. 

PATENTED AUG. i, 1893. 

Cheapest, Beat and Only One to Protect Trees and Vines from 
Frost, Sunburn, Rabbits, Squirrels, Borers and other Tree Peats. 

For Testimonials from Parties who are using them send for 
Detcripttve Circulars. 

13. F. OILMAN, 

Sole Manufacturer of Patent Tule Covers, 



rKE;S for one year, the celebrated book, 

Dairying for Profit, 

By MRS. r. M. JONES, of Brockville, Judge of Butter at World's Fair, Chicago; owner of the grandest set of 
Jerseys, and the Most Successful Dairy on the eastern elope of the continent, and famous all through the 
United States, CaDada, England and Australia. Mrs. Jones makes 7000 POUNDS OF BUTTER A 
YEAR, which all sells at far above the highest prtoe ever obtained in Canada, and her book tells you JUST 
HOW SHE MAKES AND MARKETS IT so as to bring this price. Also HOW SHE FEEDS HER 
COWS, and the butter yield of many of them. It has a large picture of one of the most famous Jersey Cows in the 

It gives the daily record, for a, whole year, of Jersey Cow Massena. that gave HOOO POUNDS OF MILK 
WHICH MADE 664 POUNDS OP" BU'l TER, all within her 10th year! 

The recent te ts at Chicago have proved the Jersey to be far the most profitaole cow any one can keep, and 
Mrs. Jones has proved what she can make out of (hem, on plain farmer's keep and management, no pami . ring. 
Her herd hai won 27 MEDALS (gold, 9llver and bronze); SOO CASH PRIZW8; besides DIPLOMAS; 
SOLID SILVER CUP, value $840. at Kellogg sale In N. Y. for highest price obtained; that SILVER TEA SET at 

One gentleman writes: " I have ProL 's book on Dairying, cost me $10, but practically Mrs. Jones' b»k 

Is worth more." This book we propose 


For every new subscription. Or, we will mail It to you for SO cents. 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 220 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Januaiy 20, 1894. 



— It is stated on good authority that Pres- 
ident Foster of the San Francisco and North 
Pacific Railroad has under serious consider- 
ations co-operation or amalgamation with a 
new Mendocino county railroad seheme. 
Under this plan the San Francisco and 
North Pacific Railroad would be extended 
from Ukiah to Eureka. There is at present 
a road twenty- five miles in length from 
Eureka southward, and the new road would 
connect with this. The scheme is not new 
and survey* have already been made from 
Eureka to Ukiah. The cost of construction 
of this road has been estimated at $4,000,000. 
Humboldt county alone has offered a bonus 
ol $250,000. The scheme rests largely upon 
the result of the negotiations which are be- 
lieved to be in progress between the Fort 
Bragg Lumber Company and the San Fran- 
cisco and North Pacific Railroad. The rail- 
road is anxious to carry the product of the 
Round Valley coal fields to San Francisco 
and also into the Sacramento valley. It 
may also offer to put the redwood of the 
Fort Bragg Company in San Francisco as 
cheaply as can the schooners. 

i>eed$, Mailt?, ttc. 


Is pronounced by experts to be ONE OF THE FINEST 
ALMONDS IN THE STATE. Nut is very large, of fine 
almond flavor. Tree Is a good grower and regular 
bearer. Full particulars and sample nuts may be 
obtained of tbe ^ rower. 

J. COPPIN, Loomis, Placer Co., Cal. 

T rt F ES And I?Ti /\ UTS. 

A fine assortment, best varieties, free from pests of 
any kind, rrnnag Simonl, Blng, Kohi raver and 
Murdoch Cherries, Black California Figs; 
Rice Soft Shell and other Almonds, American 
Sweet Chestnuts Pr;>>pa> tnrlens Walnuts 
Hr rdy mountain grown Orauge Trees. Our Oraoges 
have stood 22 degrees this winter without injury. 
Dollar 8«r»wberry. the best berry for home use or 
market. Address C. M. silVa & SON, Lincoln, 
Placer County, California. 




A .large and complete stick, grown on new ground, at 


Twenty-Eighth Street, near San Pablo Ave., 

Depot, Washington St., bet. 12th and 13tb, 
Oakland, Cal. 

-Catalogue HOME-GROWN 


Guaranteed fresh and reliable. 
Large pkts. 2 to 5 cts. Direct from 
Orower. Novelty presents with 
every order. Catalogue, Free— 
or with 2 packets Seeds, 5 cents; 
35 packets, $1.00. Send to-day. 
A. R. AMES, Madison, Wis. 

Kansas Seed House. 


Our Specialties: Onion Seed and Sets; Alfalfa, 
Kaffir und Jerusalem Corn; Tree Seeds for nurseries 
and timber claims. Have also a limited supply of 
Laytbyrus Silvestrls (Flat Peaitbe new Forage plant. 
New Catalogue mailed Tree on application. 

F. W. BARTELDES & CO., Lawrence, Kan. 


One year old, for sale at prices to suit the times. 


Seeds, Hants, ttc. 

Pacific Nursery, 


FRENCH PRUNES on Myrobolan. 
A PPLES , leading varieties on imported French Seed- 

PEACHES, leading varieties. 

CHERRIES, leading varieties in one «nd two-year- 
old trees. 


— Also — 

Monterey Cypress. Pines, Spruces, Palms and 

other Ornament »1 Trees and Sbrubb ;ry at low rates. 
Also Roses, Acaleag and Camellias. 
Send for Wholeeale Price List for Nurserymen and 
Dealers only. 

A Garden for a Dollar. 

Any one of the following six collections will be sent free by mail for $1. Plants all distinctly labeled. 


"Gold Dust Cling,'* says H. E. Van Deman, 
ex-U. S. Pomologlst, "is ayellow cling of medium 
size, round and regular in shape, and very firm 
in tiesh. The color is very attractive, being dark 
yellow with a very red cheek. It bears heavily 
and carries to market with very little damage. 
Coming as it does before the main peach crop is 
gathered, it is about the first yellow cling of any 
special value and therefore finds a ready sale. 
Each year it gains in favor, but as it is a variety 
but recently originated the public know little of 
it. It is a very profitable variety." Price $1 each, 
$5 per half dozen. For sale by SACRAMENTO 
HIGH-GRADE Fruit Trees, Walnut Grove.Sac- 
ramento County, California. Our Specialties— 
Genuine Tragedy Prunes, Olyman and Japan 
Plums on true Myrobolan whole root seedlings — 
we use no piece roots nor cuttings; price 15 cents 
each; Sacramento River Barttetts and Peaches- 
price 10 cents each. Large quantities at lower 
rates. We guarantee our trees true to 



On Qold Dust Clings, 33J% off on Plums 
and Prunes, and 26% off on Pears and 
Peaches. In order to find out who reads 
the above advertisement we offer this 
discount for the next thirty days. 

DON'T think because you 
have failed in the past, that 
you can't grow roses, suc- 
cessfully. There will be no 
failures in the future, if 
you get the famous D. & C. 



Apply for Catalogue. 
O. P. LOOP & SON, - - Pomona Cal. 


Our new Guide to Rose Culture 

gives you explicit directions for 
selecting and growing the very 
choicest flowers of every kind. We 
send it Free, if you request it, also 
a sample copy of our interesting 
Floral Magazine, 

"Success with Flowers." 

The Dingfee & Conard Co., 
West Grove, Pa. 


On California Peach Root, for sale. 

No. 1-6 to 8 ft $25 00 per lOOO 

Mo 2— 4 to 6 ft 20 CO per lOOO 

No. 3-3 to 4 ft 10 00 per lOOO 

First cla»s stock. Free I om Insect pest. Samples 
sent on application. Addrets 

N.H. H4KVCT, Milwaukee, Oregon. 


I hive some 15,000 Lisbon and Eureka Lemon trees, 
budded from my own bearing orchard, (or sale cheap. 
NATHAN W. BLANCH A RD. Santa Paula, Cal 


FOR SALE— 50,000 Trees on Myrobolan Stock 

Imported from one of the first French nurseries. Scions from an orchard near Saratoga. Fruit raised In this 
celebrated district has taken for us six first-class awards, INCLUDING HIGHEST AWARD, COLUMBIAN 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & 0O., 316 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Saratoga Packing Company. 

Or to HERBERT BROS., 24 North First St ) „,„ T _ a _ 

HARRY POSTLETH WA 1TE, 18 Fountain St. f SAN J ° 3,£ - 

Ever for 

Is Different from Others. 

It Is Intended to aid the planter in selecting the Seeds 
best adapted for his needs and conditions and in getting 
from them the best possible results. It Is not, therefore, highly 
:olored In either sense; and we have taken great care that 
othing worthless be put in, or nothing worthy be left out. We 
vitea trial of our Seeds. We know them because we grow them. 
Every planter of Vegetables or Flowers ought to know about our 
three warrants; our cash discounts; and our gift of agricultural 
papers to purchasers of our Seeds. All of these are explained In 
the Catalogue, a copy of which can be yours for the asking. 
J. J. H. CRECORY & SON, Marblehead, Maae. 

Vegetable Seeds. 

2) p'ck'is, fine assortm't 
Flower Seeds. 

5 pkt? Orna'tl Foliage. 
5 pkts Climbing Plants. 
5 pktB Annuals. 
5 pkts Perennials. 
2 pkts Biennials. 



2 Chrysanthemums. 
2 Cannas. 
1 Tuberose. 

3 Chrysanthemums, l Artillery *PIant 
3 Carnations. 

3 pkts Ornam't'l Grasses 2 Roses, 

3 Roses. 
2 Geraniums. 
1. Heliotrope. 

2 Pelargoniums. 


3 Single Geraniums. 


1 French Canna. 
1 Tea Rose. 
1 Carnation. 
1 Pelargonium. 
1 Fuchsia. 

2 Scented Geraniums, , „ . ' r, 

2 Double Geraniums. J Begonia. Rex. 

3 Fuchsias. 1 Eose Geranium. 
1 Begonia. 1 Lemon Verbena. 
1 Heliotrope. 1 White Lily. 

Selection of varieties In collections must in all cases be left to us. Substitution made if necessary. 

Sunset Seed and Plant Co. 

Seed Farm and Nurseries, 


427-9 Sansome St., 

Write for beautifully illustrated catalogue containing instructions for cultivating. Sent free. 






GEO. O. ROEDINQ, Manager. 


Of Choice Seeds and Plants. 

r >M\MC^ N ^ Our object in offering thus cheap is to introduce our goods and 
secure your future orders. Please tell your neighbors about it 

^ Set U— 2 Beautiful Palms, 3 sorts, strong plants 60c 

r >?ffl^S^iIMl!iwravrcRte\ " B— 16 packets choice Vegetable Seeds, all different 60c 

' E— 20 packets choice Flower Seeds, all different 60c 

1 I— One-half of each set, H a nd E 50c 

' J— 10 Elegant Everbloomlng Roses, 10 sorts 60c 

' K— 8 Grand Largo Flowered Geraniums, 8 sorts 50c 

WCV " L— One-half each of Sets J and K 50c 

" M— 25 Choice New Gladioli, large Flowering Bulbs 50c 

" N — One-half set M and 4 Choice Tuberose Bulbs, 2 sorts ..60c 

' 0-6 Choice Grape Vines, 3 kinds, 2 each 60c 

" P— 6 Hardy Ornamental Shrubs, 6 sorts 50c 

1 Y— One-half each of Sets O and P 60c 

Any 3 Sets for $1.25, or 5 Sets for $2.00, 

Delivered at Your Postoffiee Prepaid. Satisfaction Guaranteed, 
Order these sets by the letters. Send now from this advertisement, as these introductory 
sets do not appear in catalogue which contains 1(18 panes and will be sent free with first order, if none 
of these sets suit you, and you want anything .n our line do not fail to send for it, free, as we want 
yon to see our price, before ordering elsewhere. It In one of the bent Issued; contains 
hundreds of Illustration, and full descriptions of one of the largest and most complete 
stocks in America, including many new, rare and valuable novelties. We grow 
TSO,000 Roses yearly; many other things as largely. Are headquarters for the choicest 

Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Roses, Bulbs, Plants, Seeds, etc. 


THE STORRS & HARRISON CO., Box 29, Painesville, L <&. E 


Known as Clarke's Early, is coming to be acknowledged as a world beater. Took a medal at World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition. They are bi-sexual; large; firm-fleshed; prolific and uniform in size. They can be 
picked while they are white and will bear shipping to New York and come out a beautiful scarlet or crim- 
son, looking as though made of wax, dotted with golden seeds and painted and varnished by an artist. 
Their flavor is superb. They originated in Oregon. The first crates that came to Portland this year were a 
fortnight later than last year. It was latter part of May and best Calilornia berries were selling at two 
boxes for a quarter. The Clarkes brought at once 30 cents per box by the crate of 24 boxes. They sold all 
over Puget 8ound, and at Spokane, Helena, Butte, Salt Lake, Denver, Omaha and Chicago at highest prices, 
standing a 2000-mile trip without apparent deterioration. We challenge the world to produce their equal 
lor excellence of flavor combined with shipping quality. Any amount of references. Price per doz., 81.00, 
sent by mail; by express, large, vigorous plants at buyer's charge, $5 per 100, $20 per 1000. Address 






This la the Standard Work on the Raisin Industry In California, It has been 
approved by Prof. HUgard, Prof. Wlcfcaon, Mr. Ohas. A. Wetmore and a multitude of 
Practical Raisin Growers. 

Sold only by the DBWBf PUBLISHING OO. or lta Agents at lhe uniform price of 
$8-00, postage prepaid. Orders should be addressed: 


22/0 Market St., San Francisco. 



January 20, 1894. 



Among the new tools to whieh we wish to call your attention Is the Deere 8teel Frame Reversible Disc Harrow, 
which we point to with pride as Indicative of the class of machinery which it is our greatest desire to produce. It 
is simple in construction, strong, well made and finished. The gaugs c»n easily be reversed to an " in-throw " or 
" out-throw " Harrow, there being no mult'pllcity of extra attachments required to make the changes. 

Tbe " In-throw " Harrow, as shown abo\e, can he changed In five minutes, to throw the soil outward. 

In Vineyard and Orchard cultivation, where a Reversible Disc Harrow Is In greatest demand, thij tool will be 
found to meet all requirements. The frame is constructed on the same principle as that of the well-known 
" Deere " Wood Frame Harrow, with the advantage of being made entirely of steel and Iron. 

On tbe " Reversible," all-end thrust (so destructive to tbe boxes) is overcome, whether used as an " in throw " 
or " out-throw " Harrow. Used as an " out-throw " Harrow, the two gangs come together— the bumpers on the 
Inner ends of the gangs rolling upon each other without friction. Used as an in-throw " Harrow, the two gangs 
•re connected by a Swivel Chain— the only extra part required In changing from an "out-throw" to an "in- 
throw " Harrow. The high Spring Seat, out of the way of the dust, and well in rear of the gangs, is a valued 
feature of the machine. 


The " Reversible " Is made in six sizes, as follows: 


NumSer of Discs. 

Diameter of Discs. 

Width of Out. 





16 in. 

4 ft 

350 lbs 

«4U 00 



16 •« 

6 •' 

3S7 " 

45 00 


16 " 

6 " 

438 " 

60 00 



20 " 

4 " 

415 ■< 

50 00 



20 " 

5 " 

456 " 

65 00 



20 " 

6 " 

616 " 

60 00 

Hereafter, Equalizers will not he shipped unless ordered. 

DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., 305 and 307 Market St., San Francisco. 


Incorporated 1884. 

500 Acres. 


Rio Bonito Nurseries, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 

i i i i i i ' 

i i i 


Our Stock of TREES and VINLS is Most Complete f 
in EVERY CLASS of Fruits. £ 


SHIPPING, CANNING and DRYING Fru is of all Kinds. 


Best Assortment of RAISIN and TABLE GRAPES In Oaiiror ^ 

Early Slilpplns Plxirns a. Spooialtv. 


DURING the last three years, trees grown on the FEATHER RIVER BOTTOM LANDS, at RIO BONITO, BUTTB 
COUNTY, have been much sought alter, and the demand (or them is increasing all over the State where they 
have been planted. Owing to the peculiar adaptability of the sill and climate of this section (or growing nursery 
stock, the trees making a very large and well-furnished system of root growth, and maintaining a correspondingly 
strong and vigorous top, maturlngthe wood thoroughly, we are enabled to supply our patrons with the best of 
trees, healthy in every res|>ect, entirely free from Insect |>ests, and In perfect condition for transplanting. 

If You Are Going To Plant Trees, It Will Pay You To Corre- 
spond With Us Before Purchasing. 

c*3 IFT /X T*T1VL<Z>N, 


Niles, Alameda Co., California. 





SPECIALTIES: OLIVES— 38 sorts, French, Italian and Spanish. 

ROSES— 360 sorts, all the leading kinds, new and old. 
CLEMATIS— 25 Varieties. 


JOHN ROCK, Manager 


VAN GELOER & WYLIE, Proprietors. 


Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 

Our Stock is Free From all Insect Pests and for Health and 
Strength of Root Growth Cannot be Excelled. 

Write for Prices on Wholesale or ltctail Orders. Address 


Acampo, California. 


BUDDED ORANGE TREKS, of the leading varieties, one and two-year buds; also a small lot of 
choice budded and seedling LEMON TREKS. Sweet Seedling Oranges, 1 to 4 years old. 8hade and 
Ornamental Plants. Prices to suit the times. 


For prices and terms, address 


Correspondence Solicited. 


The Art Department of the State University. 

Our illustration shows a very important piece of State 
property recently acquired as a gift from a generously in- 
clined citizen of Massachusetts. The buildings were 
erected and the property improved, as the engraving 
shows, by the late Mark Hopkins of the Central Pacific 
railway group of millionaires. He designed it for his 
palatial residence but was not allowed to long enjoy it, 
as his death occurred early in the building's history. 
Upon his death the property descended to Mrs. Hopkins, 
and finally to Mr. E. F. Searles by will of his wife, the 
late Mrs. Hopkins-Searles. It was Mr. Searles' first 
thought to bestow the property upon the Art Association 
of this city, but it was thought better to vest the title in 
the State, and so the title was given to the Regents of the 
University, and the Hopkins Art In- 
stitute became a department of the 
University of California, with its im- 
mediate management entrusted to the 
Art Association. The university thus 
gained a department of art to round 
out its equipment in this high direc- 
tion of human endeavor, and it also 
secured a local habitation in San 
Francisco where its extension of uni- 
versity instruction, away from the site 
at Berkeley, may be fitly carried out. 
It is an interesting fact, also, that the 
adjoining structure, of which the roof 
is shown in the background, is the 
palatial mansion of the late Senator 
Stanford, which it is expected will 
ultimately come into the possession of 
the Stanford University. Thus our 
two great universities, with their chief 
establishments on opposite sides of 
San Francisco and somewhat distant 
therefrom, have their city houses side 
by aide — honorable rivals in the 
country, neighbors in the metropolis. 
It is also not an unpleasant thought 
that the eminence, chosen by the mil- 
lionaires primarily for their own per- 
sonal enjoyment and named " Nob 
Hill " by the independent populace, should so soon lose 
its personal character and be crowned by the insignia of 
the two universities. If the public interest can thus so 
soon show its supremacy over personal wealth and display, 
we may have less to fear than has been thought from 
vast individual accumulations of wealth. But unfor- 
tunately we have no surety that other millions will go as 
these have gone. 

The Institute of Art has been for some time in active 
operation. The large residence is chiefly used for art gal- 
leries, and is always open to the visiting public for a mod- 
erate fee, the money being used for the maintenance of 
the building. There are many fine works of art now on 
exhibition, and the institution is worthy of public patron- 
age. The smaller building in the foreground is used for 
the instruction classes in the various branches of art 
study. On the whole, by the generosity of Mr. Searles 
the State of California has now first-class facilities for art 
education and for the display of art achievements — such 
facilities as perhaps the State would not have secured for 
a generation, except by such donation as his. 

Prof. Albert Koebele, who has done so much for 
California by introducing beneficial insects from Austra- 
lia, has been engaged by the Provisional Government at 
Honolulu to make a collection of insect pests in the 
Hawaiian Islands, and has sailed for the islands. The in- 
sects are the worst of those which attack coffee plants and 
sugar cane. 

The Citrus Fair. 

The citrus fair of the northern and central counties was 
duly opened last Saturday and has now fairly begun its 
four weeks course. The products of the eleven counties 
interested in the construction of the special pavilion, 
which was shown in an engraving in the Rural Press of 
December 23, 1893, are very attractively displayed and 
the whole building presents a most attractive and artistic 
interior. There are decorations everywhere. Above the 
arches beautiful flags are draped about the pillars and 
swing along the walls. Around the center of the building 
an observation gallery has been erected. Its balconies are 
hidden by bunting, whose gay colors give a pretty effect 
to the scene. Pavilions, towers, miniature capitols and 
courthouses, pagodas, obelisks and huge mounds are cov- 

ered wiih tens of thousands of oranges and lemons. 
Fruits and cereals are everywhere. The air is heavy with 
the fragrance of flowers and of fruit. Decorators and ex- 
hibitors have exhausted their ingenuity in fashioning 
quaint and curious designs in which to secure a pleasing 

At present the building is largely given to the citrus 
fruit display. Over 125,000 oranges and many thousands 
of lemons are in the building. The structure is 180 feet 
long and 120 feet wide, but it is not large enough to in- 
clude all the fruit shipped to it by the counties. The fruit 
is most artistically arranged. Silken banners displayed 
over every arch indicate to what county credit is due for 
special displays, and in the central part of the building, 
towering far above the observation galleries, are veritable 
palaces of oranges. The 11 counties associated in the 
building are Siskiyou, Shasta, Tehama, Butte, Yuba, Co- 
lusa, Lake, Napa, Solano, Placer and Sacramento. 

Barley is gaining ground as a feeding grain abroad, 
and is replacing oats. We read in a London exchange 
that several stock-feeders have discovered that 400 lbs. of 
barley are much cheaper at 14*. 6d. than 312 lbs. of oats 
at the same price. In France the army forage and corn 
authorities are using one-fifth part of barley to four-fifths 
of the oat ration. However, London and other large cen- 
ters of horse population, and carriage, riding and light 
horses generally, may be expected to keep to oats as the 
healthy diet which custom commends. 


Office, 220 Market Street. 

Our Vegetable Product. 

We are glad to hear of the growth of vegetable ship- 
ments from the south. We are in hopes that this indus- 
try, when properly developed and its market outlets made 
adequate, will take a place befitting it beside our fruit- 
shipping business. The Los Angeles Times emphasizes 
the fact that there were actually sent north and east last 
year 5500 carloads of early vegetables, of which the south- 
ern counties contributed a very large proportion. Orange 
county is becoming famous for celery, and exported 188 
carloads. The Times well says that a State which can sup- 
ply the markets of the East in winter with 55,000 tons of 
vegetables is in a peculiarly strong position to advance it- 
self, because in this respect there can be very little compe- 
tition, except from Florida or Louisiana. It is only a 
question of labor to increase the sup- 
I ply ten times. According to the 
Times, transportation facilities have 
been favorable lately. With due en- 
couragement from the railways a 
strong impetus could be given to vege- 
table growing, and it is an agricult- 
ural occupation which may best be fol- 
lowed on small farms. The cultivator 
who has little capital, but has a family 
to assist him, may thrive. Of course 
it is but the part of wisdom to pro- 
ceed circumspectly in the pursuit of 
the business, because the supply can 
easily be made excessive unless the 
marketing at distant points be looked 
to. The vegetable-growers should or- 
ganize and see what can be done by 
systematic action to extend their 
commercial horizon. 

There was started in Chicago last 
week a " National Dairy Union." 
The object of the organization as 
set forth in the constitution is to se- 
cure national and State legislation to 
prevent the manufacture and sale of 
food products made in imitation or the 
semblance of pure butter or cheese, 
and also to prevent the sale of adulterated products; to 
assist in the effective and thorough enforcement of exist- 
ing laws and such future laws as may be enacted for the 
purposes set forth. The officers are to consist of a presi- 
dent, secretary, treasurer and vice-president, selected from 
each State represented in the National Union. These are 
to constitute a board of control, of which seven shall form 
a quorum. 

The Government in after the timber thieves in Okla- 
homa. For a number of weeks special agents have been 
at work investigating the timber stealing which has been 
going on for years. As a result deputy marshals have 
jailed six men who have been cutting walnut timber in 
Osage reservation These were but day laborers in the 
employ of a combination of prominent men who have 
been cutting and marketing Government timber for years, 
the amount stolen aggregating millions of feet. 

California fruit products at the East seem to be 
firmly held and in the way of improvement. A recent 
telegram says the stock of all the markets appears in strong 
hands, and when business revives, and the movement of 
stock begins, the chances are very much in favor of an ap- 
preciation in values. A strong point in favor of California 
is the fact that exceedingly small supplies of foreign are 
in the hands of the local importers. 

Swine and sheep are good foragers, but they should be 
in separate fields. 



January 27, 1S04. 


Office, 220 Market St.: Elevator, 12 Front St., San Francisco., Cal 

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Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or reading notices, legal 
:i tvertisemeuts, notices appearing In extraordinary type, or In particular parts 
of the paper, at special rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

Registered at 8. F. Post Office as second-class m all matter. 

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J. F. HALLOBAN General Manager 

E.J. WICK80N Special Contributor 

San Francisco, January 27, 1894. 


EDITORIALS — The Art Department of the State University; Our 
Vegetable Product- Miscellaneous, 61. The Week; Whither Shall 
the Farmer Retire? Dry Land Forage Plants, 62. From an Inde- 
pendent Standpoint, 63. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Hopkins Institute of Art, 61. 

MISCELLANEOUS —Citric Acid and ihe Lemon, 63. Prune Fed Pork, 

. 6S Free Lumber; Horticulture in Napa; Oregon's Mammoth Caves, 
69 Miscellaneous; Electric Cooking at RedlandB; Uses of Coal 
Oil- Electric War Engine. 74. The Dried Fruit Trade of 1893; 
Brickwork in the Tropics: Foundations in Quicksands; New Sound- 
ing Device, 78. Photography in ABtronomy; Sensibility of the Eye, 79. 

HORTICULTURE. How Badly They Need Our Fruit in I/>ndon; Kero- 
sene Emulson, 65. „ 

FLORIST AND GARDENER.— Annual Meeting of the State Floral So- 
ciety; How They Use Eschschollzias in Englaud; Cauliflower Culture 
in the South, 65. 

THE FIELD.— Safety Farming, 66. 

THE VINEYARD. — What Eighty Raisin- Producers Think of the Situ- 
ation, 66. 

FORESTRY.— Forestry in the United States, 66. 
THE STABLE.— Hints ou Stable Building and Fitting, 67. 
POULTRY YARD. — Artificial Hatching and Rearing of Chickens; Arti- 
ficial Hatching and Raising, 67. 
THE DAIRY.— The Oleomargarine Warfare, 68. 

FRUIT MARKETING.— Details of the Fruit Exchange Organization; 

More About the Perkins Process, 68. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. — Random Thoughts; Tulare Grange; 

Joint Installation at Haywards; From Past Master Steele; From I'et- 

aluma; American River Grange, 72. 

MARKET REPORTS.— The Local Produce Market, 77. 




Nursery Stock— Aloha Nurseries, Penryn, Cal 78 

Nursery Stock— H. Schwarz, Sacramento, Cal 79 

Cattle and Sheep— Mecham & Fritsch, Petaluma, Cal 78 

stump Puller— H. L. Bennett, Westerville, 73 

Dairy Machinery— Van Drake & Taylor 77 

jptr- See Advertising Columns. 

Whither Shall the Farmer Retire? 

The Week. 

The rain continues the ruling topic. There has been a 
precipitation of nearly three inches in San Francisco since 
our last issue, and the whole upper half of the State has 
participated in the dispensation. Everywhere enough has 
fallen for present uses, and in the regions of heaviest rain- 
fall a vast surplus has gone to the ocean. It would be 
very satisfactory now to have a chance to work and an 
opportunity for submerged vegetation to get to sunlight, 
and for the Western world to go to the Midwinter Fair. 

The great opening of the Fair will occur on Saturday 
of this week. The first feature will be a procession of great 
length and variety, which will proceed from the city to 
the Fair. All during the day there will be blasts of music 
and volumes of oratory and decorative displays of the 
most transcendent character. At night the myriads of 
electric lights will be rivaled by the pyrotechnic out- 
bursts, which it is said will be far the greatest ever seen in 
San Francisco. Everything that ingenuity can suggest 
has been arranged to please the multitude and properly 
usher in the era of the spectacular which will not end 
until months hence. 

For these events clear weather is desirable, and it is 
not the less so for the prosecution of winter work. The 
pruning and spraying in the orchard has made but halting 
progress this month so far, and the time is growing short 
for the early blossoms are appearing. Happy now is the 
orchardist who made good use of the short December days 
and finished his January work before Christmas. 

The beekeepers are in session this week in Los Angeles. 
It is the annual meeting of their State association, and the 
telegraphed report indicates a good attendance. We shall 
have the chief proceedings in future issues. 

The fruit-growers of Baker*field have organized perma- 
nently, and a committee of five has been appointed to take 
steps to affiliate with the State Fruit Exchange, recently 
organized in San Francisco. 

TheiIK is something significant in the fact that hard 
times always catches a certain class of producers unpre- 
pared and shakes them up. 

One of the interesting features of the greater growth of 
population in our towns than on the farms, is found in the 
contribution to this result which the farmer himself makes 
Unquestionably it is a matter of much public importance 
and we see in it one of the most serious of the losses which 
agriculture undergoes through the gravitation of popula 
tion to towns and cities. 

Probably when it is shown that our towns are growing 
faster than our farming districts the first thought is given 
to the surplus of common laborers in towns and to th 
prevalence of the idle and the vicious who aim to live by 
their wit in towns when they should be doing honest pro 
ductive work in the development of the country and there 
by make themselves independent and self-reliant. Bu 
the increase of the burdensome element in the towns 
only one phase of the matter. 

The second thought of the growth of town population is 
of the constant inflow of young men who forsake the 
farm in the hope of securing, as it seems to them, greater 
opportunity for wealth, prominence and pleasure by the 
pursuit of town callings and occupations. This recourse 
of young men and women to the towns and cities is un 
doubtedly an important element of the increase of urban 
population, and it is also of advantage to the city by the 
constant addition to its ranks of toilers of those who 
bring, as a rule, greater physical force and endurance, 
simpler tastes, and possibly higher morals than the city 
product of the genus homo. While many young people 
realize what they seek when they choose city life and 
work, others consign themselves to less prosperity, comfort 
and significance than they could have secured, with even 
ess effort, if they had chosen to follow their fathers in 
pursuit of rural industries. But this movement of the 
young people is only another of the phases of the cities' 
unearned increment of population. 

The flight of the hired man and the migration of the 
farmers' sons and daughters are frequently discussed and 
deplored, but it is seldom that any one stops to think how 
largely the farmers themselves contribute to destroy the 
proper balance between town and country, and how much 
the development of the country suffers thereby. As far 
back as we can remember, and in all States in which we 
have resided, there has always been a procession of retired 
farmers from the country to the village, the town, the city, 
Every town almost has its retired sea captains and army 
officers, and they are usually men of local note. Their 
acquaintance with the affairs of the great world consti- 
tutes them oracles, and their titles, like their shadows, 
never grow less. Renown and adipose, unknown in their 
active careers, cling to them in retirement. But where one 
of these distinct endowments falls upon a village there 
come to it retired farmers by the score. They do not, as a 
rule, constitute any conspicuous factor of the village popu- 
lation. The brisk townsman may seek their advice as to 
the treatment of his sick cow, the preacher will ransack 
the memories of his boyhood for an agricultural illustration 
by which to catch them on the thread of his discourse, and 
the country banker will talk crops and weather with them 
so long as they leave with him a surplus of deposits which 
he can juggle with for short loans at high interest. Nor 
does the retired farmer usually think much more of the 
town people than they do of him. Their cramped door- 
yards, their stuffy houses, their turning of night into day, 
make him weary. He sighes again and again for the 
largeness, the freedom, the independence of his farm. 
When he gathers with the other relics around the stove in 
the village store, the sea captain's talk of the deep but re- 
minds him of the broad acres he has abandoned, and the 
army officer's recollections of battles are but faint re- 
minders of his own exploits in the saddle in pursuit of 
stampeded stock or in his field-to-field inspection of his 
laborers' progress. Though the retired farmer has come 
to town to be nearer people, and to enjoy in his latter days 
closer contact with his fellow-men, he is, in fact, never so 
lonesome and discontented in his life as when he has for- 
saken the scenes of his youth and his prime. His very re- 
tirement is weariness; his recourse to rest and recreation 
a delusion. 

But were it the fact that the successful farmers' retire- 
ment brought only such ills to himself, the public interest 
in his experience would be merely one of sympathy for 
his disappointment. Unfortunately the public welfare 
loses something by every misplaced man that breathes, 
and it looses perhaps more in the misplacement of the 
successful farmers who retire to towns and cities than in 
any other social and industrial misfit which it endures. 
And the loss is in this way. Usually the farmer who 
moves to town puts a tenant in his place, or he may cut 
up his place for several tenants. In most cases the tenants 
are those who take narrower views of farm policies and 
have less interest in the future of the farming region than 
the owner did. The result is that the development and 

improvement of the property ceases or retrogrades and the 
spirit of progress in the neighborhood declines. Take a 
strong, successful and public-spirited man out of any 
farming neighborhood and bury him in a town and you 
rob the country without particularly enriching the town. 
It is wonderful how much influence even one thoroughly 
good farmer may have in carrying forward the whole 
region in which he lives and labors. Contrast this with 
the opposite tendency which almost always accompanies 
absentee ownership and some idea can be had of how un- 
desirable it is that the man who in his proper place is a 
public force and benefit should forsake his life work when 
it reaches its best function. 

Of course we are speaking in general terms about a 
wide movement of population. There are, of course, in- 
dividual instances more or less frequent in which it is de- 
sirable that the farmer should move to the village or city. 
Sometimes it may be to the advantage of the farmer and 
his family; rarely it may be of advantage to the farm and 
to the farming community, especially if the farmer be out 
of sympathy with agriculture in its present progressive 
spirit. We have in mind instances where retired farmers 
exert a very beneficial influence in municipal affairs. 
There are groups of picturesque and potential farm grad- 
uates prominent in Sacramento, in San Jose, in I<os An- 
geles, and probably in many of our cities and villages. 
But even if this be granted, it must be claimed that in the 
same degree at least that these men are valuable in the 
towns, their loss to the country is appreciable. 

In general, then, both for the welfare and comfort of 
the farmer and for the advantage of the country, the 
change of residence contemplated should not be made. 
The man who has passed his years of greatest physical 
activity should plan rather to enjoy his age upon the farm 
and to bestow his spirit and wisdom upon its progress and 
development. He should relax his physical labors; he 
should plan and direct and regulate — younger men can 
execute. In his saddle or on his buggy seat, amid the 
scenes he has long loved and still in touch with productive 
enterprises he has developed, he remains to his last day 
an effective force on the farm and in the neighborhood. 
Such a course is infinitely better than to devote one's last 
and best days to struggle with the village cow and to 
daily debate upon the forum of the village store. With 
active interest laid aside, with nothing to impel and in- 
spire him, the retired farmer usually lingers along until 
moth and rust bring him relief in dissolution. 

Dry Land Forage Plants. 

While it is desirable to maintain all the eagerness and 
persistency which has characterized the search which Cali- 
fornians have always put forth to discover valuable forage 
plants for arid soils, it may be questioned whether enough 
has been done to determine the value and availability of 
plants which are known to withstand most trying situations 
and are indigenous thereto. It is likely that the effort to 
clothe arid lands with meadow-like verdure will end in 
disappointment. Nature decrees that meadows shall only 
exist with adequate moisture either natural or applied. 
She does not spread a carpet of tender growth without 
moisture, and she makes the duration of such carpet de- 
pend upon the length of the moist season. Where such 
season is short she employs annual plants and carries 
them along by a seed which withstands dedication. 
Where she maintains perennial plants upon arid soils, she 
is forced by her own requirements to give them a coarse- 
ness and hardiness which calls for tissues quite different 
from those of the meadow. It is more than probable that 
any plant which we find of value for forage in a succulent 
state during the dry season, will be a coarse plant, and a 
plant which cannot be mown and stored as is the fragrant, 
delicate product of the meadow. Of course if we accept this 
conclusion and proceed without search for dry land forage 
plants we shall probably succeed, for nature has plants for 
all situations. But do not demand too much; do not ex- 
pect the tender succulent grasses and clovers which thrive 
on natural or irrigated meadows to cover dry plains or 
sun-baked hillsides. Neither these plants nor others hav- 
ng a like manner of growth will probably ever fully meet 
the requirements of the most difficult situations. 

While we are still looking for something better we get a 
hint occasionally that plants known to be salamanders 
have a food value higher than is commonly accorded them. 
We have just read a report from South Africa that during 
recent season of serious drouth some farmers found the 
American aloe, which is simply our agave, or " century 
plant," the only barrier which stood between them and 
large loss of stock. We confess to a smile as we read along 
of how many sacks of succulent fodder were obtained from 
the fresh bloom-pole of the century plant, when we found 
that this succulent forage was used for feeding ostriches. 
With the popular conception of the ostrich as subsisting 
on a diet of fish hooks and carpet tacks, and as assuming 

January 27, 18^4. 



fatness upon- plentiful supplies of discarded tinware, it 
would not be hard to believe that the juicy spike of the 
agave would bring refreshment to the inwards of such an 
organism. But we are told in all seriousness that when 
other forage disappeared because of drouth, the birds lived 
solely upon the hashed substance of the century plant and 
proceeded with egg laying and multiplication in a most 
satisfactory manner. This might still indicate rather a 
low standard of food value in the agave, but the South 
African writer turned to the maintenance of his cows on a 
similar diet and there also found success. Now we are 
told the agave has acquired standing as a forage plant in 
South Africa; that it is customary each year to remove 
wholly the outside leaves of the plant and to put their 
thick, juicy substance through a masher, after which it is 
eagerly eaten by most farm s'ock. After the outside 
leaves are removed, the central bunch maintains its growth 
and comes into condition for another annual cutting. It 
would be simple to try experiments with this material. 
Most gardens have the plants in all their majesty, and off- 
shoots are abundant for further planting. They will 
thrive on any place where they can get a rooting, and dry 
ground, too strong for the plow, can be easily set with 
them. It is true they are far from the popular conception 
of what is desirable in a dry-land forage plant, but if they 
are found of use in the way described, even the hardest 
situation may be made to yield some stock feed. 

Another plant which suggests itself in this connection 
is our common cactus, or prickly pear, comprising the 
species of Opuntia, which are so abundant upon the so- 
called desert lands of California. It is well known that 
the fleshy leaves of this plant will maintain stock. Burn- 
ing off the prickles or spines makes the thick pads accept- 
able to all hungry stock, and perhaps the partial roasting 
does not detract from their flavor. There are frequent 
records of the use of the cactus for this purpose in the 
States along the Mexican border, and they are said to sus- 
tain even dairy cows in, we presume, a somewhat rude and 
scanty system of dairying. 

Such plants as we have named are only to be thought of 
where the land will not grow anything better. If there be 
profit in the keeping of stock on such lands, the natural 
forage of the plants can be often cheaply supplemented 
by a use of bran or other mill feeds. If the coarse vege- 
tation be reduced to pulp by some cheap rolling or crush- 
ing device, the addition of dry bran will probably add to 
its flavor as well as to its nutritive power. 

As we seem to be getting down to bedrock in all our in- 
dustrial affairs through the reform policies which are being 
enforced, it may be that cow feed of century plants and 
cactus will be but a proper distribution of its benefits. 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

A fine illustration of the interdependence of the several 
economic and political questions now before the country 
has bobbed up at Washington in the form of an adminis- 
trative act which bears a direct relation to them all. The 
Secretary of the Treasury has announced a new issue of 
Government bonds; and, at once, it ie found that the tariff 
question, the currency question, the revenue-tax question 
and questions of executive authority are, each and all, 
involved in the matter. Says the Protectionist : If the 
Government needs money, why don't they quit tinkering 
with the tariff and allow things to go on as they have 
prosperously these past thirty years ? Says the silver ad- 
vocate : Why don't they coin the silver in the treasury 
vaults ? Says the fiat money man : Why don't they 
print a new issue of greenbacks, for surely the promise ol 
the Government to pay is as good upon a dollar bill as 
upon a thousand-dollar bond. Says the man who doesn't 
want his income taxed : It will only make a new neces- 
sity for taxation to supply interest money, and it is an 
outrage. Says the strict-constructionist : I deny the 
authority of the executive branch of the Government to 
issue bonds without the direct sanction of Congress. Says 
the Populist : It is a scheme to put money in the pockets 
of the gold-bugs, who will, of course, snap up the bond«, 
and the producer will have to sweat to pay the interest. 
And so it goes. Every question and interest now before 
the country is involved the moment the money nerve is 
touched. It is a fact worth remembrance by those wbo 
care to study the underlying motives of our national life. 

Here is a plain statement of the condition of the treas- 
ury. The cash balance (which includes the gold reserve 
fixed by custom at $100,000,000) has fallen below $90,000,- 
000. For the last six months, revenues have been $34,- 
000,000 less than expenditures. There is good reason to 
believe that the deficiency for the next six months will be 
considerable. Few candid and well-informed persons esti- 
mate it below $20,000,000. This deficiency must come out 
of the cash balance, reducing it below $70,000,000. Not 
more than $60,000,000 of this will be gold reserve. Upon 

this $60,000,000 of gold must be supported directly some 
$375,000,000 of legal tender notes, and indirectly over 
$500,000,000 of silver and silver paper. All persons of 
knowledge agree that it is madness to let the reserve thus 
run down. 

To meet the necessity (and everybody admits the neces- 
sity save the fiat money men and the extreme silverites), 
Secretary Carlisle proposes to sell bonds — that is, to give 
the notes of the Government — in the sum of $50,000,000, 
in either registered or coupon form, in denominations of 
$50 and upward, redeemable in coin at the pleasure of the 
Government after ten years from the date of issue, and 
bearing interest, payable quarterly in coin, at the rate of 
five per cent. Proposals for the whole or any part of 
these bonds will be received at the Treasury Department 
until 12 o'clock, noon, the 1st of February, 1894. The 
proposals shall state the amount of bonds desired, whether 
registered or coupon, and the premium which the sub- 
scriber proposes to pay. As soon as practicable after the 
1st of February, allotments of bonds will be made to the 
highest bidders therefor, but- no proposal will be received 
at a lower price than $117,223, which is equivalent to a 
three per cent bond at par, and the right to reject any and 
all proposals is expressly reserved. The bonds are to be 
payable in gold only. 

This is the proposition; and already bids are being re- 
ceived at the treasury. The authority for this proceeding 
— such as it is — is found in the Act of 1875 providing for 
the resumption of special payments, which declares that 
in certain contingencies the Secretary of the Treasury may 
sell bonds of the Government. It was an authority ex- 
pressly bestowed to meet a possible emergency during the 
change from the greenback to the metal basis many years 
ago; and in the judgment of many able lawyers there is a 
question as to its application at this time under cir- 
cumstances wholly different from those in the con- 
templation of Congress at the time of the enactment. 
Indeed, within the past few weeks both Secretary Carlisle 
and President Cleveland have expressed doubts of the 
present legality of the authority to issue bonds, and the 
latter in his annual message asked Congress to make the au- 
thorization more definite. In consideration of this doubt, 
it was at first intended to ask Congress to authorize the 
proposed issue by special Act; but upon reflection it was 
feared that such a request at this time would complicate 
the tariff measure; and so it was lesolved to force the pro- 
ject through on such questionable authority as existing 
law affords. It is only fair to say that whatever criticism 
may attach to Messrs. Cleveland and Carlisle in this mat- 
ter attaches equally to preceding administrations since 
1875, for each of them has asserted the authority under 
the provisions of the law upon which Mr. Carlisle is now 
proceeding, to issue bonds in their own discretion. It is 
not a matter in which one party has any right to arraign 
the other. 

The Rubal stands with those who hold the bond 
issue to be bad policy. The necessity for it grows out of 
the proposed change in the revenue laws, and, as we have 
often said before, we believe the change untimely and un- 
wise. Somehow, the Government must raise approxi- 
mately five hundred millions of dollars per year to pay its 
running expenses and the annual pension charge; and it 
is not likely that this annual requirement will soon be re- 
duced. At a time when the revenues hardly supply 
sufficient funds for current necessities, it seems rank folly 
to cut them down as the Wilson tariff bill proposes; and a 
folly ranker still to attempt to make up the deficiency by 
new forms of domestic taxation as is further proposed. It 
seems indeed a strange course and a strange time to throw 
over the policy of Protection to American industries under 
which the country has long prospered; and to substitute 
for it a policy of internal industrial taxation. As we look 
at it, it is a course certain to produce — if it should be car- 
ried into execution — industrial demoralization and wide- 
spread poverty. It hardly needs to be added, in view of its 
wider relations, that its effect upon the public revenues 
is the least, and the last to be dreaded, of the consequences 
of the Wilson tariff measure. We have only to look about 
our own State and consider what would be the effects of 
the proposed tariff changes, to be able to estimate the 
havoc and ruin it would make in the country at large. 

Wiser far, it appears to us, would it be to dismiss all no- 
tions of tariff reform, at least until the country shall have 
regained its normal commercial and financial health. 
What would be thought of a surgeon who should choose 
for some hazardous and doubtful operation a time when 
his patient was sick of a fever and when his vital forces 
were at their lowest ebb ? Such a course would be com- 
parable with the arbitrary folly which selects a time of 
stagnation and distress for tinkering with the tariff. 

The Wilson bill is having very hard sledding in the 
House of Representatives, though it is admitted that if it 
can be forced to a vote, party authority will carry it 

through. For several days it has been in the stage subje-. 
to amendment, and propositions of change have been thick 
and furious. It is, of course, ably defended by Mr. Wilson 
and as yet only one considerable amendment has been car- 
ried over his protest; and that is one vitally related to the 
interests of California. The McKinley law, now in opera- 
tion, provides a bounty of two cents per pound for sugar 
of domestic production. The Wilson bill, as it was intro- 
duced, provided for its abrogation in eight annual install- 
ments — that is, to take one- quarter of one per cent each 
year from the bounty for eight years. As now amended, 
the bill provides for the immediate abrogation of the 
bounty. This has made a great row in the majority camp, 
the Louisiana men declaring that they will not support 
the bill as it stands. The California men, whose interests 
are identical, will probably join in the protest, although 
up to this time (with the exception of Mr. Geary, who is 
outspoken in opposition) they have shown very poor 

So many propositions for change are now before the 
House that a recommendation to recommit the bill to the 
Committee for amendment is expected at any time; and it 
is certain that a combination between those Democrats, who 
want specific changes, and the whole body of Republicans, 
who will do anything for delay, could throw the measure 
back upon the hands of the Ways and Means Committee. 
This is the critical position of the bill at this time. Re- 
commitment would be a virtual defeat; and it will be op- 
posed by all the powers that the leader of the majority abd 
the Speaker, backed by the Administration, can bring to 
bear. The plan of this combination is to bring the bill to 
a direct vote on the 29th — next Monday; and, if they can 
hold it to its course, there is scarcely a doubt that it will 
go through. Its danger lies in the fact that certain Demo- 
cratic elements who would not dare to go against the party 
on direct vote, may join in a vote for delay and amend- 
ment. The strain will be intense during the next few 
days; and we incline to the opinion that the Administra- 
tion forces will win. 

The real fight will probably be in the Senate, where the 
Protection forces are stronger and where the rules of pro- 
cedure give a clearer field for obstructive tactics There 
the Administration has no such power as it has in the 
House. Only last week tha President's nominee for the 
Supreme bench (Hornblower) was rejected — a fact very 
significant as notice to the President that he must not 
count upon support of the Senate either for nominations 
or for legislation. Senator Hill of New York, who led 
the opposition to Hornblower, is known to oppose the 
President's tariff policy and may be expected with his 
colleague Murphy to stand with the Protectionists. 

On Tuesday of this week the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs reported the following resolution for the considera- 
tion of the Senate: 

Resolved, From the facts and papers laid before the Senate it 
is unwise and inexpedient, under the existing conditions, to 
consider at this time any project for the annexation of the Ha- 
waiian Islands to the United States; that the Provisional Gov- 
ernment therein having been duly recognized, the highest iu- interest requires it shall pursue its own line of 
policy. Foreign intervention in the political affairs of these 
islands would be regarded as an act unfriendly to the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

In presenting this resolution the chairman said that 
Dolph of Oregon dissented from the first clause, but that in 
other respects it expressed the unanimous judgment of the 
committee. As yet the resolution has not been acted upon, 
but the impression is general that it will be made the basis 
of American policy relative to Island affairs during the 
continuance of the present Administration. It is scarcely 
necessary to point out that it flatly negatives Mr. Cleve- 
land's recent propositions, and that in effect it will estab- 
lish an American protectorate over the Hawaiian group. 
Whenever we notify the nations of the earth, as this 
resolution proposes, to keep hands off from Hawaii, we 
assume, practically, the responsibility of her future. In 
the end it will involve incorporation of the Islands within 
the dominion of the United States, probably not in the 
form of a new State, but in some special relation fitted to 
the special conditions of the case. This has seemed to us 
all along to be the inevitable outcome; and it has, there- 
fore, seemed scarcely worth while to protest agaust mani- 
fest destiny. 

The move is one of serious import in its relations 
to the future of the Republic. It will make a 
precedent in the extension of American dominion 
that opens the door to Canada, to Australia, to Cuba, to 
Mexico and to a dozen other countries. It will lead to a 
direct connection with international affairs which hitherto 
it has been our policy to avoid, and it will make our politi- 
cal life of the world instead of purely insular. It will 
lead to a prodigious development of our naval establish- 
ment. It will make the Nicaragua Canal and a sub- 
marine cable between California and the Islands military 
necessities. And no man has the wit to know how all 



January 27, 189*. 

these thiDgs will affect the political, the material, the in- 
tellectual and the moral life of the American people. 
The possibilities suggested by these reflections make 
thoughtful men grave when they turn from the partisan, 
personal and ephemeral considerations involved in the 
recent diplomatic muddle to consideration of the real 
question involved; namely, that of the wisdom or unwis- 
dom of making Hawaii an American dependency. 

Citric Acid and Oil of Lemon. 

We alluded last week to the warning given by the U. S. 
Consul at Rome that artificial citric acid was being pro 
duced in Italy and that the manufacture thereof from the 
lemon was endangered thereby. There is, however, con 
stant inquiry for the methods employed In realizing some 
advantage from the waste lemon product, and to meet this 
demand we give the following from Spon's Encyclopaedia 
of Industrial Arts, describing citric acid and oil of lemon 
manufacture as practiced in Europe: 


The lime juice from which the acid is prepared is im- 
ported from Sicily, the south of Italy, and from the West 
Indies. After removing the seeds and peel, the fruit is 
strongly expressed, and the juice collected; it is evaporated 
in copper pans until it has a density of about 1.234, when 
it is a thin, dark brown, syrupy liquid, containing about 32 
per cent of free citric acid. An instrument termed a citro 
meter is sometimes used to measure the amount of citric 
acid contained in the juice, but this method is not to be 
relied on, owing to the variableness of the quantity of in 
soluble and saccharine matter present in the sample, as 
well as to the fact that during the concentration of the 
juice, part of the acid is invariably decomposed and carbon 
thereby set at liberty; the dark color of the juice is also 
due to the presence of free carbon. It is imported into this 
country in casks containing about 100 gallons. 

The vessel in which the decomposition takes place is a 
wooden tub, conical in form, and of any convenient size; 
this tub is fitted with suitable agitating gear, worked by 
machinery above. The juice is run from a cistern, by 
means of a metal pipe provided with a stop-cock, having 
been previously heated to about 100° C. Small portions of 
common whiting, finely ground, are added successively, the 
contents being well agitated the while, until the mixture 
ceases to effervesce. It should be observed that the re- 
action with litmus or turmeric affords no indication of the 
po nt at which all the citric acid Is converted into citrate of 
lime, owing, it is said, to the formation of an acid citrate, 
and al o to the presence of phosphoric acid, which is 
always to be found in the crude lime juice; these bodies 
are wiih difficulty neutralized by chalk, and render the 
mixture distinctly acid when considerably more chalk has 
been added than is sufficient to combine with the whole of 
the citric acid. The liquid may be, and sometimes Is, 
neu ralized by the addition of milk of lime, but the practice 
is objectionable, and has been discontinued by the best 
manufacturers, on account of the mucilage precipitated by 
the lime, which hinders the filtration and cbrystalization of 
the concentrated liquor. It was formerly the custom to get 
rid of these mucilaginous matters by subjecting the crude 
juice to a process of fermentation, but this has generally 
been given up as unnecessary. 

When the addition of more chalk produces no efferves- 
cence, the agitating gear is stopped and the contents of the 
tub are allowed to settle; the clear liquor, containing much 
soluble impurity, is run away by means of a tap. The 
citrate o( lime is now washed rapidly, but thoroughly, wi'h 
warm water, the contents are well stirred up, again allowed 
to settle and the washings run off; this process is continued 
till the citrate is thoroughly cleansed. It Is then ready (or 
decomposition, which is carried on in the same vessel. 
The proportion of sulphuric acid required to effect this is 
about oj parts of strong acid, diluted with six times its 
weight of water, to every ten parts of chalk previously 
used. The acid is run in while still hot and the mixture 
kept in a state of agitation for about 12 hours, or until the 
whole of the citric acid is decomposed. This operation 
complete, the whole contents are run off, while still well 
mixed, into a shallow leaden vat, placed immediately be- 
side the decomposing tub and connected with the bottom 
of the latter by means of a leaden pipe. The heavy sul- 
phate of lime, which may afterward be sold as manure, 
sinks immediately to the bottom of this vat, leaving the 
citric acid liquor free to flow into the concentrating vessel 
placed at its side; this vessel is made of wood, lined on the 
inside with lead and furnished with a leaden coil which 
lies at the bottom of the pan, and through which steam is 
constantly passing. In order to tender the concentration 
more speedy the wooden sides of the pan enclose a row of 
metal pipes, through which also steam is made to pass. 
The steam is withdrawn as soon as a thin film appears on 
the surface of the evaporating liquid, and care must be 
taken that this point is not passed. On withdrawing the 
steam the concentrated acid is run or pumped into a con- 
venient cistern, and from this it is ladled into canvas bags 
suspended from a wooden frame, beneath which are placed 
rows of circular leaden basins; the liquor running through 
is retained in these basins, all mechanical impurities being 
left behind in the bags. As soon as the crystals cease to 
form, the mother liquors are poured back into the concen- 
trating pans and the citric acid is carefully detached from 
the basins. The article thus obtained is sufficiently pare 
for ordinary purposes and represents the citric acid of 

During the process of evaporation in the leaden vats the 
concentrated liquor invariably becomes contaminated with 
more or less lead. When the acid is used for the prepara- 
tion of aerated wateis this becomes a serious difficulty, ow- 
ing to the poisonous nature of lead compounds. It has 

been proposed to obviate this by employing vessels of wood 
or earthenware. 


Expression and Scarification. — Such processes as are 
described in this section are adapted only to the materials 
yielding a large percentage of essential oil, such as fruits of 
the citrus genus. The simplest form is the so-called 
" sponge process." The peel is first cut off of the fruit in 
three longitudinal slices, leaving the central pulp of trian- 
gular shape, with a little peel at either end; the central 
pulp Is cut transversely in the middle and thrown on one 
side, while the peel is collected on the other. The latter 
is left till next day and treated thus: A seated workman 
holds in the palm of his left hand a flattish piece of sponge, 
lapped round his forefinger. With the other hand he 
places a slice of peel upon the sponge, the outer surface 
downward, and presses the uppermost (zeste) side so as to 
give it a convex instead of a concave surface. The oil 
vesicles are thus ruptured and the oil which issued from 
them is absorbed by the sponge with which they are in 
contact. Each slice receives four or five squeezes and is 
then thrown aside. The workman carefully avoids pressing 
the small bit of pulp attached to each slice. As the sponge 
becomes saturated it is forcibly wrung out into a coarse 
earthenware bowl, provided with a spout and of a size to 
bold at least three pints; here the oil separates from the 
watery liquid accompanying it and is decanted. Despite 
its apparent rudeness and wastefulness this process is capa- 
ble of affording an excellent article; It is employed chiefly 
for treating lemons. 

Another implement adopted with both lemon and ber- 
gamot is known as the ecuellerd piques. It is a stout 
pewter saucer, about 8 ' 2 inches wide, with a lip on one side 
for convenience of pouring. The bottom is covered with 
stout, sharp, brass pins, standing up about one-half inch, 
the center being deepened into a tube about one-half inch 
in diameter and five inches long, closed at the lower end 
The whole resembles a shallow funnel, with the tube 
stopped up at the end. The peel is held in the hand and 
rubbed over the pins, by which the oil vessels of the entire 
surface are punctured. The liberated oil flows down into 
the tube, which is emptied at intervals into another vessel, 
where the oil may separate from the turbid, watery liquid 
accompanying It. 

A modified form of the ecuelle for extracting bergamot 
oil from the full-grown, but unripe, entire fruits is as fol- 
lows : The fruits are placed in a strong metallic dish 
about ten inches wide, having a raised central opening, 
forming with the outer edge a broad groove or channel, 
and covered with a lid of similar form. The inner surfaces 
of both dish and iid are provided with a number of narrow, 
radiating, metallic ridge blades, about one-fourth inch high 
and resembling knife-backs. The dish is also perforated 
to permit the outflow of the oil, and both dish and lid are 
arranged in a metallic cylinder, placed over a vessel to re- 
ceive the oil. By a simple set of cog wheels, a handle 
causes the cover, which is very heavy, to revolve rapidly 
over the dish; the fruit lying between the two is carried 
round, and simultaneously subjected to the action of the 
sharp ridges, while, rupturing the oil vessels, set free the 
oil to flow out by the small holes in the bottom of the dish. 
Some six, eight or more fruits are dealt with at once, and 
are kept under operation for about one-half minute; about 
7000 fruits can thus be treated in one such machine per 

Distillation. — The oleiferous material is placed in an 
iron, copper or glass still of 1-1000 gallon capacity, and is 
covered with water; superposed is a dome-shaped lid termi- 
nating in a coil of pipe, placed in a vessel of cold water 
and protruding therefrom with a tap at the end. On boil- 
ing the contents of the still, the essential oil passes over 
with the steam, and is condensed with it in the receiver; 
the oil and water separate on standing. A great improve- 
ment, introduced by Drew, Heywood and Barron, is the 
use of a steam jacketed still. Steam is supplied from a 
boiler into the jacket; within the head of the still is fixed a 
" rouser," a double-branched stirrer curved to the form of 
the pan, and having a chain attached and made to drag 
over the bottom, the whole being set in motion by means 
of a handle. The still is charged and nearly filled with 
water; the head is then bolted on, steam is admitted into 
the jacket, the contents are well stirred, ahd soon the oil 
and steam are carried up the pipe, condensed in the re- 
frigerator, and let out into the receiver. Here the oil and 
water separate and escape by different taps. 

The Dried Fruit Trade of 1893. 

The Herald of Trade has kindly furnished us an ad- 
vance copy of a review of the dried fruit trade of the last 
lf-year, prepared by A. G. Ereeman, manager of the 
local branch of J. K. Armsby & Co. It will be read with 
interest : 

When the market opened in July on new dried apricots, 
practically the former season's product of all kinds of Cali- 
fornia dried fruit, including peaches, apricots, pears and 
plums, had been consumed. Of dried grapes and 
raisins alone there was a fair supply of old stock. 
President Cleveland had just called Congress to meet in 
extraordinary session to consider the causes, and a possible 
cure for the extreme financial depression then existing. 
Banks were failing every day and commercial institutions 
of every description, no matter how strong financially, 
were more or less fearful, and all, with one accord, acted 
on lines of extreme conservatism. It is well known that 
our dried-apricot product was in light supply, and that 
the Eastern fruit crop, especially of apples, " the great 
staple," was in very light supply, both spot and prospec- 
tive, but wholesale grocers were afraid to operate except In 
a very limited way, and the price dropped until fine Cali- 
fornia dried apricots, " one of the most delicious and 
nutritive dried fruits produced anywhere," could be bought 
at 7 to 8 cents f. o. b., in car lots. Consumers soon be- 

gan to appreciate their value and shortly a brisk movement 

started, coming wholly from a consumptive demand, and In 
a very short time the bulk of the product was moved. The 
same influences acted on the peach product, which came 
next, and likewise on pears and other varieties of smaller 
volume. Quite early In August, and to certain extent in 
July, the prospect of a liberal prune product began to excite 
comment, both from producers and dealers. Extreme high 
prices had prevailed for the product of 1892 and this led 
many producers to expect fairly high prices from the then 
growing crop. Much feeling was engendered by offerings 
by certain commission houses and large producers at prices 
considerably below those sought to be obtained by the 
large Exchanges in Santa Clara valley. The Exchanges 
started with the idea that 6 cents for the four sizes of graded 
prunes in sacks could be obtained. These views they soon 
reduced to 5* cents, and later to 5, and, while they did not 
publish the facts, many were sold at 4} and even less be- 
fore shipments commenced. The total prospective volume 
of the product was belittled and every device used to main- 
tain a price above what has proved to be the actual value 
of the product. 

The situation on raisins and dried wine grapes was 
somewhat different — quite a quantity of the product of 
1892 was still on hand in August, 1893, and was selling 
at extremely low prices. Raisin handlers saw no chance 
to open the market at anything above ruinously low prices 
from the producers' standpoint. Zante currants were 
being offered at under two cents, all expenses paid de- 
livered in New York, and import orders for large amounts 
were being placed daily. The raisin product of Spain 
was nearly a month earlier coming into market than 
for many years, and, owing to heavy losses on the Cali- 
fornia product, Eastern dealers were inclined to buy much 
heavier than usual of the Valencia product. At this time 
a large meeting of producers and packers was held at 
Fresno, and a large, well-attended adjourned meeting in 
San Francisco. Prices were made, being a sort of com- 
promise between the extremists of both sides. A committee 
on freight rates was appointed, and, it can justly be said, 
performed some of the best work ever done by a committee 
of this kind in this State. A vast array of facts and figures 
was presented to the officials of the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany, who made a great reduction, every mill of which has 
gone to the benefit of the California fruit producers. The 
prices made at this meeting were quite generally main- 
tained by sellers on early shipments, but just as soon as 
the bulk of the crop was ready, large consignments com- 
menced, and these were sold as fast as they arrived at 
current market rates, which were very much less than the 
f. o. b. schedule adopted at the San Francisco meeting. 

During the last 60 days we have had a dragging market 
on nearly all kinds of dried fruit, especially on raisins and 
prunes. The fall trade took such a large percentage of 
peaches, apricots and other varieties that prices on them 
have been fairly well maintained. The course of the 
market the past year, and of all markets on food products 
for all time past, shows most clearly to the student of 
markets the fallacy of fixing a price. Such a thing is only 
possible with non-perishable products, the production of 
which can be adjusted to the consumption. How few pro- 
ducers give a thought to the matter of consumption, and 
the few that do are far more apt to catch at anything show- 
ing that their special product is selling at high prices to 
consumers, no matter from what source or whether the re- 
port has any basis of fact, than to get a real honest view of 
the situation as it really is. 

A large percentage of the families of the United States 
have incomes under $1000 per annum. It is estimated that 
of the ten to twelve million families in the United States only 
about 85,000 have incomes of over $4000 per year. A 
glance shows who consumes this season's product of 50,- 
000,000 pounds of prunes, 70,000,000 pounds of raisins and 
25,000,000 pounds of other California dried fruits. They 
are necessarily consumed by the 60,000,000 people who live 
by the fruit of their daily labor, who compare our product 
in cheapness and general desirability as a food article with 
whatever else is offered them from the markets of- the 
world. Producers of food products cannot learn too 
quickly that it is not the province of " meetings," " com- 
binations," " organizations," etc., to " fix the price" under 
normal conditions. The wife of the man with the "tin 
bucket " invariably fixes the price under normal conditions. 
You can lead a horse to water but you cannot make him 
drink. And you can " fix the price " of a food product but 
you cannot force the American housewife to buy it. No 
better illustration of this great truth can be had than the 
course of the market on California dried fruit this year 
when we had an utter absence of speculation. The con- 
sumer, the wife of the man with the " tin pail," decreed 
that our dried peaches and apricots were cheap and good 
food articles, and bought them so freely that we had a firm 
market and fair advance. She likewise decreed our prunes 
and raisins were too high, and in spite of the fact that we 
had made a large number of wholesale grocers believe 
they, or more especially prunes, were cheap, down went 
the price to meet the consumers' views. Another great 
fact we have to learn, and that quickly, is that as our 
product increases in volume, we have to constantly seek a 
large number of consumers with smaller incomes. In 
other words, as our products increase in volume they 
naturally decrease in price, as they pass from being delica- 
cies of the rich man's table to the every-day food of the 
workers of the land. 

Land plaster or gypsum is useful about the stables. 
It fixes the ammonia and so makes the manure more valu- 
able, and absorbs all bad odors. It also helps toward 
making the premises look tidy — an item that sometimes is 
not sufficiently considered. 

The human family living on earth to-day consists of 
about 1,450,000,000 souls — not fewer, probably more. 
These are distributed literally all over the earth's surface, 
there being no considerable spot on the globe where man 
has not found a foothold. 

January 27, 1894. 




How Badly They Need Oar Fruit in London. 

Some friend kindly sends us a copy of the London Daily 
News with an article on the Christmas fruit supply of the 
world's metropolis. It will be interesting reading to Cali- 
fornia fruit-growers, and it shows, we think, how wonder- 
fully their fruit supply would be varied and improved if 
they should include California fruit products Instead of 
relying wholly upon the historic articles of the Mediterra- 
nean region. The article also Incidentally gives informa- 
tion of the producing region mentioned, which is entertain- 
ing. We quote as follows: 

The year 1893, which here in England has been one of 
the most delightful and one of the most fruitful on record, 
seems to have been pretty much the same throughout Eu- 
rope — southern Europe at any rate. Christmas fruit has 
never poured into our market in such quantities as this 
year, and it is said that upon the whole prices have never 
been so low. The Ionian islands — Cephalonla and Zante 
principally — have had such a crop of currants as they never 
had before. The plants are liable to be swept over by the 
" black sirocco," an African wind that blasts and shrivels 
them like the breath of a furnace. This year they seem to 
have escaped all perils; never were the vineyards more ex- 
tensive, never have the deep purple clusters bung thicker 
under the sunlit leaves, never have the islands looked pret- 
tier, with their white cliffs, their clustering cypress trees, 
their dark olive groves, and their thousands of acres of 
vines, with the picturesque natives working in their midst. 
Alas, it is difficult to be quite happy in this world, and the 
Ionians this year are strongly inclined to think that their 
prayers have been somewhat too abundantly answered. 
The French consumption has almost entirely fallen off, and 
now comes an unprecedented crop in addition to extended 
acreage, and prices in London have fallen to just about 
half what they were. The troubles of the small currant 
farmers of the sunny isles of Zante and Cephalonia are in- 
deed pretty much the same as with our growers of wheat 
and turnips. If the sirocco comes and nips up their vines 
they have nothing to sell, and if it does not come and they 
have abundant crops, then they can get no price. How- 
ever, our own enormously increased consumption must be 
some compensation for fallings off elsewhere, and the ex- 
tremely low price this year ought to create an extraordinary 
demand, the effect of which will be to extend the popularity 
of the fruit for years to come. In 1834 there was a tax of 
£2 4s. a cwt. on this fruit — nearly five pence a pound. Of 
course, there were scarcely any eaters. In that year, how- 
ever, the tax was reduced by half, but even with that the 
consumption never rose to much over 9000 tons. Ten 
years later the tax was brought down to 15s., and in a few 
years the consumption rose to 21,000 tons. In i860 came 
another reduction in the tax, and by 1880 our importation 
had become over 37,000 tons. Ten years ago, when there 
was still a small import duty, our consumption was some- 
where about 70,000 tons. This year, what with the entire 
freedom from duty, the falling-off of the French market, 
and the enormous crops, it is computed that our imports of 
currants will not be less than 160,000 to 170,000 tons, and 
as it has been said, prices for good sound fruit have 
dropped 50 per cent. However, in the long run the Greeks 
will be pretty sure to take it out of us. Such quantities 
and such prices mean a great popularizing of the humble 
currant and as the growth of it is entirely confined to the 
rocky, volcanic, little islets on the coast of Greece, the 
growers have an absolute monopoly. Many attempts have 
been made to get the vine to grow elsewhere — in the 
neighborhood of Smyrma, for instance, and in two or three 
localities in Spain — but though the plant will grow, the 
fruit degenerates and some becomes worthless. 

Plums, too, are very abundant this year. The popular 
Sultanas, which only two or three years ago sold at famine 
prices, are now lower than ever, and though the best quali- 
ties may still fetch their prices, there is this year an abun- 
dance of excellent fruit of this particular kind to be had for 
three pence a pound. The grapes which come to us in the 
form of " plums " for our puddings, or as raisins for des- 
sert, grow like the currants in some of Ihe sunniest and 
prettiest spots on earth. A little musing over the ingredi- 
ents of a plum pudding should be well calculated to en- 
hance one's appreciation of it in the dull dark days and the 
sullen skies of a London midwinter. Plums are, of course, 
grown in the open air, on sunny plains or the lower slopes 
of mountains. Like the currants of Zante or the grapes of 
southern France, they are supported on poles, and in order 
to convert grapes into " plums," the fruit requires special 
treatment. The inferior kinds are gathered and dried, and 
dipped into a liquor containing salt oil, wood ashes, and 
vanilla, which imparts to them the ruddy brown color by 
which " plums " are distinguished from raisins. The 
grapes grown for raisins are dried, or partly dried, before 
they are gathered, the stalk of each bunch being partly cut 
through. This causes the bunch to wither and shrivel 
without losing Its beautiful bloom. After awhile they are 
severed from the vine and laid out in small sheltered places 
on banks sloping to the sun, provision being made for 
covering them up from rain or the dew of night. Great 
care is taken to pick from these drying beds only those that 
have been sufficiently exposed. From 8 to 12 days is the 
usual time, and skilled men are employed to sit on boards 
supported over the beds and pick out the bunches that are 
properly dried. They are taken to the packing houses, 
where every bunch is closely examined and where inferior 
or unripe grapes are clipped out with scissors and thrown 
into a barrel for wine making. The good grapes are sorted 
into qualities, packed into boxes, and finally exported to us 
as Malaga or Valencia raisins. They come to us with a 
reminder of some of the most delightful scenery and most 
enjoyable climate of Europe, where grow myrtles and 
citron groves, pomegranates and mulberry trees, figs and 

orange gardens, almond blossoms and lemon trees, veritable 
gardens of perpetual bloom and fruitfulness. And yet, even 
here the growers are not altogether happy. Other parts of 
the world are entering keenly into competition with them, 
and hence it is that prices for all but the highest quality of 
fruit are unprecedentedly low. 

But besides plums and currants there are other fruits 
that enter Into the composition of any well-constituted and 
orthodox plum pudding. Candied peel, though not a large 
item in our Christmas grocery, is certainly an Important 
one, and this, too, comes with a whisper of sunny lands 
and balmy breezes. We get lemons pretty well all the 
year round — April to the end of August; they come to us 
from Naples. From August to November our supply 
comes from Malaga, and from November to May Palermo 
and Messina take up the running. The lemon peel, which 
in a candied form we find in our puddings, comes to us in 
pipes of brine from Messina. Here In England it is taken 
out of the brine, has the salt removed from it by a process 
of steaming, and Is then " candied." Of citron peel, pretty 
much the same may be said, except that we get our best 
citrons from Corsica, though a good many come to us with 
the lemons from Messina. All these fruits, together with 
all sorts of nuts, have for some weeks past been pouring 
into our markets in great abundance, our own cob-nuts 
from Kent having also proved an excellent crop this year. 
Jordan almonds, which last year fetched two shillings, have 
this season fallen to 18 pence, and most other nuts are 
equally low. 

Pineapples are getting cheaper and cheaper as the pro- 
duction extends and the popular taste for them develops. 
In St. Michaels, the island of the Azores to which we al- 
ways used to look for the finest of our oranges, the pine 
has come to be quite a specialty, and one ship recently 
arrived at London Bridge with just about twenty-four thou- 
sand delicious pines on board. St. Michaels has almost 
entirely given up sending oranges to this market; indeed, 
this Christmas there seems to be none at all over here. 
The Spanish growers have very greatly developed their 
business and have much improved the quality of their fruit 
of late years. This season they too seem to have heavy 
crops to report, and oranges this Christmas are, like all 
other kinds of fruit, sure to be very cheap. Consignments 
already in the market are very heavy, and are reported to 
be in excellent condition, though a little late. Jaffa or- 
anges, the large, egg-shaped fruit, seem to be becoming 
very popular as their delicious quality becomes known, and 
though, of course, from their large size, they are higher in 
price than most others. They are exceptionally cheap 
this year and may be bought for 18 pence a dozen. Alto- 
gether this seems to have been a very abundant fruit year, 
and if our Christmas tables do not reflect something of the 
brightness and bountifulness of many an earthly paradise It 
will not be for want of a good supply. 

[They call this a good supply, and yet almost any Cali- 
fornia fruit-grower can far surpass it from his own pantry. 
Evidently we have to teach the Londoner what is a good 
supply before he can appreciate and call for it.— Ed.] 

Kerosene Emulsion. 

To the Editor: — Please answer through your valuable paper the 
reason for the following: I had occasion to make some kerosene 
emulsion. I used our well water which is hard, and the formula 
given by Prof. C. V. Riley, U. S. Entomologist, following his direc- 
tions exactly, but there was no emulsion. I finally tried heating it, 
and at once a fine emulsion formed, but when I diluted it the oil rose 
to the top and the next day I could dip enough oil off to kindle a fire. 

I also tried the formula given by Prof. A. J. Cook, formerly of the 
State Agricultural College of Michigan, but now of Pomona College, 
this State. In this I had good success, making a complete emulsion, 
and the next day it was as perfect as the night before. Please explain 
the reason for the failure of the Riley formula. — Ernest A. Gammon, 
Courtland, Sacramento Co., Cal., Jan. 2, 1894. 

Comments by Prof. C. W. Woodworth. 
To produce the " Riley emulsion " the soap solution 
should be hot, and the pumping continued five to ten 

When a soap solution and kerosene are stirred together 
there is soon formed a creamy substance which will bear 
dilution if it contains enough soap. This is the " Cook 
emulsion." If a higher per cent of kerosene is wanted, the 
stirring must be much more violent and longer continued, 
and the emulsion thus obtained becomes as thick as clab- 
ber and is indeed quite a different substance. This, the 
Riley emulsion, will bear dilution without the separation of 
the kerosene. C. W. Woodworth. 

University of California, Berkeley. 


Annual Meeting of the State Floral Sooiety. 

The annual meeting of the State Floral Society was held 
January 12th. In his informal speech, President Wickson 
said : 

" With reference to our affairs in general, we can con- 
gratulate ourselves on our success during the past year. 
We have an unfortunate debt left over from the last show, 
but leaving that out of the question our regular income has 
been satisfactory, and we have a live and active member- 
ship. Perhaps the notable feature of the year was the 
open-air meetings of June and July. These were very 
satisfactory, and will probably be arranged for again dur- 
ing the coming summer." 

In consequence of the ill-health and subsequent absence 
from home of the secretary, his report was not forth- 
coming. The treasurer's report showed that the year's 
receipts amounted to $1586.40, and the disbursements to 
$1471.09, leaving a balance in hand of $115.31. 

A letter from Professor Emory E. Smith, superintendent 
I of the department of horticulture of the Midwinter Fair, 
was read, urging the State Floral Society to appoint a 

strong committee to confer with that department for tht 
arrangement of flower shows during the continuance of the 
fair — above all, of regular fortnightly exhibitions of flowers. 
The president appointed the following committee : Mrs. 
Babcock, Mrs. Cross, Mrs. Hodgkins, Mrs. Wiester and 
W. McGowan. 

The election for officers resulted in the return of E. J. 
Wickson, president; Mrs. L. O. Hodgkins, vice-president; 
Charles W. Aiken, secretary ; John Henderson, Jr., treas- 
urer; and Miss E. F. Bailey, accountant. The president, 
secretary and treasurer being ex-ofncio members of the 
board of directors, it only remained to elect two other 
directors. From among a number of nominations Mrs. B 
P. Rodolph and Mrs. R. W. Brehm were elected. 

The members listened to an interesting paper on ferns by 
Mrs. L. O. Hodgkins, followed by W. McGowan's address, 
" The Rose Blossoms of 1893." 

During the meeting over a hundred varieties of ferns 
from the Sandwich Islands were on exhibition. These the 
society formally accepted as a gift from Mrs. Mary S. 

How They Use Eschscholtzias in England. 
Foreigners have done much for our California poppies 
which might perhaps never have been done at home. We 
have the flower in such glorious amount that we thought 
little of developing varieties, but this was done abroad. 
They have also In distant parts made decorative nses of the 
plant, which we do not. If fact, if we should grow the 
poppy as an English writer advocates below, we take the 
risk of being ridiculed for having weedy garden beds. How- 
ever, the following from the London Garden is very inter- 

The late Mr. Charles Perry, when an amateur rose-culti- 
vator at Birmingham, used to adopt the practice of growing 
eschscholtzias among his standard roses, and, as he always 
said, to his entire satisfaction. That he obtained brilliant 
effects was patent to all who saw his rose garden when his 
favorite annuals were in bloom, and one saw large bushes 
with deep orange, yellow and lemon-colored tulip-shaped 
flowers rising above the graceful foliage in thousands, 
growing high enough to hide a good portion of the naked 
stems of the rose trees. Mr. Perry always held no harm 
was done to his plants or the bloom they carried; indeed, 
he considered that in summer on dry land the eschscholtzias 
were beneficial, keeping the soil cool; and, as he said with 
some truth, if it is necessary to have such a covering, let it 
be something beautiful to look npon. Since Mr. Perry 
grew his eschscholtzias several fine new varieties have been 
raised. In his day he had the lemon-colored E. tenuifolia, 
the yellow E. Callfornica and the golden E. Crocea. The 
varieties have since been extended by the introduction of 
the white form of E. Californica, the rich, the pretty and 
distinct rosy carmine Rose Cardinal, which is regarded as 
a variety of E. grandiflora, and the deep rich orange E. 
Mandarin, which, though placed in seed lists as a variety 
of E. Crocea, actually came from Rose Cardinal. Doubt- 
less other annuals would serve the purpose of carpeting 
beds of standard roses, but perhaps nothing more lasting, 
brilliant and graceful than the eschscholtzia. Mr. Perry 
made a practice of sowing seeds In his rose beds in De- 
cember, and by so doing he had the plants at their greatest 
beauty at the time the roses were in bloom, and they con- 
tinued to flower in good condition until September, when 
the plants were all pulled up in order that the soil shonld 
not be made sour for the autumn. Originally grown as a 
biennial, the eschscholtzia blooms much better as an an- 
nual, and never, perhaps, so finely as when autumn-sown. 
I have seen in Mr. Waterer's nursery at Knap Hill plants 
of eschscholtzia raised from seeds sown in late autumn that 
were marvelously fine, and it is not too much to say that 
the eschscholtzia is among the hardiest of annuals. When 
the seeds are sown broadcast the plants come up thickly, 
and it is necessary they be thinned out 12 inches to 15 
inches from each other, so as to afford ample room. They 
are much better sown in the open than when transplanted. 

Cauliflower Culture in the South. 

Samuel A. Cook of Georgia writes an article on this sub- 
ject for the American Agriculturist which may be sug- 
gestive to our people. He says it requires skillful manage- 
ment to raise a satisfactory crop of cauliflowers in the 
Southern States, and it may be esteemed a very justifiable 
cause for pride when one secures a crop of fine heads to 
the extent of 50 per cent of his plantings. On ordinary 
soil it is the most difficult of all vegetables to raise success- 
fully in middle Georgia — 200 miles from the sea coast and 
with an elevation of from 300 to 500 feet above sea level. 
Insatiable almost as to moisture, extremely Impatient of 
heat and coarse unfermented manure, more susceptible to 
frost than cabbage, subject to a number of insect enemies, 
it is by no means the easiest thing in the world to grow 
under our southern sun and in plney woods soil. A dozen 
fairly perfect heads out of a hundred plants is success suffi- 
cient to make the heart of the average amateur throb with 
satisfaction at the evidence of his horticultural ability. 

The essentials of success with cauliflowers are good seed 
of a good variety, from which stocky, well-developed plants 
are grown in cold frames — hotbeds are not needed in this 
climate — and kept in readiness to be planted out In the open 
ground just so soon as the severe weather is over; soil that 
is naturally rich, or judiciously made so, inclined to be 
moist, which must be thoroughly plowed and pulverized 
just prior to setting out; an abundance of moisture; fre- 
quent shallow cultivation; and timely measures against 

Of the many named sorts which appear in seed cata- 
logues, it is only necessary to name the Early Snowball, 
Early Dwarf Erfurt and Large Late Algiers. If confined 
to one kind exclusively, I should select the first named. 
Secure good seed at any cost. Neglect to do this Is the 



January 27, 1894. 

cause of so many failures. A good strain of seed must be 
secured from some reputable dealer who will warrant its 
quality. A good beginning has been made when good 
seed has been obtained. In our latitude the seeds are 
sowed in cold frames, from the ioth to the 20th of January, 
and as soon as the plants attain their third leaf they are 
pricked out and transplanted to another frame, at a distance 
of three or four inches apart each way. They are allowed 
to get stocky and well rooted, and about the last of Feb- 
ruary are transplanted to the open ground. The soil in the 
meantime has been deeply broken, well pulverized and 
lightly rolled; broad shallow furrows, three to four inches 
deep, are laid off three feet apart. A plant is set every 
two and one-half feet in the furrow, pressing the soil firmly 
to the roots. If the cutworms infest the soil, a little square 
of paper is twisted around the stem of the plants as they 
are set out. If the soil is at all dry, half a pint or more of 
water is poured into the depression left purposely close to 
the plant; and, when the water has soaked in, the hole is 
filled with dry soil to keep it from baking. By frequent 
stirrings of the soil early in the mornings, the plants are 
pushed forward. About a month or six weeks after plant- 
ing out, a mulch of pine straw is applied along the rows 
to a depth of several inches, the mulching extending nearly 
a foot on each side of each row. A space 18 inches wide 
is thus left between the rows unmulched. The cultivation 
is done entirely with a sweep 20 to 24 inches wide, the 
wings of which run under the straw without displacing it 
at all. The mulch of pine leaves is put on after a saturat- 
ing rain. 

If the plantation can be made near a source of water — a 
well if nothing better— watering may be advantageously 
resorted to, but a well managed mulch can usually be made 
quite effective. When the soil needs enrichment, I have 
found nothing better than a mixture of bone dust two parts, 
unleached hardwood ashes one part, high grade super- 
phosphate one part. Of this mixture, one ton per acre 
should be well harrowed in several weeks before planting. 
If the need of additional nitrogen is indicated, 100 to 150 
pounds of nitrate of soda may be evenly broadcasted just 
before mulching. The plants are usually prepared for 
transplanting by grouting the roots with a mixture of clay 
dust and fresh cow manure, half and half, and water 
enough to make into a mush, which will adhere to the roots 
freely when dipped into It. Half a teacupful of kerosene 
oil stirred into a bucketful of the grout will help to keep off 
cutworms if paper is not used about the stems. By care- 
fully following this method, success will very likely follow 
the attempt to grow cauliflowers in the South. 

Safety Farming. 
We wrote recently on the advantages of the small many- 
crop farmer in a State where there is such a strong bent 
after specialties. The idea, as we said, was an old one, but 
not the less true and practicable. We believe many of our 
readers who are situated in regions of suitable soil and 
climate and with abundant water supplies can be profited 
by continuing the discussion, and to invite it we introduce 
an Eastern sermon on the same subject by a writer for the 
Country Gentle?nan: 

When a discouraged farmer sells out and moves to 
town, he often gets an object lesson which is something of 
an eye-opener. I met one recently who sold his farm a 
few years ago and had just $2000 in cash left, which, for- 
tunately, was safely invested where it brings eight per cent 
interest. This farmer has learned something about taxa- 
tion, for while I pay on real estate and personal property 
13 mills on the dollar, this farmer in town pays 26 mills, 
and he said to me: " My taxes used up almost one-third 
of my income." 

Now, I believe there is no man who can weather financial 
storms with so little distress as the farmer, and none who 
can get so large returns from a small investment. He is 
never out of profitable employment. With even a small 
farm, all the fruit, vegetables, milk, butter and poultry 
products needed in the family can be produced, and some 
surplus of all; and usually, in addition to this, the bread 
stuff and most of the meat. The farm referred to contained 
25 acres, half of it fairly good plow-land, and the remainder 
good pasture, set with permanent blue grass and contain- 
ing a spring. It is on a free turnpike, within 1 5 minutes' 
drive of a good market. All that is left of the income 
from what this farm was sold for, after the taxes are paid, 
will not pay the rent on as good a house as there is on it. 

This is another thing in favor of a small farm — little time 
Is lost in going to and from one's work, and the man is 
always within call. If it rains, you are at home to do some 
useful work under cover, or to go to the house and read, 
and you are your own master. All the big shops may 
close, but you will not be thrown out of employment, and 
no labor union can dictate to you what you shall do, or 
whom you shall employ. 

Now if I had owned this farm, I would have remained 
on it and so managed as to get a good living from it. To 
begin with, I would keep but one horse, for with the ex- 
ception of a very few days' plowing one good horse would 
do all the work, and there would be no difficulty in hiring a 
horse for this. I would keep four good Jersey cows, from 
which I could certainly depend on an income of $50 each, 
and ought in a few years to increase this to $75. I would 
devote three of the remaining twelve acres to gardening 
and small fruits, and from an experience of many years in 
this line I know that I could rely on an Income of nearly, 
or quite, $100 an acre from these three acres. This would 
leave nine acres on which to grow corn, wheat and clover, 
or such feeding crops as would be most profitable. From 
some experience I have had, I think I can grow more sum 
mer feed from sorghum than any plant I ever grew, and 1 
should depend on this largely to tide over a summer 

drouth. I certainly would never be caught with short pas- 
tures and no soiling crop, and the area under cultivation 
would be so small that I could put the land In fine condi- 
ion and give it the best possible tillage. I would keep 
one or two good brooding sows — a little experience would 
enable me to decide which number was best — and raise 
two litters of pigs, spring and fall, and sell them young; 
often they would give the best profit sold at weaning time, 
but if not, I would push them so that they would be ready 
for the butcher at from four and a half to six months old. 
The milk and garden waste would go far towards keeping 
them, and it would be safe to expect an addition of from 
S50 to $100 to the income from them. Then 100 hens 
would produce in addition to all the eggs and poultry the 
family would use at least another hundred dollars. This 
would be my plan of starting on such a farm, but I would 
be ready to change my plans as soon as I was sure I could 
do better. 

One should keep an account with each department of his 
farm, so that at the end of the year he can know just what 
each has paid. This might result in banishing the hogs 
and feeding the milk to the hens instead. It is quite possi- 
ble that some crop would prove so well adapted to the soil 
and market that most of the cultlvatable land could be de- 
voted to its growth, and all the grain and a part of the hay 
bought for the stock. If this crop should prove to be 
strawberries, it would be fortunate, for the old beds can be 
plowed as soon as the picking is done, which is early 
enough to grow a full crop of fodder corn or sorghum; or 
if there is a market for sweet corn, a full crop can be 
grown, the ears sold, and the fodder fed to the cows. I 
should stick to the dairy and increase the number of cows, 
so as to get as much manure as possible, and it might be 
profitable to increase the number of cows to one for each 
acre of pasture, and only allow the cows to run out a few 
hours each day, and feed them bran and other grain food 
summer and winter, but this would depend upon whether 
manure could be bought near enough and at such a price 
that you could get what you needed cheaper than to keep 
the cows and produce it, and also to some extent on the 
price you could get for butter. The Intelligent, progressive 
farmer will study all these questions carefully. About two 
tons of bran will feed a cow a year, and this can be bought 
usually, by taking advantage of the time when the millers 
are overstocked, for $12 a ton or less. The manure from 
bran is especially valuable, and If you can grow crops 
which will return from $60 to $200 per acre — which will be 
true, I think, in many localities, of strawberries, sweet 
potatoes, tomatoes and some other crops — one can afford 
to keep cows liberally the year round if he keeps them 
most of the time where the manure can all be saved, for it 
is quite probable that the extra milk and butter would pay 
for heavy feeding, and leave the manure as clear profit. 

I am not laying down any fixed rules which I would fol- 
low or advise any one else to, but only suggesting what 
might be done. I know one man on a 24-acre farm who 
makes strawberries, sweet corn, early onions for bunching, 
radishes, lettuce and sweet potatoes his money crops, and 
who is supporting a large family. Any one on a farm of 
this size who would attempt to make a living by growing 
corn and wheat, would certainly come to grief, for he would 
come In competion with millions of farmers, most of 
whom have belter chances to grow profitable crops than 
he; but by growing special crops for a local market, and 
such crops as have a possibility of a large sum per acre, he 
reduces the number of competitors to perhaps a few neigh- 

Another point must not be lost sight of— this little farm 
comes very near supplying the table the year round, thus 
greatly reducing the expenses of living, and while it does 
not promise wealth it does remove the fear of want, and 
gives the farmer much leisure during the year which he 
can devote to reading. I say then in this time of financial 
distress, blessed is the contented farmer ! And if he has 
learned to manage a little farm so as to have an assured 
income sufficient to meet his wants, then he is thrice 
blessed. While I never cease to be thankful that I am a 
farmer, I am especially so in times of financial distress, 
when the unemployed of our cities are counted by the mil- 
lions. I am willing to endure all the ills incident to the 
farmer's lot, for the sake of the safety, the opportunity for 
development and the many blessings within easy reach of 
the man who intelligently manages his farm. 

(5 HE "VU^YARD. 

What Eighty Raisin-Producers Think of the 

The Producers' Raisin-Packing Company, of Fresno, is 
sue the following declaration of their experiences and be- 
liefs with reference to the production and handling of raisins 
under prevailing conditions: 

The manner in which raisins have been marketed this 
year is an object lesson to every raisin-grower who de- 
sires to keep out of bankruptcy. As 80 raisin-growers, 
packing our own raisins, we desire to place before you the 
conditions as they now exist, the cause and the remedy. 

The question that every raisin-grower who wishes to sur- 
vive should now consider is how this disastrous state of 
circumstances can in the future be obviated. We know 
that at the price at which goods are now being sold, the 
producer will not net on the average the cost of production. 

We know that the cost of producing raisins is not less 
than 2 to 2% cents per pound. We recognize the fact that 
while the producer is getting poorer each year, the com- 
mission packers and handlers of California raisins are be- 
coming richer, and we think that some method of co-opera- 
tion should be immediately inaugurated to save the raisin 
industry from ruin. 

Causes of the Present Existing Conditions.— Under this 
head we claim that the chief causes are as follows: 

First— The unevenness in the packing, wherein different 

houses put their raisins under known grades and in some 
cases put larger sized fruit in the grade than should natur- 
ally go there, and vice versa, and also where other houses 
pack inferior layers in the bottom of the form and good 
layers on top. 

Second — The manner in which the raisins are being 
crowded in the East by commission packers who made a 
small advance on the raisins delivered to them. In the 
month of October there is always a demand by the whole- 
sale trade for raisins, who are prepared to pay a fair price 
for them. 

At the end of October these wholesale houses have all 
loaded up with a stock sufficient to last them until con- 
sumption creates a second demand. At the end of October 
the packers still have over one-half of their pack to dispose 
of, and instead of holding the crop here or shipping it to 
the East and holding it there, at regular prices, thus en- 
abling the wholesale trade to take them as they require them, 
these raisins are consigned to some eastern broker and 
from $500 to $1000 a car is drawn upon him against the 
raisins so consigned. The broker advances the freight and 
pays the draft, and when he receives the raisins he cannot 
sell them at a fair price by reason of the fact that the en- 
tire market is supplied with all the raisins that will be con- 
sumed for the next month or two. The broker cannot af- 
ford to hold the goods. He takes them to the wholesale 
trade or the speculator and sells them at a price which will 
net the grower about 1 cent per pound on loose raisins and 
2 '2 cents per pound on layers, which is considerably less 
than the cost of production. 

We have seen box raisins sold which, after deducting the 
price of packing and freight, would not pay the growers 1 
cent per pound. Many of the raisins are sold alter Novem- 
ber 1st at less than the price advanced to the grower in the 
sweat box, and when a settlement is made by the commis- 
sion packer, the price received by the grower is an average 
between those raisins which are sold for a good price in the 
early part of October and those that are slaughtered later 

Third — The indiscriminate consignment by individual 
packers and growers who have no standard mode of pack- 
ing, the placing of these goods in the hands of irresponsi- 
ble Eastern brokers who in some cases have hardly suffi- 
cient capital to pay the freight on the raisins consigned to 
them and are continuously slaughtering prices. 

Remedy. — With a view of obviating the competition ex- 
isting through the commission packers, we, as growers rec- 
ommend the establishment of co-operative packing houses, 
operated by their own board of directors, who shall be 
growers, contributing all of their raisins to the packing 
house with which they are connected. 

We recommend these co-operative companies to accept 
the raisins and make the same advance to non-stockholders 
as to their own stockholders, charging the same rates for 
packing and hauling as the commission men, and as an in- 
ducement agree to return to the grower one-third of the ac- 
tual profit derived from packing. 

One of the strongest holds that the commission packer 
has on the growers is the advance that he makes to enable 
the grower to pick his crop. Co-operative companies upon 
having the crop assigned to them can make the same ad- 
vance, obtaining the money from the bank in the manner 
hereinafter described. 

Capital Required. — The capital required to start a co- 
operative packing house is much less than is generally sup- 
posed. The banks of Fresno city will advance all the 
money necessary upon the note of the company guaranteed 
by their stockholders. The mere expense of equipping 
packing houses can in like manner be spread over a num- 
ber of years. 

One of the most disastrous results attending the slaughter 
of raisins during the present season has been the want of 
uniformity in the pack, some packers packing 2-crown 
raisins under a 3-crown brand and guaranteeing their 3- 
crown raisins as superior to their competitors' and selling at 
3-crown prices. All co-operative companies should organize 
one company for marketing their fruit, by which means 
they will be able to maintain a uniform price and a uniform 
pack. To this end this company is prepared to place their 
experience at the disposal of any body of men who may be 
desirous of starting a co-operative company and will be 
prepared to attend the meetings and explain its opera- 

In making advances to growers to assist them in picking 
their crop, it could be arranged by the grower assigning 
the crop to a trustee for account of the co-operative packing 
company, and the grower agreeing to deliver his crop to 
said co-operative packing company as soon as it is ready 
for market. There is no doubt whatever that capital could 
be obtained for this business provided the advance on the 
crop was anywhere within reason, and these advances be 
deducted out of the proceeds from the first raisins delivered 
at the packing house. 

Forestry in the United States. 

The report of the Executive Committee of the American 
Forestry Association shows that the work of the associ- 
ation is beginning to bear fruit, as may be seen from the 
following abstract of reports recently issued by the associ- 
ation : 

Not only has the policy of reserving public timber lands 
for forestry purposes, established by the last Administra- 
tion, been recognized by the present Administration, in re- 
serving some 4,500,000 acres more (the Cascade Range and 
Ashland Timber Reserves in Oregon), making the total 
acreage in forest reservations nearly 18,000,000, but 
there is ground for hope that some rational legislation for 
protecting and utilizing these reserves may be enacted. 
Members of the association and all friends of forestry are 
requested to urge upon their representatives the passage of 

January 27, 1894. 



House bill No. 119 as a first step toward a more rational 
use of the public timber lands. 

While the action of the President and the assurances of 
the passage of such legislation are encouraging as com- 
mitting the Government to a sound forestry policy, we 
have grounds for encouragement in other directions. The 
devotion to forestry of a special building and the creation 
of a special department of forestry at the Columbian Ex- 
position are signs that our subject is permanently estab- 
lished, and the action of the Exposition authorities has 
done much to widen the circle of those who appreciate our 
endeavors. The special meeting of the association at 
Chicago, under the auspices of the World's Auxiliary Con- 
gress, has been hopeful in the same manner, and was suc- 
cessful especially in impressing the representatives of the 
lumber trade with the legitimate aims of the association 
and the need of its work for the benefit of the lumber in- 

The president of the association is at the head of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture; one of our former secre- 
taries is in charge of the public timber lands at the Gen- 
eral Land Office; and the Chairman of the Public Lands 
Committee in the House of Representatives is fully pur- 
suaded of the necessity of new legislation along the lines 
urged by the association; and there is a realization that 
virgin forest resources have shrunk so as to expose as 
childish the cry of " inexhaustible " supplies, and the 
knowledge is at last dawning on the irrigators of the West 
that " the forest waters the farm," while there is a general 
awakening of public interest in the forestry movement, 
which purposes to turn the irrational destruction of a great 
national resource into a rational husbandry of the same. 

The provisions of the bill mentioned above are ex- 
tremely simple. Protection of the forest reservations (now 
comprising nearly 18,000,000 acres) is sought by the em- 
ployment of the army, which has done such effective work 
in both the Yellowstone Park and Yosemite reservations. 
The Secretary of the Interior is empowered to make such 
rules and regulations and establish such service as will in- 
sure the objects of such reservations, namely, to regulate 
their occupancy, to utilize the timber of commercial value 
and to preserve the forest cover from destruction. He is 
also empowered to have cut and to sell timber on non- 
reserved lands under the 8ame regulations as made for the 
forest reservations, provided that it shall be first shown 
that such cutting will not be injurious to the forest. The 
plan is endorsed by officers of the American Forestry Asso 
ciation, and is hereby recommended for support and propa- 
ganda by all friends of the association. 

(She £>TABbE. 

Hints on Stable Building and Fitting. 
In selecting a site for a stable, a rising ground should be 
chosen to insure complete drainage, not only for the con- 
veying away of the water falling from the roof, but also the 
urinary excretions of its inmates. In either case it is neces- 
sary that these fluids should be removed In order to keep 
the stable dry, but urine should be speedily conveyed away 
for other reasons — it not only keeps the flooring damp, but 
the gases disengaged from it are highly deleterious to ani- 
mal economy, frequently acting as the exciting of derange- 
ment and contagious maladies, coughs, glanders, farcy, 
pneumonia and inflammation of the eyes. 

It is far preferable to have a continuous underground 
drain from stall to stall throughout the stable, terminating 
in a small exterior reservoir, so constructed as to preclude 
the in draught of air up the drains. Another advantage is 
attached to this manner of drainage, for the fluid drains 
from the center. There h no longer any necessity for that 
declivity of the flooring which was requisite when the liquid 
passes away by the foot-stall, for the ends and sides of the 
stall may be on the same level, gradually leveling toward 
the center point, where the grating is fixed. 

We strongly recommend all our friends about to build 
stables to have them so constructed as to contain separaV 
loose boxes, each being eleven leet in breadth, fourteen feet 
in length and twelve feet in height. The oldfashionea 
stalls, in which horses are attached by the halter to the 
manger, are bad. In the first place, many horses so situ- 
ated never lie down; secondly, they are always standing on 
an Inclined plane, sloping downward from before, back- 
ward. In order to make our views clear in exposing the 
evils necessarily inflicted on an animal in such a position 
we will briefly consider the anatomy of the foreleg. 

Progression is effected by the horse in the following 
manner: The muscles of the back part of the leg (flexors) 
contract, which, together with the muscles of the arm, raise 
the leg from the ground. The foot is now in a position to 
be sent forward, which is affected by the contraction of the 
muscles at the front part of the leg (extensors), which send 
the leg forward. The foot comes again in contact with the 
ground, the flexors again contract and the above movements 
are again repeated. 

If, during the time the foot of a living animal were situ- 
ated on a plane, the extensor muscles of the limb belonging 
to the above foot were to contract, then the toe would be 
raised off the ground; but if, on the other hand, the flexors 
were to contract, the heel would be elevated. Now, during 
the period a horse is standing on the inclined plane before 
mentioned, the toes are elevated above the heels, i. e., the 
extensors are contracting and the flexors are- extending. 
Such action, contractile in the former case, and extensile in 
the latter, Is opposed to muscular quietude. The flooring 
in most stalls stalls is so constructed as to slope off at the 
heels, in order that the urinary secretions may flow down to 
a gutter at right angles to the stalls, and finally termina- 
ting in a liquid manure tank outside. 

The result of this unnatural position is that the horse, in 
order to place his muscles in a state of rest, i, e., in a neu- 
tral state— neither that of contraction nor extension — flexes 
his knees, and by this means removes the previous tension 

Imposed upon the muscles at the back part of the leg. This 
same attitude is continually persisted in, until the numerous 
ligaments at the back part of the knee become contracted. 
The knee is then permanently bent, and the disease denom- 
inated " over at knee " set up. 

If a horse be placed in a stall with the flooring sloping to 
the gutter, as before described, but be untied and able to 
move about, it will be seen at one time he will stand with 
his head and at another time with his tail toward the man- 
ger, thus proving that the being obliged always to stand up 
hill, as it were, is distasteful to the animal. Observe, also, 
how often a horse will hang back, i. e., place the hind feet 
on the rack situated behind the gutter. This is done evi- 
dently to place himself in a position favorable for rest 
again. When tied up the animal is obliged to lie nearly 
always in the same position. How many times have horses 
hung themselves in the halter at night ? We could enumer- 
ate many cases, and many of our readers doubtless could 
do the same. 

In the old-constructed stalls the hay rack, placed above 
the horse's head, necessitates the contraction of the cervical 
muscles of the animal when elevating his head in search of 
food. This continual action was considered by horsemen 
to be very fatiguing to the horse at any time, and more es- 
pecially after a hard day's work. To remedy this evil many 
improvements have been made in hay racks, feed boxes, 
etc. The hay rack and feed box should be in one and the 
same straight line, situated In the same position as the 
manger previously was, viz., below the horse's nose, but, In 
addition to this, in the same straight line as the hay rack, 
etc., a water trough is fitted up. Owing to this plan the 
horse is able to feed with great ease, and the necessity for 
the continual action of elevating the head is removed. The 
presence of the water trough with water In it is very advan- 
tageous, for it enables the horse from time to time to take a 
little. The old notion of depriving horses of water is very 
Injurious, and now, happily, most horsemen allow them, 
when at rest, to take it freely. 

No doubt the imbibition of large draughts of cold water 
directly after work would be productive of evil to the ani- 
mal, and perhaps induce colic. Practical experience has 
proven that a horse kept in the stable for a day with water 
before him during that time will not drink as much as the 
horse which is presented with it three or four times during 
the day by the groom. Nature prompts the horse when to 
drink, and when the promptings occur, nature, in this re- 
spect, should be satisfied. 

We think it a good plan to accustom the horse to always 
drink before feeding him. By so doing we oftentimes pre- 
vent him from bolting his food, and bringing on an attack 
of indigestion. 

All tood, before being placed in the trough, should be 
well sifted, in order that nails or small pieces of stone may 
be readily detected. Small stones and nails, be it well re- 
membered, very frequently constitute the nuclei around 
which calcareous depositions accumulate, which form the 
various kinds of calculi found in the alimentary canal. 
Nails and other substances are often taken into the body 
through the mouth, and finally find their way through the 
muscular coats of the intestines into the various organs of 
the body. An anecdote is related of a gentleman who 
swallowed a penknife, which remained in his body for nine 
months, at the end of which time he complained of pains 
in his shoulder, where an abscess formed, pointed, and 
from it the above-mentioned knife was extracted. The fol- 
lowing came under our observation: A child, aged three 
years, swallowed a needle, three months after which an ab- 
scess formed on the thigh and the needle was removed 
from it. 

Ventilation is necessary as a means for the removal of 
gases rendered impure, and therefore unfit for respiration. 
A current of air should be admitted through a grating near 
the ground, and so contrived as not to blow upon the horse. 
An aperture should be made in the roof, over which a 
chimney, provided with a weather fend, should be placed, 
so that a current of foul gases may be continually escaping, 
and its re-entrance (often carried by gusts of wind) frus- 
trated by the weather fend. The temperature of a stable 
should be about 60 degrees Fahrenheit. — Chas. R. Wood, 
V. S., in Horse Breeder. 

Artificial Hatching and Rearing of Chickens. 

To the Editor: — The subject of artificial hatching 
and raising fowls seems to be looked on by many who have 
never tried it as a thing with a trap. Now I have given 
artificial hatching and brooder raising careful tests, and am 
satisfied artificial means are much more satisfactory than 
the old hen as we find her among the average of her kind. 
What has caused me to make mention of it now is the visits 
of two neighbors within the last week. One is a veteran 
hen raiser, the other an incubator admirer. The former 
put 130 eggs under 10 hens and got out 35 chicks. Of 
course this was not his usual success, but it shows that 
seemingly good sitters will not always coax out the chicks. 
Now, the second neighbor had 190 fertile eggs in his ma- 
chine, and took out 170 good chicks. I have hatched in 
my machines 92 per cent on one occasion, but as a rule 
count that from 80 to 85 per cent is good hatching. As for 
raising, it is so much easier for me with brooders than with 
hens that I would close my ranch before I would go back 
to raising chickens with hens. 

To any one who has trouble with brooder chicks, please 
try this method and you will be an advocate of artificial 
hatching. For the first 48 hours do not give the little 
chicks anything to eat or drink. Then commence by teed- 
ing for the first three days as follows: Crumbed stale 
bread every two hours, omitting one feed of bread and 
feeding finely chopped onions — cabbage, lettuce or finely cut 
green barley or wheat is good. Keep millet or rape seed 
scattered about over the floor or in a small vessel. I find 

a low pie pan very convenient for this purpose. For drink 
I have used sweet milk at times, and other times pure 
water. I have found to put Douglas mixture in the water 
the first day had a good effect, as it seems to check the 
tendency toward diarrhea. I suppose every one knows 
what Douglas mixture is, but in case some one does not I 
will give proportions. Take half a pound of copperas and 
half an ounce sulphuric acid to one gallon of water. One 
tablespoonful of this mixture is enough to one gallon of 
drinking water. Always take away the feed board as soon 
as the chicks have finished eating. After the third day a 
mixture of ground corn, oats, bran and middlings mixed in 
the following manner, baked and crumbled dry will make 
chicks grow and do well: One part corn, one part ground 
oats, one part bran and two parts middlings, mixed with 
sour or buttermilk If obtainable. Put soda enough In It to 
make it rise well, or about the same as you would to make 
Johnny cake. A little lean beef scraps, not more than five 
per cent of the whole, added to this is good. Give one 
feed every three days of meat, or, if you have plenty of 
sour milk, make curd and feed instead of meat. This may 
be fed once a day. I commence on the fourth day feeding 
the Johnny cake, and use cracked wheat after this time in- 
stead of the millet or rape seed, and always keep the 
cracked wheat where the chicks can run to It as they wish. 
After the first week I only feed the Johnny cake every four 
hours, always making one feed of green or vegetable mat- 
ter each day, and I think a great deal of onions for chickens, 
young and old. For summer chicks there is nothing so 
good as to put fresh horse manure in a pile and let it lie 
from 36 to 48 hours. At the end of this time it will be 
found full of worms from the fly blows. It sometimes 
seems to be literally alive. Throw this in the runs and let 
the chicks scratch it and eat the worms. They will learn 
in two or three days to come as far as they can to meet 
you when you wheel it to them, and seem to go wild over 
it. You must always remember that your brooders must 
be kept clean and fresh. For a feed board a 12-inch board 
with a lath on either edge is the best thing I have used. I 
always keep a vessel with coarse ground shells, fine broken 
charcoal and fine sharp gravel where the chicks can get it 
as they wish. 

I want to add I have no incubators nor brooders to sell, 
nor am I interested in the sale of any. J. W. Forgeus. 
Santa Cruz, Cal., Jan. 16, 1894. 

Artificial Hatching and Raising. 

F. M. Reed, of Anderson, Cal., writes his experience 
for the California Cultivator concerning hatching and 
rearing from the incubator standpoint. In this modern 
age, when artificial hatchers have been brought to the 
degree of perfection that many of them have, it is, in my 
estimation, folly to try to get along in the old way. The 
old hen, as a general thing, only becomes broody in the 
spring months, and many of them not until late spring. 
If, therefore, the hen alone is dependend upon for hatching, 
the poultryman's visions of numberless broods of early 
hatched broilers fade into an insignificant lot of lousy sum- 
mer chicks. And all who have had any experience know 
how much more satisfactory and profitable the early 
hatched chicks are both for market or for breeding. I 
have had the question asked me, " Is it not much more 
expensive batching with Incubators than with hens ?" I 
answer no. Take for instance a 1 20-egg size. It will take 
on an average from three to four gallons of oil to run it 
three weeks, costing not to exceed 75 cents. Now take 
the ten hens necessary to hatch the same number of eggs 
and count your feed, and the difference is not great. 
Therefore keep your hens laying and hatch with incu- 
bators. It is not the purpose of this paper to discriminate 
between the different makes of machines. However, I 
have had my experience with a number, and a dear one it 
was, and I have this to say : I consider our California 
made machines equal to, if not superior to the Eastern 
machines. In buying it is well, if possible, to see the ma- 
chine before purchasing, and always look well to the 
simplicity of it. The more simple a machine is in its 
make up, and yet do its work without watching, is the most 
desirable and the less liable to get out of order. Most re- 
liable makes are now sold with a guarantee. 

But the hatching question is to me the smallest part. 
The brooding or raising of the chicks is the difficult part. 
Here I would say that my experience for several years has 
led me to choose and use a top-heat brooder. I have had 
fine success since using them, whereas the great mortality 
of young chicks I had in the strictly bottom-heat brooders 
well nigh disgusted me. It is a matter that each, with a 
little study, can make plain to themselves. Notice how a 
hen broods her chicks. She always prefers the cool ground, 
and the youngsters stand or sit on the ground, reaching up 
to receive the warmth on their backs. The same natural 
plan applies to top-heat brooders. The sand in the floors 
is cool on which they stand and stretch out at full length, 
occasionally rising and stretching up their necks for the 
warmth from above. 

Now, reverse the plan; let the chicks stand upon a 
floor directly heated from underneath, at times the sand 
heated hot, upon which the chicks must stand or sit night 
after night, and the results are leg weakness and bowel 
trouble. I am well aware that this is a subject upon which 
there is a difference of opinion, and well there is. But the 
plan that is nearest to nature, and gives the least mortality 
of chicks, is the one we are all after. 

Now, when you have settled the question of incubators 
and brooders, then get good eggs for hatching. Don't 
waste your oil on store eggs. While store eggs some- 
times hatch well, the usual results are about 50 per cent 
infertile, or weak from inbreeding. It costs no more to 
raise a thoroughbred than a mongrel; therefore get good 
stock, raise your own eggs and hatch strong chicks. Care 
should be taken when the chicks are taken from the In- 
cubator to not let them get chilled, and the brooder should 
be heated up a few hours before it is wanted, and be at 



January 27, 1894. 

fully 90 degrees heat when the chicks are put in. The 
feed, of course, Is important. I have found oatmeal the 
best food for chicks, fed dry with slightly warm water to 
drink. Bread crumbs, very slightly moistened with milk, 
are good. Fresh sand, rather coarsely screened, shonld be 
pot in the brooders every day, as the chicks will eat more 
or less of it at first for grit. I always put a dish of finely 
cracked wheat and bone mixed together before the chicks 
from the first, so they can go to it when they want it. 
Never give sloppy food, and be judicious in feeding green 
food and meat the first few weeks. Much depends on 
personal attention and regular feeding by one person only. 

JUhe I)^iRY. 

The Oleomargarine Warfare. 

We are naturally looking to the great dairy States of the 
East to carry forward the center columns in the warfare 
against the bogus products which are made within their 
borders. Governor Flower of New York, in his message 
to the Legislature which assembled the first of the present 
month, has the following paragraphs on this question: 

The State of New York has expended a great deal of 
money to protect the dairy Interest from competition with 
spurious butter. Our laws on the subject are very strong, 
absolutely prohibiting the manufacture or sale of oleomar- 
garine or any substitute colored in semblance or imitation 
of butter within the State. Notwithstanding these strin- 
gent laws, persons have been engaged more persistently 
during the last six months than ever before in flooding the 
State with their products, openly delying the law and 
claiming the right to sell their goods under the Interstate 
Commerce decisions in original and unbroken packages. 
While this might be conceded if oleomargarine were sold 
as a product pure and simple, the question presents a dif- 
ferent phase in the form in which oleomargarine is placed 
upon the market. As made, oleomargarine is a colorless 
substance of about the appearance of lard. As sold, it is 
colored in semblance and imitation of dairy butter. In the 
case of People vs. Avensburg, reported in 105 N. Y. Re- 
ports, page 123, the Court of Appeals decided that the 
" law which prohibits the manufacture or sale of any prod- 
uct not made from unadultered milk or cream, but made in 
imitation or semblance of dairy butter, is constitutional, 
and producers of butter from animal fats or oils, although 
the product may be nutritious and suitable for food and the 
manufacture and sale thereof may not be prohibited, have 
no constitutional right to resort to devices for the purpose 
of making their prodnct resemble dairy butter, and the 
Legislature has power to enact such laws as It may deem 
necessary to prevent the simulated article being put upon 
the market in such form or manner as to be calculated to 

It has been held in other States — notably in Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey — that the statutes prohibiting the 
sale of such products were clearly within the police powers 
of the State, in protecting its citizens from fraud, and also 
in the Interests of the public health. It will be some time 
before this question can properly be passed upon by the 
Supreme Court of the United States, and in the meantime 
I suggest that the Legislature petition Congress to provide 
by statute that all food products coming from one State 
into another shall, immediately upon their entry into the 
State, become subject to the State laws. This was done 
after the Kansas decisions in reference to liquor, resulting 
in the passage of what is known as the Wilson act, which 
simply covers the sale of liquors. It should be extended to 
all food products. Such action will meet with the appro- 
bation of the dairy interests of the State. 

This suggestion of Governor Flower has been speedily 
acted upon, for Senator Hill has introduced the following 
short and sensible bill, which ought to pass Congress and 
be signed by the President without delay: 

" All articles known as oleomargarine, butterine, imita- 
tion butter, or imitation cheese, or any substance in sem- 
blance of butter or cheese, not the usual product of the 
dairy and not made exclusively of pure and unadulterated 
milk or cream, transported into any State or Territory, or 
remaining therein for use, consumption, sale, or storage 
therein, shall, upon arrival in such State or Territory, be 
subjected to the operation and effect of the laws of the said 
State or Territory, and the exercise of its police powers to 
the same extent and in the same manner as though such 
articles or substances bad been produced in snch State or 
Territory, and shall not be exempt therefrom by reason of 
being introduced therein in original packages or otherwise." 

Prune Fed Pork. 

Mr. C. E. Hoskins, of Springbrook, has made an inter- 
esting experiment this year with feeding prunes to hogs. 
When grading prunes before drying, all prunes which 
passed through the # inch opening (prunes which would 
ran from 120 to 140 per pound when dried) were placed on 
the trays just as they came from the grader and dried 
without cleaning and dipping. These he used to feed hogs 
with and found the results very satisfactory. Te hogs did 
remarkably well on their prune diet and the pork was of 
unusually good flavor, as might be expected. Mr. Hoskins 
expresses the opinion that every prune-grower should make 
a note of this and try the experiment next fall. No prunes 
of the size mentioned ought to be sent to market from Ore- 
gon under any circumstances, and if, as his experience this 
last year Indicates, they have special value as hog feed, 
they should be utilized for that purpose. The knowledge 
of such a fact would also be of value in case there should 
at any time be such a depression in the price of prunes as 
there is in the price of wheat at this time. Oregon hogs 
raised on clover and milk and finished off with prunes 
ought to give a product rivalling in quality the famed 
Westphalia hams, which sell for about double the price of 
the best corn-fed product. — Rural Northwest. 

Hl u,T (Basketing. 

Details of the Fruit Exchange Organization. 

The following are the objects for which the California 
Fruit Exchange is organized, as set forth in their articles of 

incorporation : 

To promote the interests of the producers of fruit and 
other food products of California, especially by collecting 
and disseminating information and statistics bearing upon 
the preparation and marketing of said products; establish- 
ing uniformity in methods of manipulating, grading and 
packing, and extending and developing markets. 

To borrow money, loan and make advances of the same 
upon products in possession or under the control of the 
corporation; and to promote the formation of local co- 
operative associations affiliating with this corporation, and 
assist in establishing their credit. 

To purchase and sell all supplies used in raising, prepar- 
ing and marketing said fruit and food products; to lease, 
purchase or otherwise obtain real or personal property, 
necessary to the transaction of the business of the cor- 
poration, and to sell or exchange the same. 

To receive, store and market for account of its owners 
all fruit and other food products entrusted to the corpora- 
tion for that purpose, on such terms as the by-laws and 
regulations of the Board shall prescribe. 

The following code of by-laws for the California Fruit 
Exchange has been approved by the Board of Directors, 
and recommended for adoption by the stockholders at a 
meeting which will be called for that purpose : 


Section i. The name of this corporation shall be the 
California Fruit Exchange. It shall have a corporate seal 
which shall be circular, and bear upon its circumference 
the words " California Fruit Exchange," with the date of 


Skc. 2. The principal place of business of the corpora- 
tion shall be in the city of San Francisco. 

SEC. 3. The corporate powers of the corporation shall 
be vested in a board of eleven directors, who shall serve for 
one year, and until their successors are elected and 

Sec. 4. The]capital stock of this corporation shall be 
$100,000, divided into twenty thousand (20,000) shares of 
a par value of five (5) dollars each. 

Sec. 5. The annual meeting of the stockholders of the 
corporation shall be held at its principal place of business 
on the third Thursday in Jannary in each year, at which 
time the Directors shall be elected. 

Sec. 6. One month before the annual meeting the Sec- 
retary shall mail to each stockholder a complete list of the 
stockholders, with the number of shares standing in the 
name of each. Thereupon any stockholder, by letter 
mailed to the Secretary of the corporation, may nominate 
one or more stockholders for Directors, and the names of 
all stockholders so nominated shall be printed in alpha- 
betical order and mailed to each stockholder one week 
before the annual meeting. 

Sec. 7. At all meetings of this corporation stockholders 
may vote in person or by proxy. Proxies must be In writ- 
ing and filed with the Secretary. No person can vote a 
proxy who is not himself a stockholder. 

Sec. 8. Certificates of stock may be issued prior to the 
full payment of the par value, subject to the provisions of 
these by-laws. 

Each subscriber must, upon the issuance of his certificate, 
pay to the Secretary 25 per cent of the par value of said 
stock; and thereafter, on the call of the Board of Directors, 
must pay such proportion of the par value, as in their judg- 
ment may be deemed necessary, until the whole is fully 

Sec. 9. The corporation shall sell no stock to any per- 
son unless he be a producer of fruit, nuts, beans, honey, or 
other similar food product. 

Sec. 10. At the annual meeting a committee of three 
stockholders, not Directors or officers, shall be elected by 
the stockholders, whose duty it shall be, at the succeeding 
annual meeting, to report to the stockholders upon the ac- 
counts, bookkeeping and general financial condition and 
management of the corporation, and all the books and pa- 
pers of the corporation shall be at all times subject to ex- 
amination by this committee. 

Sec. 11. Immediately after their election the Directors 
must organize by the election of a President and Vice- 
President (who must be of their number), a Secretary and 
a Treasurer (who may be a corporation). They must per- 
form the duties enjoined on them by law and the by-laws 
of the corporation. Such officers shall hold office for one 
year and until their successors are elected and qualified. 

Sec. 12. The office of Manager shall be filled at the 
discretion of the Board, and his term of office shall be at 
their pleasure. He shall perform such duties as the Board 
may prescribe. 

Sec 13. The Board of Directors may adopt such rules 
and regulations for their government, and for the manage- 
ment of the affairs of the corporation, as they may deem 
advisable and not inconsistent with the provisions of these 

Sec. 14. All officers entrusted with the control of the 
funds of the corporation shall give bonds in such sums and 
with such sureties as the Board of Directors may prescribe. 

Sec. 15. The President shall be the executive officer of 
the corporation, and shall preside at all meetings of the stock- 
holders, and of the Board of Directors; shall sign, with the 
Secretary, all certificates of stocks, deeds, contracts, leases, 
and generally exercise all other authorities, and perform 
all other duties connected with the affairs of the corpora- 
tion requisite and appropriate to snch office. He shall re- 
ceive such compensation as may be fixed by the Board of 
Directors for his services to the corporation as President; 
and shall be allowed actual traveling expenses in attend- 

ance upon any business appertaining to the affairs of the 

Sec. 16. The Vice President shall, in the absence, or 
other incapacity of the President, perform his duties and 
exercise his powers, being subject to the same rules as to 
compensation and expenses when acting as such President. 

Sec. 17. The Secretary shall be the custodian of the 
records of the corporation. He shall keep full minutes of 
the proceedings of all meetings of the stockholders and of 
the Board of Directors. He shall, jointly with the Presi- 
dent, sign all certificates of stock, always strictly in accord- 
ance with the by-laws regulating the issue and transfer of 
stock. He shall keep an accurate account with the stock- 
holders of the corporation. He shall countersign all con- 
tracts, deeds and leases signed by the President under the 
direction of the Board of Directors, keeping an accurate 
record of the same. He shall collect of the stockholders 
the amounts due from stock and assessments If any, from 
time to time, and pay the same over to the Treasurer of 
the corporation, taking his receipt therefor. He shall keep 
accurate accounts of the receipts and expenditures of the 
corporation; and render proper statements thereof. He 
shall issue the proper notices of all meetings of the stock- 
holders and of the Board of Directors and perform such 
other duties as are appropriate to the office of Secretary, 
and as are required by the Board of Directors. 

Sec. 18. The funds of the corporation shall be deposited 
in its name in some bank designated by the Board of Di- 
rectors, and withdrawn and disbursed under such regula- 
tions as the Board may prescribe. 

Sec. 19. The Board of Directors shall meet regularly 
twice each year and otherwise at the call of the President 
or any two Directors. Directors shall receive actual ex- 
penses incurred in the discharge of their duties as such. 

Sec. 20. Special meetings of the stockholders may be 
called by the President upon the written request of a ma- 
jority of the Board of Directors or of ten (10) stockholders. 
Notice of all meetings of stockholders of the corporation 
shall be given in the manner required by law. A majority 
of the stock issued shall constitute a quorum. 

Sec. 21. The Exchange shall seek by all means to ex- 
tend the market for California fruit and food products. 

Sec. 22. At the annual meeting of the corporation, the 
Board of Directors shall cause to be made a complete ex- 
hibit of the business and financial condition of the Ex- 

Sec. 23. Vacancies from any cause in the Board of Di- 
rectors shall be filled for the unexpired term by the re- 
mainder of the Board at any meeting. 

Sec 24. Sales of fruit shall be made only for cash upon 
delivery of fruit or bill of lading, except through responsible 
agents guaranteeing payment, and who have themselves 
given bonds to the Exchange sufficient to make good said 
guarantee, and any losses sustained by violation of this by- 
law shall be made good to the Exchange by the officers or 
Directors responsible therefor. 

Sec. 25. No Director, officer or employe of the cor- 
poration shall be directly or indirectly engaged in the sale 
of fruit or food products of the classes handled by the Ex- 
change, and not of his own production, unless such sales 
be made through this Exchange or through some local co- 
operative society affiliated with this Exchange. 

Sec. 26. No debt beyond the sum of $5000 shall be 
created except by vote of three-fourths of the stock issued, 
except for money to supply advances on fruit In possession 
or under the control of the corporation, or for material and 
supplies which must be sold for cash. 

Sec. 27. The books, records and business papers of 
the corporation shall be open to the Inspection of stock- 
holders at all times. 

Sec. 28. The Board of Directors may make all needful 
rules and regulations for the conduct of the business of 
the Exchange not inconsistent with law or with these by- 

Sec. 29. These by-laws may be altered or amended in 
the manner provided by law. 

More Abont the Perkins Process. 

In the Rural of November 4th we gave an outline of a 
process for preserving fruit during transportation, devised 
by Rev. A. T. Perkins of Alameda. In December we gave 
the favorable report of a committee appointed by the State 
Horticultural Society to investigate the subject. Mr. Per- 
kins has been reserved abont giving in detail the process 
upon which he relies, because patents had not been granted. 
Now, we understand, these patents have been secured, and 
a reporter of the Call has been furnished with details of 
the process. We take therefrom such statements as are 
additional to the descriptions we have previously given: 

The dry-air process is based on the scientific principle 
that when fruit decays a new life begins, i. e., the fungoid 
growth. Dampness Is conducive to the spread of fungus, 
while dryness has the opposite tendency. In other words, 
ripe fruit will last longest while It is under the Influence of 
dry air at the temperature of 55 degrees. Under these 
conditions the life of the fruit is prolonged and decay ar- 
rested for a longer period than under any other known 

The natural inquiry Is: " Where can you secure a steady 
supply of dry air at a steady temperature in a car which 
moves through a variety of climates on its long journey 
across the continent ? " 

An answer to this question involves much more than a 
description of the mechanical appliances used. It is a 
well-established principle of science that when air is com- 
pressed its temperature is raised. For instance, take five 
atmospheres at a temperature of 100 degrees Fahrenheit. 
Compress them into the space of one atmosphere, and you 
raise the temperature to 250 degrees. Release compressed 
air and it Instantly becomes cooler. 

In applying this principle to a freight car you must have 
a tank or reservoir to hold compressed air at a high tern- 

January 27, 1894. 


perature. The air is released by stop-cocks through spray 
nozzles so arranged within the car that there is a constant 
circulation throughout every part of the car, of dry air. 
The equable temperature of 55 degrees is maintained by 
regulating the pressure at the nozzles, just as the pressure 
of water is regulated. Additional to this there is for fur- 
ther protection and for better circulation of air a three-inch 
shell which surrounds the car. 

A constant supply of compressed air can be furnished to 
the tank from the locomotive In exactly the same manner 
as air is furnished to the Westlnghouse brake. But it is 
not known as yet whether the railroads would be willing so 
to equip their engines as to furnish this supply of air; 
therefore, a plan has been perfected whereby the process 
can be carried on independent of the locomotive. There 
will be the tank full of compressed air at the beginning of 
the journey. Each car will be provided with an air pump, 
which will receive its motive power from a simple arrange- 
ment attached to one of the car axles. This pump will 
furnish a fresh supply as fast as the stock is exhausted. A 
delay, during which the car should not move, would shut 
off the dry air, but still the fruit would keep far better ex- 
posed, after having been subjected for a time to contact 
with dry air, than it would fresh from the tree, for the 
reason that much of the humidity — the principal factor in 
decay — has been removed. 

The risk of loss or damage to fruit in case a car is side- 
tracked has been amply provided against. First, there is 
a shell on the outside, leaving a three-inch space for the 
circulation of dry air; inside of that another three-inch 
Space for dead air, and inside of that the air chamber con- 
taining the fruit. The dry air, after making the circuit of 
the car, escapes through vents under the footboard on top 
of the car. 

These double shells were tested last summer on the Ari- 
zona deserts. While the side of a refrigerator car exposed 
to the sun was so hot that one's hand could not be held 
against it, the interior shell of the Perkins car was only a 
little above normal. Thus protected, it is claimed that a 
breakdown of not to exceed five days, whatever the temper- 
ature of the outside air, will not affect the fruit adversely. 

It should not be inferred that the fruit must be kept at 
55 degrees exactly. Any temperature between 55 and 65 is 
perfectly safe. 

Moisture and high or low temperature are food for the 
development of fungoid growth. After the fungus has 
once gained a foothold, its spread Is very rapid. The 
process just described acts upon all the factors of decay. 
The refrigerator method takes the fruit before it is per- 
fectly matured, before it receives its full amount of sugar, 
and places it in a low temperature, retarding fermentation. 
When the fruit is transferred to a warm temperature the 
fermentation is abnormally rapid and the decay rapid in 
proportion. Under dry air the fruit not only keeps better 
in transit, but lives much longer after being taken out of 
the car. 

After all is said, the dry-air process, while very inter- 
esting, would have very little practical value apart from its 
financial consideration. 

In the first place, it will save $200 a car in freight 
charges alone. Rates for the Perkins car have not yet 
been fixed, but It may be safely announced that the charge 
to Chicago for the use of the car itself will not exceed $50. 
It ought to save about $100 in the haul. 

All of the points claimed for the dry-air process are 
demonstrated facts, not theories. Every test that could 
be made has been tried over and over again in the labora- 
tory with results as described. It now remains to put the 
process into practical operation on cars which shall make 
the transcontinental journey. This will be done at once. 

The patents granted to Dr. Perkins have been acquired 
by the International Transit Line, a company of Alameda 
county capitalists. Work is now in progress on a car to 
be fitted with an air-pump and tank. It will be ready for 
service before the early fruit season opens. A few trips to 
Chicago will develop what mechanical modifications, if any, 
are necessary for perfect transportation, and, these decided 
on, the manufacture of cars will begin on an extensive 

The probability is that 1000 cars will be built the first 
year. There are now in use 1700 refrigerator cars, and 
this number is insufficient for the fruit-growing industry. 
In the busy season there are never so many cars as ship- 
pers need. One great drawback to the refrigerator cars is 
that, after making two or three round trips, they have to 
be thoroughly cleaned with water and then remain idle 
while they dry. The Perkins car is available for almost 
any sort of freight for the return trip. 

Free Lumber. 

The Puget Sound Lumberman says: " How free lumber 
will effect the Pacific Coast can be easily figured out. The 
capital invested in